3. “Accountability can be defined as a
social relation in which an actor
feels an obligation to explain and
to justify his or her conduct to
some significant other.
- Boven, 2005
4. “A program, often legislated, that attributes the
responsibility for student learning to teachers,
school administrators, and/or students. Test results
typically are used to judge accountability, and often
consequences are imposed for shortcomings.
- National Council on Measurement of Education
Enhancing the integrity of public governance
Supporting performance improvement
Maintaining and enhancing the legitimacy of
Mechanism for catharsis
12. SCOUTERS ROCK
Create and nurture productive
partnerships with all stakeholders in
implementing various education
programs, projects and activities.
13. SCOUTERS ROCK
Open all channels of communication
(suggestion boxes, on-line and other
media) to keep everybody updated on
all policies and opportunities for
professional growth and to gather
constructive comments and feedback
for enhanced delivery of services.
14. SCOUTERS ROCK
Uphold the norms of conduct for
public servants (commitment to public
interest, professionalism, justness and
sincerity, political neutrality,
responsiveness to the public,
nationalism and patriotism,
commitment to democracy, and simple
15. SCOUTERS ROCK
Take active part in monitoring and
supervising teaching-learning activities
as well as in providing technical
assistance towards better outcomes.
21. SCOUTERS ROCK
Conserve water, energy and other
resources while performing tasks.
There is a 24% decrease in KwH
used after 3 months of implementing
project KIDLAT. (Before the project
implementation the school’s consumes
4253 KwH a month, after 3 months the
consumption was 3232 KwH).
Hammond, Linda (2006). Standards, Assessments and Educational Policy: In Pursuit of Genuine Accountability. USA: Stanford
Levitt, et.al. (2008). Accountability of Teachers. England: General Teaching Council
Anderson, Joan (2005). Accountability in Education. Paris: The International Institute for Educational Planning
National Council on Measurement in Education (2 April, 2017). Glossary of Important Assessment and Measurement Terms.
Retrieved from http://www.ncme.org/ncme/NCME/Resource_Center/Glossary/NCME/Resource_Center/Glossary1.aspx?hkey
Bouffard, William. (2 April 2017). The Multiple Accountabilities Disorder. Retrieved from
Notes de l'éditeur
Transparency is the literal value of accountability; the idea that an accountable organization must explain or account for its actions.
Liability attaches culpability to transparency. In this view, individuals and organizations should be held liable for their actions, punished for malfeasance, and rewarded for success.
Controllability which is the dominant conception of accountability, i.e., if X can induce the behavior of Y, it is said that X controls Y–and that Y is accountable to X. Although few relationships between boss and employee are so straightforward, this conception is the starting point for many analyses of organizational accountability.
Responsibility means that people and organizations are constrained by laws, rules, and norms.
1. Simply stated, educators were accountable for adherence to rules and accountable to the bureaucracy.
2. Although neither mandated nor required, the impact of widespread agreement on certain principles and practices has done much to elevate education as a profession. , Within this system, educators are accountable for adherence to standards and accountable to their peers
3. with results defined in terms of student learning. In these systems educators are accountable for student learning and accountable to the general public
Defining accountability to whom/for what In the first stage, stakeholders define accountability requirements and agree on the scope of accountability. Actors inform stakeholders about their conduct, providing various sorts of data about the performance of tasks, about outcomes, or about procedures
2 Informing the stakeholders In the next stage, stakeholders stake their claims to hold the actor to account. Stakeholders can determine their scope of this accountability by asking actors to give further details and explanations of their actions and behaviours, in order for the stakeholders to understand how the actors seek to legitimise or justify their conduct. Judgement (leading to affirmation or sanctions)
3. The third stage constitutes a judgement decision on the actor’s conduct. When the result of the conduct assessment is positive, the actor can expect affirmation of his or her actions from the stakeholders. The consequence of a negative judgement may be the introduction of sanctions. The ultimate punishment, in cases of professional misconduct, may be dismissal and loss of opportunity to work further in the profession.
1. Democratic control
Firstly, accountability has a role in the democratic control that is exercised by civil society and by individual citizens. Democratically elected representatives are subject to public scrutiny and are judged on their effectiveness and efficiency in serving the public.
2. Enhancing the integrity of public governance
Secondly, accountability arrangements enhance the integrity of public governance; they strengthen commitment to honesty and appropriate conduct, and encourage consistency of
3. Supporting performance improvement
A third function of public accountability is to support performance improvement that flow from organisational learning and avoidance of unintended outputs or outcomes.
4. Maintaining and enhancing the legitimacy of public governance
A fourth accountability function is maintaining and/or enhancing the legitimacy of public governance. Here it works as an instrument ensuring transparency and answerability between elected governors and the public, bridging those two spheres. Accountability also ensures that the public voice is heard, which should underpin the legitimacy of their elected representatives by enabling individual institutions to be answerable to their particular public.
5. Mechanism for catharsis
Finally, accountability serves as a mechanism for catharsis. That function is evident in cases of serious misconduct and breach of public trust. Detailed investigation that explores all factors that led to the unacceptable consequences provides an opportunity to acknowledge what went wrong and why, and usually also informs revisions to policies and control mechanisms. This function of accountability may prevent recurrence of errors and help to support better compliance with rules and regulations.