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The Foot
The foot has two surfaces
Plantar Surface
sole of the foot
Dorsal Surface
upper part of the
foot
The Dorsal Surface
The tendons of the muscles of the
anterior compartment of the leg
are situated on the
dorsal aspect of the foot
Tendon ofTendon of
Tibialis AnteriorTibialis Anterior
Tibialis Anterior
• Dorsiflexes Ankle Joint
• Inverts the foot
Tendons of ExtensorTendons of Extensor
Digitorum LongusDigitorum Longus
Extensor Digitorum
Longus
• Extends the Toes 2-5
•...
Tendon of
Peroneus Tertius
Peroneus Tertius
• Dorsiflexes Ankle Joint
• Everts Foot
Tendon of
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Extensor Hallucis
Longus
• Extends Big Toe
• Dorsiflexes Ankle Joint
Extensor Digitorum
Brevis
This is an intrinsic muscle of
foot (ie: it originates and
inserts within the foot)
Extensor Digitorum
Brevis
Originates from the superior
surface of the anterior calcaneum
Inserts via 4 tendons
to toes 1-4
Extensor Digitorum
Brevis
Extends the toes when the
foot is fully dorsiflexed
Originates from the superior
surface of the ...
The Dorsalis Pedis Artery
supplies the foot and is a direct
continuation of the
Anterior Tibial Artery
Dorsalis
Pedis Arte...
The Dorsalis Pedis Artery
supplies the foot and is a direct
continuation of the
Anterior Tibial Artery
Anterior Tibial
Art...
The Plantar Surface
The Plantar Surface of the foot
is also known as the sole of
the foot
sole of right foot
It is covered in a layer of thick
cornified skin that is
nevertheless sensitive
sole of right foot
Under the skin is a layer of
loculated subcutaneous fat
sole of right foot
Under the subcutaneous fat is
a thick fascial layer that covers
all the muscles in the foot –
the Plantar Aponeurosis or
P...
There are four layers of
Intrinsic Muscles
that are present in the foot
sole of right foot
1st
Layer
Consists of 3 muscles
sole of right foot
1st
Layer
Consists of 3 muscles
Abductor Digiti Minimi
sole of right foot
1st
Layer
Consists of 3 muscles
Abductor Digiti Minimi
Flexor Digitorum Brevis
sole of right foot
1st
Layer
Consists of 3 muscles
Abductor Digiti Minimi
Flexor Digitorum Brevis
Abductor Hallucis
sole of right foot
1st
Layer
Abductor Hallucis
sole of right foot
1st
Layer
Abductor Hallucis
Originates from
•Medial process of the Calcaneum
•Flexor retinaculum
•Plantar aponeurosis
sole...
1st
Layer
Abductor Hallucis
Originates from
•Medial process of the Calcaneum
•Flexor retinaculum
•Plantar aponeurosis
Inse...
1st
Layer
Abductor Hallucis
Originates from
•Medial process of the Calcaneum
•Flexor retinaculum
•Plantar aponeurosis
Inse...
1st
Layer
Flexor Digitorum Brevis
This muscle is similar to
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
in the hand
sole of right foot
1st
Layer
Flexor Digitorum Brevis
Originates from
•Medial process of the Calcaneum
•Plantar aponeurosis
sole of right foot
1st
Layer
Flexor Digitorum Brevis
Splits into 4 tendons that enter the
tendon sheaths of toes 2-5
Each tendon splits into ...
1st
Layer
Abductor Digiti Minimi
Originates from
•Lateral and medial Calcaneal tubercles
•Plantar aponeurosis
sole of righ...
1st
Layer
Abductor Digiti Minimi
Inserts onto the lateral aspect of the base
of the proximal phalanx of the little toe
sol...
1st
Layer
Abductor Digiti Minimi
Originates from
•Calcaneal tuberosity
•Plantar aponeurosis
Inserts onto the lateral aspec...
2nd
Layer
Consists of the Long Flexor Tendons
and
intrinsic muscles (lumbricals and flexor
accessorious)
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Flexor Digitorum Longus tendons
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Flexor Digitorum Longus tendons
Flexor Hallucis Longus tendon
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Flexor Digitorum Longus tendons
Flexor Hallucis Longus tendon
Lumbricals
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Flexor Digitorum Longus tendons
Flexor Hallucis Longus tendon
Lumbricals
Flexor Accessorius
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Flexor Tendon Sheaths
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Flexor Tendon Sheaths
Contains tendons of
Flexor Digitorum Longus
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Flexor Tendon Sheaths
Contains tendon of
•Flexor Digitorum Longus
•Flexor Hallucis Longus
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Lumbricals
4 small muscles similar to the
Lumbricals in the Hand
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Lumbricals
Originate from the Tendons of
Flexor Digitorum Longus
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Lumbricals
Originate from the Tendons of
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Lumbrical Tendons insert onto the medial
aspect...
2nd
Layer
Lumbricals
Assist in maintaining extension of
IP joints of the toes
sole of right foot
Originate from the Tendon...
2nd
Layer
Flexor Accessorius
Deeply placed muscle also known as
Quadratus Plantae
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Flexor Digitorum Accessorius
Originates from the
Calcaneum with 2 heads
sole of right foot
2nd
Layer
Flexor Digitorum Accessorius
Originates from the
Calcaneum by 2 heads
Inserts onto the tendon of
Flexor Digitoru...
2nd
Layer
Flexor Digitorum Accessorius
Originates from the
Calcaneum by 2 heads
Inserts onto the tendon of
Flexor Digitoru...
3rd
Layer
Consists of 3 muscles
sole of right foot
3rd
Layer
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
sole of right foot
3rd
Layer
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Adductor Hallucis
sole of right foot
3rd
Layer
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Adductor Hallucis
Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
sole of right foot
3rd
Layer
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
sole of right foot
3rd
Layer
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Originates in 2 parts:
•Medial limb from the medial and
intermediate cuneiforms and from
...
3rd
Layer
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Inserts onto either side of the base
of the Proximal Phalanx of Big Toe
sole of right foo...
3rd
Layer
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
sole of right foot
Originates in 2 parts:
•Medial limb from the medial and
intermediate c...
3rd
Layer
Adductor Hallucis
Very deeply placed and awkward to demonstrate
Similar to Adductor Pollicis in the hand
sole of...
3rd
Layer
Adductor Hallucis
Originates by 2 heads:
•Oblique Head - bases of 2,3,4 metatarsals
•Transverse head – from plan...
3rd
Layer
Adductor Hallucis
Inserts onto:
•Lateral Sesamoid
•Base of the Proximal Phalanx
Originates by 2 heads:
•Oblique ...
3rd
Layer
Adductor Hallucis
Adducts the Proximal Phalanx of the Big Toe
Stabilizes the Metatarsal Heads
sole of right foot
3rd
Layer
Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
Originates from medial part of plantar
surface of base of the 5th
Metatarsal
sole of...
3rd
Layer
Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
Originates from medial part of plantar
surface of base of the 5th
Metatarsal
Inserts...
3rd
Layer
Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
Originates from medial part of plantar
surface of base of the 5th
Metatarsal
Inserts...
4th Layer
The Interossei
sole of right foot
4th Layer
Similar to the Hand there are
Dorsal Interossei
sole of right foot
4th Layer
Similar to the Hand there are
Dorsal Interossei
Plantar Interossei
sole of right foot
4th
Layer
Dorsal Interossei
There are 4 bipennate dorsal interossei that
arise by two heads from adjacent
metatarsals
sole...
4th
Layer
Dorsal Interossei
Insertion
1st
dorsal interossei inserts onto the medial
aspect of proximal phalanx of the seco...
4th
Layer
Dorsal Interossei
Abduct the toes relative to the 2nd
toe
sole of right foot
4th
Layer
Plantar Interossei
There are 3 Plantar Interossei
3rd
plantar interosseous sole of right foot
4th
Layer
Plantar Interossei
There are 3 Plantar Interossei
They are unipennate muscles.
3rd
plantar interosseous sole of ...
4th
Layer
Plantar Interossei
3rd
plantar interosseous sole of right foot
There are 3 Plantar Interossei
They are unipennat...
4th
Layer
Plantar Interossei
sole of right foot
There are 3 Plantar Interossei
They are unipennate muscles.
Originate from...
In Summary
1st
Layer
• Abductor Hallucis
• Flexor Digitorum Brevis
• Abductor Digiti Minimi
2nd
Layer
• Flexor Hallucis Lo...
To try and remember the layers think of
1st
layer – 1 Flexor between 2 Abductors
2nd
Layer – All the long flexors and thei...
To try and remember the layers think of
1st
layer – 1 Flexor between 2 Abductors
Abductor Hallucis - Flexor Digitorum Brev...
Neurovascular Supply
TibialTibial
NerveNerve
MedialMedial
PlantarPlantar
NerveNerve
LateralLateral
PlantarPlantar
NerveNerve
It passes behind t...
Lateral Plantar Nerve Branches Medial Plantar Nerve Branches
sole of right foot
PosteriorPosterior
Tibial ArteryTibial Artery
MedialMedial
PlantarPlantar
ArteryArtery
LateralLateral
PlantarPlantar
Arter...
The Posterior Tibial Artery accompanies the Tibial Nerve
and passes behind the Medial Malleolus through the
Tarsal Tunnel
...
Muscle Summaries
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Origin Lateral condyle of Tibia, upper
2/3 anterior fibular shaft,
interosseous membrane
Inserti...
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Origin Anterior surface of the fibula,
interosseous membrane
Insertion Base of distal phalanx gre...
Tibialis Anterior
Origin Lateral condyle of tibia, proximal
2/3rds lateral surface tibia,
interosseous membrane
Insertion ...
Fibularis Tertius
Origin Distal 1/3rd
anterior surface of
fibula
Insertion Base of dorsal aspect 5th
metatarsal
Action Dor...
Abductor Digiti Minimi
Origin Medial and lateral processes of
calcaneal tuberosity and
intervening plantar surface of
calc...
Flexor Digitorum Brevis
Origin Medial process of calcaneal
tuberosity
Insertion Splits into four tendons that
insert onto ...
Abductor Hallucis
Origin Medial process of calcaneal
tuberosity, and flexor
retinaculum
Insertion Medial sesamoid and medi...
Lumbricals
Origin Lateral 3 are bipennate between the
tendons of flexor digitorum longus.
Medial lumbrical is from the med...
Flexor Accessorius
(Quadratus Plantae)
Origin Medial and lateral sides of
calcaneus
Insertion Tendons of flexor digitorum ...
Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
Origin Base of the 5th
metatarsal and the
sheath of peroneus longus
Insertion Lateral side of ...
Adductor Hallucis
Origin Oblique head: base of 2,3, 4
metatarsals
Transverse head: plantar
metatarsal ligaments, deep
tran...
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Origin Arises by medial and lateral
tendons from cuboid, cuneiforms
and tendon of tibialis posterio...
Plantar Interossei
Origin Lower medial aspects of the shafts
of metatarsals 3, 4, 5
Insertion Medial side of bases of prox...
Dorsal Interossei
Origin 4 bipennate muscles from the
inner aspects of all 5 metatarsals
Insertion Base of proximal phalan...
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Slideshow: The Foot

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Slideshow: The Foot

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Slideshow: The Foot

  1. 1. The Foot
  2. 2. The foot has two surfaces Plantar Surface sole of the foot Dorsal Surface upper part of the foot
  3. 3. The Dorsal Surface
  4. 4. The tendons of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg are situated on the dorsal aspect of the foot
  5. 5. Tendon ofTendon of Tibialis AnteriorTibialis Anterior Tibialis Anterior • Dorsiflexes Ankle Joint • Inverts the foot
  6. 6. Tendons of ExtensorTendons of Extensor Digitorum LongusDigitorum Longus Extensor Digitorum Longus • Extends the Toes 2-5 • Dorsiflexes Ankle Joint
  7. 7. Tendon of Peroneus Tertius Peroneus Tertius • Dorsiflexes Ankle Joint • Everts Foot
  8. 8. Tendon of Extensor Hallucis Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus • Extends Big Toe • Dorsiflexes Ankle Joint
  9. 9. Extensor Digitorum Brevis This is an intrinsic muscle of foot (ie: it originates and inserts within the foot)
  10. 10. Extensor Digitorum Brevis Originates from the superior surface of the anterior calcaneum Inserts via 4 tendons to toes 1-4
  11. 11. Extensor Digitorum Brevis Extends the toes when the foot is fully dorsiflexed Originates from the superior surface of the anterior calcaneum Inserts via 4 tendons to toes 1-4
  12. 12. The Dorsalis Pedis Artery supplies the foot and is a direct continuation of the Anterior Tibial Artery Dorsalis Pedis Artery Anterior Tibial Artery
  13. 13. The Dorsalis Pedis Artery supplies the foot and is a direct continuation of the Anterior Tibial Artery Anterior Tibial Artery The pulse may be felt between the medial and lateral Malleoli Dorsalis Pedis Artery
  14. 14. The Plantar Surface
  15. 15. The Plantar Surface of the foot is also known as the sole of the foot sole of right foot
  16. 16. It is covered in a layer of thick cornified skin that is nevertheless sensitive sole of right foot
  17. 17. Under the skin is a layer of loculated subcutaneous fat sole of right foot
  18. 18. Under the subcutaneous fat is a thick fascial layer that covers all the muscles in the foot – the Plantar Aponeurosis or Plantar Fascia sole of right foot
  19. 19. There are four layers of Intrinsic Muscles that are present in the foot sole of right foot
  20. 20. 1st Layer Consists of 3 muscles sole of right foot
  21. 21. 1st Layer Consists of 3 muscles Abductor Digiti Minimi sole of right foot
  22. 22. 1st Layer Consists of 3 muscles Abductor Digiti Minimi Flexor Digitorum Brevis sole of right foot
  23. 23. 1st Layer Consists of 3 muscles Abductor Digiti Minimi Flexor Digitorum Brevis Abductor Hallucis sole of right foot
  24. 24. 1st Layer Abductor Hallucis sole of right foot
  25. 25. 1st Layer Abductor Hallucis Originates from •Medial process of the Calcaneum •Flexor retinaculum •Plantar aponeurosis sole of right foot
  26. 26. 1st Layer Abductor Hallucis Originates from •Medial process of the Calcaneum •Flexor retinaculum •Plantar aponeurosis Inserts onto medial side of base of Proximal Phalanx of Great Toe sole of right foot
  27. 27. 1st Layer Abductor Hallucis Originates from •Medial process of the Calcaneum •Flexor retinaculum •Plantar aponeurosis Inserts onto medial side of base of Proximal Phalanx of Great Toe Abducts the Great Toe sole of right foot
  28. 28. 1st Layer Flexor Digitorum Brevis This muscle is similar to Flexor Digitorum Superficialis in the hand sole of right foot
  29. 29. 1st Layer Flexor Digitorum Brevis Originates from •Medial process of the Calcaneum •Plantar aponeurosis sole of right foot
  30. 30. 1st Layer Flexor Digitorum Brevis Splits into 4 tendons that enter the tendon sheaths of toes 2-5 Each tendon splits into two slips at the base of the proximal phalanx to allow the tendon of Flexor Digitorum Longus to pass through The slips then reunite and insert onto the sides of the shaft of the middle phalanx of toes 2-5 sole of right foot
  31. 31. 1st Layer Abductor Digiti Minimi Originates from •Lateral and medial Calcaneal tubercles •Plantar aponeurosis sole of right foot
  32. 32. 1st Layer Abductor Digiti Minimi Inserts onto the lateral aspect of the base of the proximal phalanx of the little toe sole of right foot Originates from •Lateral and medial Calcaneal tubercles •Plantar aponeurosis
  33. 33. 1st Layer Abductor Digiti Minimi Originates from •Calcaneal tuberosity •Plantar aponeurosis Inserts onto the lateral aspect of the base of the proximal phalanx of the little toe Abducts the little toe sole of right foot
  34. 34. 2nd Layer Consists of the Long Flexor Tendons and intrinsic muscles (lumbricals and flexor accessorious) sole of right foot
  35. 35. 2nd Layer Flexor Digitorum Longus tendons sole of right foot
  36. 36. 2nd Layer Flexor Digitorum Longus tendons Flexor Hallucis Longus tendon sole of right foot
  37. 37. 2nd Layer Flexor Digitorum Longus tendons Flexor Hallucis Longus tendon Lumbricals sole of right foot
  38. 38. 2nd Layer Flexor Digitorum Longus tendons Flexor Hallucis Longus tendon Lumbricals Flexor Accessorius sole of right foot
  39. 39. 2nd Layer Flexor Tendon Sheaths sole of right foot
  40. 40. 2nd Layer Flexor Tendon Sheaths Contains tendons of Flexor Digitorum Longus sole of right foot
  41. 41. 2nd Layer Flexor Tendon Sheaths Contains tendon of •Flexor Digitorum Longus •Flexor Hallucis Longus sole of right foot
  42. 42. 2nd Layer Lumbricals 4 small muscles similar to the Lumbricals in the Hand sole of right foot
  43. 43. 2nd Layer Lumbricals Originate from the Tendons of Flexor Digitorum Longus sole of right foot
  44. 44. 2nd Layer Lumbricals Originate from the Tendons of Flexor Digitorum Longus Lumbrical Tendons insert onto the medial aspect of the dorsal digital expansions of toes 2-5 sole of right foot
  45. 45. 2nd Layer Lumbricals Assist in maintaining extension of IP joints of the toes sole of right foot Originate from the Tendons of Flexor Digitorum Longus Lumbrical Tendons insert onto the medial aspect of the dorsal digital expansions of toes 2-5
  46. 46. 2nd Layer Flexor Accessorius Deeply placed muscle also known as Quadratus Plantae sole of right foot
  47. 47. 2nd Layer Flexor Digitorum Accessorius Originates from the Calcaneum with 2 heads sole of right foot
  48. 48. 2nd Layer Flexor Digitorum Accessorius Originates from the Calcaneum by 2 heads Inserts onto the tendon of Flexor Digitorum Longus sole of right foot
  49. 49. 2nd Layer Flexor Digitorum Accessorius Originates from the Calcaneum by 2 heads Inserts onto the tendon of Flexor Digitorum Longus Assists Flexor Digitorum Longus in flexing the toes 2-5 sole of right foot
  50. 50. 3rd Layer Consists of 3 muscles sole of right foot
  51. 51. 3rd Layer Flexor Hallucis Brevis sole of right foot
  52. 52. 3rd Layer Flexor Hallucis Brevis Adductor Hallucis sole of right foot
  53. 53. 3rd Layer Flexor Hallucis Brevis Adductor Hallucis Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis sole of right foot
  54. 54. 3rd Layer Flexor Hallucis Brevis sole of right foot
  55. 55. 3rd Layer Flexor Hallucis Brevis Originates in 2 parts: •Medial limb from the medial and intermediate cuneiforms and from the tendon of Tibialis Posterior •Lateral limb from the Cuboid and Lateral Cuneiform sole of right foot
  56. 56. 3rd Layer Flexor Hallucis Brevis Inserts onto either side of the base of the Proximal Phalanx of Big Toe sole of right foot Originates in 2 parts: •Medial limb from the medial and intermediate cuneiforms and from the tendon of Tibialis Posterior •Lateral limb from the Cuboid and Lateral Cuneiform
  57. 57. 3rd Layer Flexor Hallucis Brevis sole of right foot Originates in 2 parts: •Medial limb from the medial and intermediate cuneiforms and from the tendon of Tibialis Posterior •Lateral limb from the Cuboid and Lateral Cuneiform Inserts onto either side of the base of the Proximal Phalanx of Big Toe which it flexes
  58. 58. 3rd Layer Adductor Hallucis Very deeply placed and awkward to demonstrate Similar to Adductor Pollicis in the hand sole of right foot
  59. 59. 3rd Layer Adductor Hallucis Originates by 2 heads: •Oblique Head - bases of 2,3,4 metatarsals •Transverse head – from plantar metatarsophalangeal ligaments of 3,4,5 toes sole of right foot
  60. 60. 3rd Layer Adductor Hallucis Inserts onto: •Lateral Sesamoid •Base of the Proximal Phalanx Originates by 2 heads: •Oblique Head - bases of 2,3,4 metatarsals •Transverse head – from plantar metatarsophalangeal ligaments of 3,4,5 toes sole of right foot
  61. 61. 3rd Layer Adductor Hallucis Adducts the Proximal Phalanx of the Big Toe Stabilizes the Metatarsal Heads sole of right foot
  62. 62. 3rd Layer Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis Originates from medial part of plantar surface of base of the 5th Metatarsal sole of right foot
  63. 63. 3rd Layer Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis Originates from medial part of plantar surface of base of the 5th Metatarsal Inserts onto lateral side of base of Proximal Phalanx of Little Toe sole of right foot
  64. 64. 3rd Layer Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis Originates from medial part of plantar surface of base of the 5th Metatarsal Inserts onto lateral side of base of Proximal Phalanx of Little Toe Flexes Metatarso-phalangeal Joint (MTPJ) of Little Toe sole of right foot
  65. 65. 4th Layer The Interossei sole of right foot
  66. 66. 4th Layer Similar to the Hand there are Dorsal Interossei sole of right foot
  67. 67. 4th Layer Similar to the Hand there are Dorsal Interossei Plantar Interossei sole of right foot
  68. 68. 4th Layer Dorsal Interossei There are 4 bipennate dorsal interossei that arise by two heads from adjacent metatarsals sole of right foot
  69. 69. 4th Layer Dorsal Interossei Insertion 1st dorsal interossei inserts onto the medial aspect of proximal phalanx of the second toe The other three insert onto the lateral aspect of proximal phalanges of toes 2,3,4 respectively sole of right foot
  70. 70. 4th Layer Dorsal Interossei Abduct the toes relative to the 2nd toe sole of right foot
  71. 71. 4th Layer Plantar Interossei There are 3 Plantar Interossei 3rd plantar interosseous sole of right foot
  72. 72. 4th Layer Plantar Interossei There are 3 Plantar Interossei They are unipennate muscles. 3rd plantar interosseous sole of right foot
  73. 73. 4th Layer Plantar Interossei 3rd plantar interosseous sole of right foot There are 3 Plantar Interossei They are unipennate muscles. Originate from medial sides of 3, 4, 5 metatarsals
  74. 74. 4th Layer Plantar Interossei sole of right foot There are 3 Plantar Interossei They are unipennate muscles. Originate from medial sides of 3, 4, 5 metatarsals Adduct toes 3, 4, 5 (towards the 2nd toe) Flex MTP joints Extend IP joints
  75. 75. In Summary 1st Layer • Abductor Hallucis • Flexor Digitorum Brevis • Abductor Digiti Minimi 2nd Layer • Flexor Hallucis Longus • Flexor Digitorum Longus • Flexor Accessorius • Lumbricals 3rd Layer • Flexor Hallucis Brevis • Adductor Hallucis • Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis 4th Layer • Plantar Interossei • Dorsal Interossei (also included in the fourth layer are the tendons of Tibialis Posterior and Peroneus Longus)
  76. 76. To try and remember the layers think of 1st layer – 1 Flexor between 2 Abductors 2nd Layer – All the long flexors and their accessories 3rd layer – 1 adductor between 2 Flexors 4th Layer – the Interossei
  77. 77. To try and remember the layers think of 1st layer – 1 Flexor between 2 Abductors Abductor Hallucis - Flexor Digitorum Brevis - Abductor Digiti Minimi 2nd Layer – All the long flexors and their accessories Flexor Hallucis Longus - Flexor Digitorum Longus – Flexor Accessorius - Lumbricals 3rd layer – 1 Adductor between 2 Flexors Flexor Hallucis Brevis - Adductor Hallucis - Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis 4th Layer – the Interossei Plantar Interossei - Dorsal Interossei
  78. 78. Neurovascular Supply
  79. 79. TibialTibial NerveNerve MedialMedial PlantarPlantar NerveNerve LateralLateral PlantarPlantar NerveNerve It passes behind the Medial Malleolus, crosses the Tarsal Tunnel and divides into •Medial Plantar Nerve •Lateral Plantar Nerve The Tibial Nerve innervates all the muscles in the foot sole of right foot
  80. 80. Lateral Plantar Nerve Branches Medial Plantar Nerve Branches sole of right foot
  81. 81. PosteriorPosterior Tibial ArteryTibial Artery MedialMedial PlantarPlantar ArteryArtery LateralLateral PlantarPlantar ArteryArtery The Posterior Tibial Artery accompanies the Tibial Nerve and passes behind the Medial Malleolus through the Tarsal Tunnel It divides into two branches •Medial Plantar Artery •Lateral Plantar Artery sole of right foot
  82. 82. The Posterior Tibial Artery accompanies the Tibial Nerve and passes behind the Medial Malleolus through the Tarsal Tunnel It divides into •Medial Plantar Artery •Lateral Plantar Artery Lateral Plantar Artery sole of right foot
  83. 83. Muscle Summaries
  84. 84. Extensor Digitorum Longus Origin Lateral condyle of Tibia, upper 2/3 anterior fibular shaft, interosseous membrane Insertion Splits into 4 tendons, inserts via extensor expansions onto dorsum of middle and distal phalanges. Part of extensor expansion complex Action Extend toes 2 - 5 and dorsiflexes ankle Nerve Supply Deep peroneal nerve (L5, S1) Blood Supply Anterior tibial artery Anterior Leg
  85. 85. Extensor Hallucis Longus Origin Anterior surface of the fibula, interosseous membrane Insertion Base of distal phalanx great toe Action Extends great toe and dorsiflexes ankle Nerve Supply Deep peroneal nerve (L5, S1) Blood Supply Anterior tibial artery Anterior Leg
  86. 86. Tibialis Anterior Origin Lateral condyle of tibia, proximal 2/3rds lateral surface tibia, interosseous membrane Insertion Medial and plantar surfaces of medial cuneiform and base of first metatarsal Action Dorsiflexor of ankle, invertor of foot Nerve Supply Deep peroneal nerve (L4, L5) Blood Supply Anterior tibial artery Anterior Leg
  87. 87. Fibularis Tertius Origin Distal 1/3rd anterior surface of fibula Insertion Base of dorsal aspect 5th metatarsal Action Dorsiflexes foot; everts foot weakly Nerve Supply Deep peroneal nerve (L5, S1) Blood Supply Anterior tibial artery Anterior Leg
  88. 88. Abductor Digiti Minimi Origin Medial and lateral processes of calcaneal tuberosity and intervening plantar surface of calcaneum. Plantar aponeurosis Insertion Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th toe and head of 5th metatarsal Action Flexes and abducts 5th toe Supports lateral longitudinal arch Nerve Supply Lateral plantar nerve Blood Supply Medial and lateral plantar arteries 1st Layer Foot
  89. 89. Flexor Digitorum Brevis Origin Medial process of calcaneal tuberosity Insertion Splits into four tendons that insert onto the sides of the shaft of the middle phalanx of toes 2-5 (Each tendon splits into two at the base of the proximal phalanx and then reunites to form a tunnel allowing the tendon of Flexor Digitorum Longus to pass) Action Flexes toes 2-5, supports medial arch Nerve Supply Medial plantar nerve Blood Supply Medial and lateral plantar arteries 1st Layer Foot
  90. 90. Abductor Hallucis Origin Medial process of calcaneal tuberosity, and flexor retinaculum Insertion Medial sesamoid and medial aspect base of proximal phalanx of big toe Action Flexes and abducts big toe, supports medial longitudinal arch Nerve Supply Medial plantar nerve Blood Supply Medial and lateral plantar arteries 1st Layer Foot
  91. 91. Lumbricals Origin Lateral 3 are bipennate between the tendons of flexor digitorum longus. Medial lumbrical is from the medial aspect of the medial tendon of FDL Insertion Dorsal extensor expansion Action Extends toes at IP joints and flexes MTP joints Nerve Supply 1st lumbrical – medial plantar nerve 2-4 lumbricals - lateral plantar nerve Blood Supply Medial and lateral plantar arteries 2nd Layer Foot
  92. 92. Flexor Accessorius (Quadratus Plantae) Origin Medial and lateral sides of calcaneus Insertion Tendons of flexor digitorum longus Action Assists flexor digitorum longus to flex toes 2-5 when ankle joint is plantarflexed Nerve Supply Lateral plantar nerve Blood Supply Medial and lateral plantar arteries 2nd Layer Foot
  93. 93. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis Origin Base of the 5th metatarsal and the sheath of peroneus longus Insertion Lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx of 5th toe Action Flexes MTP joint of 5th toe Nerve Supply Lateral plantar nerve Blood Supply Lateral plantar artery 3rd Layer Foot
  94. 94. Adductor Hallucis Origin Oblique head: base of 2,3, 4 metatarsals Transverse head: plantar metatarsal ligaments, deep transverse ligament Insertion Lateral sesamoid and lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of big toe Action Adducts and flexes MTP joint of big toe Nerve Supply Lateral plantar nerve Blood Supply Medial and lateral plantar arteries 3rd Layer Foot
  95. 95. Flexor Hallucis Brevis Origin Arises by medial and lateral tendons from cuboid, cuneiforms and tendon of tibialis posterior Insertion Medial slip to medial side, and lateral slip to lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of big toe Action Flexes MTP joint of big toe and supports medial longitudinal arch Nerve Supply Medial plantar nerve Blood Supply Medial and lateral plantar arteries 3rd Layer Foot
  96. 96. Plantar Interossei Origin Lower medial aspects of the shafts of metatarsals 3, 4, 5 Insertion Medial side of bases of proximal phalanges of toes 3, 4, 5 and corresponding dorsal extensor expansions Action Adducts 3, 4, 5 toes to axis of 2nd toe. Assists lumbricals in extending IP joints whilst flexing MTP joints Nerve Supply Lateral plantar nerve Blood Supply Lateral plantar artery 4th Layer Foot
  97. 97. Dorsal Interossei Origin 4 bipennate muscles from the inner aspects of all 5 metatarsals Insertion Base of proximal phalanges and dorsal extensor expansions of medial side of 2nd toe and lateral side of toes 2, 3, 4 Action Abducts toes 2,3,4 away from axis of 2nd toe. Assists lumbricals in extending IP joints whilst flexing MTP joints Nerve Supply Lateral plantar nerve Blood Supply Lateral plantar artery 4th Layer Foot
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Slideshow: The Foot The Funky Professor videos can be viewed here; http://publishing.rcseng.ac.uk/journal/video?videoTaxonomy=FUNK

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