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Methods of Philosophizing

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Knowledge and Truth
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Methods of Philosophizing

  1. 1. Allegory of the Cave Some prisoners are chained facing the back wall of a cave so that they can neither move nor turn their heads. Behind the prisoners is a fire, and between the fire and the prisoners are people carrying puppets or other objects. This casts a shadow on the other side of the wall. The prisoners watch these shadows, believing them to be real. They have been chained in that position all their lives. Illustration by Calvin Josh J. Matias By Plato
  2. 2. Allegory of the Cave One day, a prisoner is freed from his chains. He finally sees the fire and realizes the shadows are fake. When he looks around and sees that there are solid objects in the cave, not just shadows, he is confused. He escapes from the cave and discovers that there is a whole new world outside the cave. He comes to realize that the things he thought were real were merely shadows of real things. Illustration by Calvin Josh J. Matias By Plato
  3. 3. REALITY VS. ILLUSION Plato distinguishes between people who mistake sensory knowledge for the truth and people who really do see the truth.
  4. 4. REALITY VS. TRUTH Reality and truth are two of the most misunderstood and misused words in the English language (Chaffee, 2016). In philosophy, questions regarding the nature of reality fall under the category of metaphysics while questions regarding the nature of Truth fall under the category of epistemology.
  5. 5. WESTERN PHILOSOPHY Metaphysics and epistemology in Western culture begin with the ancient Greeks, in particular Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
  6. 6. The Socratic Method It uses questions and analysis to draw people into an exchange of ideas regarding a central concept, in an attempt to get at the essential nature of that concept.
  7. 7. Pre-Socratic philosophers The thinkers before them were preeminently concerned with identifying the ultimate “substance” of the universe, and they wrestled with the apparent contradictions between the eternal and the finite, the immutable and the changing, appearance and reality.
  8. 8. WHAT IS THE NATURE OF REALITY?
  9. 9. REALITY Reality is the ultimate nature of the world (Solomon and Higgins, 2014). Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy which deals with the nature of reality.
  10. 10. Reality is the eternal realm of the forms.
  11. 11. Plato Plato proposed two different “worlds”: the world of “becoming,” of our physical world; and the world of “being.”
  12. 12. Plato Reality is the world of “being” which is populated by ideal “forms,” archetypes or essences of everything that exists. In our everyday world of the senses, we experience only imperfect examples of, or “participants” in, these “forms.”
  13. 13. Reality is the natural world.
  14. 14. Aristotle Aristotle proposed that there are two categories of “things”: matter (the physicality of a thing) and form (the essence of a thing). Taken together, matter and form combine to create formed matter or substance.
  15. 15. Reality is a dualism of physical objects and non-physical minds.
  16. 16. Rene Descartes He used a constructively skeptical approach, vowing to begin with a “clean slate,” or position of radical doubt. This led him to conceive of the possibility of an “evil genius,” an entity that manipulates us into believing that our waking dream is “reality.”
  17. 17. “Am I real?”
  18. 18. "Dubi
  19. 19. "Dubidubidapdap, dubidubidapdap, dubidubidapdap, dubidubidipdip.."
  20. 20. "Dubidubidapdap, dubidubidapdap, dubidubidapdap, dubidubidipdip.."
  21. 21. "Dubito ergo cogito, cogito ergo sum."
  22. 22. "I doubt therefore I think, I think therefore I am.
  23. 23. Reality is the world which causes our sensations.
  24. 24. Reality is our perceptions and ideas.
  25. 25. “Esse est percipi.”
  26. 26. “To be is to be perceived.”
  27. 27. George Berkeley According to Berkeley, all things exist only as minds, or as ideas within minds. Ultimately, for Berkeley, all things exist as ideas in the mind of God.
  28. 28. “We are all but dreams in the mind of God.”
  29. 29. Reality is the world we experience.
  30. 30. Reality is the world of experience that we actively construct.
  31. 31. REALITY, TRUTH AND KNOWLEDGE Metaphysics and epistemology are interdependent, and answering questions about the nature of reality frequently involves answering questions about the nature of truth and knowledge.
  32. 32. REALITY, TRUTH AND KNOWLEDGE Reality is the ultimate nature of the world (Solomon and Higgins, 2014). Truth is a statement about the way the world actually is. Knowledge is justified true belief.
  33. 33. HOW DO WE KNOW TRUTH?
  34. 34. Empiricism vs. Rationalism Empiricism – the view that the senses (and sense experience) are primary in acquiring knowledge. Rationalism – the view that reason has precedence over the ways of acquiring knowledge or, more strongly, that it is the unique path to knowledge.
  35. 35. Empiricism vs. Rationalism Rationalists: Plato Descartes Leibniz Immanuel Kant Empiricists: Aristotle John Locke David Hume George Berkeley
  36. 36. Knowledge of the natural world is gained through empirical investigation.
  37. 37. Knowledge of the world is gained through mental ideas produced by empirical sensations.
  38. 38. Knowledge is limited to sense experience, to relations between ideas.
  39. 39. The only knowledge we have is of our ideas about objects, such as the sensations we perceive.
  40. 40. Empiricism vs. Rationalism Rationalists: Plato Descartes Leibniz Immanuel Kant Empiricists: Aristotle John Locke David Hume George Berkeley
  41. 41. Knowledge is gained through rational intuition.
  42. 42. Knowledge is gained through radical doubt and intuition.
  43. 43. Knowledge is constructed by applying the faculties of the mind to sense experience.
  44. 44. “Lamang ang may alam.”
  45. 45. 1. Mike Bedard. (May 31, 2020). Plato’s Allegory of the Cave: Summary and Meaning for Screenwriters. https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/platos-allegory-of-the- cave/ [accessed September 28, 2020] 2. John Chaffee. (2016). The Philosopher’s Way: A Text with Readings, 5th Edition. Boston: Pearson 3. Robert Solomon and Kathleen Higgins. (2014). The Big Questions: A Short Introduction to Philosophy, Ninth Edition. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

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