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Practice and Challenges of Empowering Rural Women in Ethiopia

  1. • Assignment On Practice and Challenges of Empowering Rural Women in Ethiopia By Group 2 Members College: Agriculture and Environmental Sciences Department: Rural Development and Agricultural Extension Course: Gender Analysis and Planning Submitted to: Dereje Kifle (Assistant professor)
  2. Group 2 Members Name ID Ayele Diriba SGS/0322/12 Belay W/maraim SGS/1093/12 Fuad Mohammed SGS/0328/12 Reisa Elias SGS/0336/12 Tewodros Alemu SGS/0342/12
  3. Introduction In Africa, rural women have been fore headed with challenges and obstacles to their wellbeing and development including discrimination, marginalization, violence, abuse, deprivation, access and control over resources, and exclusion among others (Genet and Habtu, 2011). Particularly, Ethiopian rural women are being subject to exploitative cultural relations, but also there are different Social, Economic, Political, and Structural challenges which impede women empowerment and worse the life of Rural Women.
  4. Cont... Although, some of the factors that have been hindering rural women from increasing their income to secure their livelihoods include: • Weak institutional structures to support women’s • Lack of integrating gender into the planning and • Lacks implementation of activities to support women, and low numbers of women in the leadership of such institutions. Today, empowering women is slogan of the World. Likewise, Ethiopia has put different policies, legal framework, rules and regulations to enhance gender parity. There are many Intervention undertakings to empower women in Ethiopia by government, NGOs, Volunteers and other partners.
  5. Concepts of Rural Women Empowerment; • Definition of empowerment as a “process by which those who have been denied the ability to make strategic life choices and acquire such ability. • In line to this (Holvoet,2005) links empowerment to the process of decision-making. • Women empowerment is a process by which women gain the ability to generate choices, exercise bargaining power, develop a sense of self-worth UN (2001).
  6. 2. Challenges of Empowering Rural Women 1. Challenges of Women Empowerment in Leadership Position in Ethiopia Rural Women are Challenged to member in leader position due to;- Lack of Academic Qualification Gender Stereotyping Over Burden of Domestic Responsibility Lack of Networking Opportunities Lack of Confidence and inferiority:
  7. 2. Challenges of Empowering Women Economically • As men control all the resources, the men are the decision makers in all economic, while the women just become the receptor of all issues guided by men. That is due to  Lack of initial capital to start their own business  Structure of property ownership and the division of labor  Women’s dependency on men’s income  Lack of women in production decision making  Agricultural produce and differential access to market  Gender and control of income  Absence of effective group collateral  Lack Access to Credit and Saving  Verbal Abuse
  8. 3.Traditional norms, Stereotypes and cultural practice on empowerment of rural women. • In all human society, people enjoy their own culture, custom, tradition and belief, etc. These social structures empower men and women differently. • In the cultural values and norms of the people to do in farm sites, it is culturally not acceptable for women to plough. • Male has right of inheritance while in most cases women cannot inherit the land and other properties from their families. • These traditional norms prevent the implementation of constitutionally declared women right in the country.
  9. Cont.… • In Ethiopia, rural women have subjected to home based attack by husband because of their economic dependence. • Women do not have their own income, have no right to decision making power on property, have no option to divorce, and have faced home based attack. • These norms find expression in customary and religious courts which have been recognized under the Constitution to adjudicate disputes relating to personal and family laws. • But there are some cultures that are important for the promotion of development. Such type of cultures should be identified and employed for development
  10. 4. National Policy Criticism on Women Empowerment (NPOWE) • National Policy has a numbers of criticism could be raised on ensuring the empowerment of women at the first place, it pays less emphasis to the natural human right as its base. • The second criticism goes to the instrument by which women’s equal participation is ensured. • The third points of criticism pointed to the capacity of government structures meant for the realization of the policy and integration of the government structure with other actors is very weak. • Forth, given the capacity problems, implementation of the policy is primarily dominated by government. Government consider itself as if it is the only and primary actor in protecting right of women.
  11. 3. Practices of Rural Women Empowerment in Ethiopia • Now day’s the majority of the African courtiers including Ethiopia, are on the road of economic and political revival. • On national Ministerial level as well as Different regional level women are positioned even as FDRE president Ms. Sahle work Zawde are paradigm • The NPEW is designed on the assumption that government has the obligation to give women the unreserved support to make them active participant in the national development effort on equal terms with men and go on to experience the benefits of their participation.
  12. Main objective of the NPEW includes • Creating and facilitating conditions for equality between men and women, • Creating conditions to make rural women beneficiaries of social services like education and health, and • Eliminating discriminatory perception and practice that constrain the equality of women
  13. 3.1.Constitutional Provisions for Gender Equality and Empowerment • It pays greater emphasize on women empowerment, equality of women with men, protection of fundamental right of peoples. • Given the provisions in constitution of federal republic of Ethiopia, personal observation shows that women’s right is not protected as it was spelt in constitution and other legal and policy provisions. This is in turn because of; • The dominant role of government in the implementation of these provisions while undermining the role of other NGOs and community based organizations. • Moreover, absence of vibrant women’s organizations and women’s networks partly challenging the implementation of constitutional provisions. The constitution indeed is also limited in certain aspects.
  14. 3.1 USAID engaged in Empowering Rural Women through the following programs; 1. Increasing Female Educational Opportunities 2. Expanding Economic Opportunities for Women 3. Promoting the Health and Safety of Women and Girls
  15. 2. Un Agencies Program • Social mobilization • Literacy and life skills • Health • Livelihoods • Mainstream strategy: resonance effect
  16. Conclusion • In today’s world it is impossible to achieve overall Sustainable Development Goal without the active participation of both women in urban and Rural areas. • So many challenges are there hindering the real empowerment of women and impede the unlocking of their potential. • Today, empowering women is slogan of the World. Likewise, Ethiopia has put different policies, legal framework, rules and regulations to enhance gender parity. • There are many Intervention undertakings to empower women in Ethiopia by government, NGOs, Volunteers and other partners.
  17. Thank you !