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Making the impossible possible

  1. 1 Making the Impossible Possible Applying Heliotropic Abundance for creating Program and Project Management Processes to Increase the Probability of Success Do not undertake a project unless it is manifestly important and nearly impossible
  2. Making the Impossible Possible, Kim Cameron and Marc Lavine, 2006 Lessons Learned from the Cleanup of America’s most dangerous Nuclear Weapons Plant
  3. That Success Started with
  4. 4 The Ordinary Approach to Success † ¨ Identify and define the problem accurately. ¨ Generate alternate solutions to the problem based on root causes so that convergence on a solution is not premature. ¨ Focus on evaluating and selecting the best alternative. ¨ Implement the chosen alternative solution and follow up to ensure that the problem or obstacle is resolved. † Leading Change, John Kotter Harvard Business School Press, 1996 Organization Change: Theory and Practice, W. W. Burke, Sage, 2002 A Primer on Decision Making: How Decisions Happen, J. G. March, Free Press, 1994 Smart Thinking for Crazy Times: The Art of Solving the Right Problems, I. I. Mitroff, Berrett–Koehler, 1998
  5. 5 Abundance Principle of Management ¨ Strive for positive deviance, pursuing the best of the human condition and working to fulfill the highest potential of the organization. ¨ Focuses on: ¤ Resilience ¤ Flourishing ¤ Vitality ¤ Extraordinarily positive individual and organizational outcomes
  6. 6 The Abundance Approach ¨ Abundance is not a substitute for ordinary management – it is a supplement for the problem- solving approach. ¨ Abundance focuses on: ¤ Closing the gaps between acceptable performance and spectacular performance. ¤ Emphasizes positively deviant accomplishments rather than normal or expected accomplishments. ¤ Positive possibilities rather than deficits.
  7. 7 Conventional versus Abundance Principles Conventional Principles Abundance Principles General Leadership Principles § Problem solving and deficit gaps § Virtuousness and abundance gaps § A single heroic leader § Multiple leaders playing multiple roles § One leader from the beginning to end § A continuity of leaders § Congruence and consistency § Paradox and contradiction Principles Related to Visionary and Symbolic Leadership § Logical, rational, and sensible visions – with SMART goals § Symbolic, emotional, and meaningful – with profound purpose § Consistency, stability, and predictability § Revolution and positive deviance § Personal benefits and advantages § Meaningfulness beyond personal benefits § Organizations absorb the risks of failure and benefits of success § Employees share the risks of failure and rewards for success
  8. 8 Conventional versus Abundance Principles Conventional Principles Abundance Principles Careful, Clear, and Controlled Leadership § Organizational change at the expense of the people § Organizational change for the benefit of the people § Commitments and priorities based on environmental demands § Unalterable commitments and integrity at all costs § Managing the contract, attaching resources to performance § Managing the contract and ensuring stable funding § Ultimate responsibility and accountability for measurable success at the top § Responsibility and accountability for measurable success for everyone
  9. 9 Conventional versus Abundance Principles Conventional Principles Abundance Principles Collaboration, Engagement, and Participation § Building on and reinforcing the current culture § Introducing challenges that the culture cannot address § Decision making and leadership at the top § Employee and management in partnerships in planning, decision making, training, evaluation, and discipline § Need–to–know information sharing and physical separation § Early, frequent, and abundant information sharing with colocation § Long–term employment, personal relations, and use of specialist § Long–employability, professional relations, and retraining
  10. 10 Conventional versus Abundance Principles Conventional Principles Abundance Principles Rigorous, uncompromising, and results oriented leadership § Managing external communications § Openness of all message through early and often communications § Keeping critics at a distance § Making critics stakeholders, building relationships, and using positive strategies § Clear, stable performance targets that meet standard coming from the top § Escalating performance, virtuousness, and positive deviance targets from multiple sources § Organizational financial benefit from outstanding success § Financial generosity and benevolence with employees
  11. 11 Four Quadrants of Improvement Guided by the Abundance Approach Collaborate Create Control Compete
  12. 12 Collaborate Relationships, Human Capital, and Collaboration ¨ Develop talent, build strong relationships, and foster trust between all parties based on: ¤ Culture ¤ Collaboration ¤ Credibility ¤ Human capital and social relationships
  13. 13 Create Vision, Innovation, and Symbolic Leadership ¨ Articulate and reinforce a motivating vision of what could be in contrast of what occurred in the past. ¤ Forge a clear and shared vision of the future. ¤ Symbolic leadership in support of changing mission. ¤ Innovative and creative ideas about work. ¤ New sense of meaning and importance to pursued tasks.
  14. 14 Control Stability, Discipline, and Process Control ¨ Grounded in virtuousness, extending beyond just doing well, but developing mechanisms for producing extraordinary results ¤ Goal clarity ¤ Agreements between producers and suppliers ¤ Planning and objective measures and accountability ¤ Stable support and funding for work efforts
  15. 15 Compete Incentives and Rigorous Performance Standards ¨ Aggressive actions, external constituents, market forces, performance incentives, and obtaining measurable results ¤ External stakeholder agreements ¤ Managing external relationships ¤ Taking bold action ¤ Incentives for measurable progress
  16. 16 Long Term Flexibility for Change New Internal Maintenance Culture Type: CLAN Culture Type: ADHOCRACY External Positioning Orientation: COLLOABORATE Orientation: CREATE Leader Type: § Facilitator § Mentor § Team builder Leader Type: § Innovator § Entrepreneur § Visionary Value Drivers: § Commitment § Communication § Development Value Drivers: § Innovative outputs § Transformational § Agility Theory of Effectiveness: § Human development and high commitment produce effectiveness Theory of Effectiveness: § Innovativeness, vision, and constant change produce effectiveness Culture Type: HEIRARCHY Culture Type: MARKET Orientation: CONTROL Orientation: COMPETE Leader Type: § Coordinator § Monitor § Organizer Leader Type: § Hard driver § Competitor § Producer Value Drivers: § Efficiency § Timeliness § Consistency and Uniformity Value Drivers: § Market share § Goal achievement § Profitability Theory of Effectiveness: § Control and efficiency with capable processes produce effectiveness Theory of Effectiveness: § Aggressively competing and customer focus produce effectiveness Incremental Stability Control Fast
  17. Putting These Ideas to Work ¨ With the four quadrants, let’s put them to work to increase the probability of project success ¨ This success starts with defining what Done looks like in units of measure meaningful to the decision makers ¨ In the case study here’s what this meant … q Close the site, staying on schedule (we can get more money), adhering to Federal, State, and Local regulations, and have NO on the job injuries
  18. 18 “Why do so many projects overspend and overrun? Because they’re managed as if they were merely Complicated when in fact, they are Complex. They’re planned as if everything is known at the start when in fact, they involve high levels of uncertainty that create cost, schedule, and technical risk.” In, Architecting Systems: Concepts, Principles and Practice, Hillary Sillitto, College Publications, 2014.
  19. 1. Where Are We Going? 2. How Do We Get There? 3. Do We Have Enough Time, Resources, And Money To Get There? 4. What Impediments Will We Encounter Along The Way? 5. How Do We Know We Are Making Progress? 5 Immutable Principles of Project Success 19
  20. What Does Done Look Like? § Develop a list of features or deliverables and describe the technical capabilities for each in units of measure meaningful to the decision makers. § Model the interdependencies between these deliverables. § Develop the Measures of Effectiveness and Measures of Performance and Key Performance Parameters for each Capability 20
  21. 21 “Done” Provides the Capability to Do Something
  22. How Do We Get to Done when needed for the planned cost? § Build a Plan and a Schedule for the work to be performed. § Define “packages of work” for all the activities with deliverables defined as “exit criteria” § Link the Accomplishment and Criteria vertically First and then link the Work Packages horizontally Principle ② 22
  23. 23 The Schedule Tells Us the Order of the Planned Work
  24. 24 The Schedule Shows Progress to Plan § Deliverables represent the required mission capabilities and its value as defined by the business and shared by the contractor team. § When all deliverables and their Work Packages are complete, they are not revisited or reopened. – They are 100% done. § The progression of Work Packages defines the increasing maturity of the deliverables. – The mission value of the deliverables to the customer increases as Work Packages are completed. § Completion of Work Packages is represented by the Physical Percent Completion of the deliverables. – Either 0%/100% or Apportioned Milestones are used to state the completion of each Work Package. Mission Capabilities Technical Capabilities Work Packages Deliverables
  25. 25 The Schedule Connects Work to Deliverables § Vertical traceability ACè SAè PE § Horizontal traceability WPè WPèAC Program Deliverables Define the maturity of a Capability at a point in time. Significant Accomplishments Represent requirements that enable Capabilities. Accomplishment Criteria Exit Criteria for the Work Packages that fulfill Requirements. Work Package Work Package Work Package Work Package Work Package Work package Work Package Work Package
  26. Do We Have the Resources Needed to Reach Done? ¨ List the needed staff and materials for the project ¨ Assign these staff and materials to the work packages ¨ Estimate the cost of the staff and materials and the impact of this variance on the total project cost and delivery schedule 26
  27. 27 We need the right people, with the right skills, at the right cost, at the right time to have any hope of project success 27
  28. What Are The Impediments to Reaching Done? ¨ Make a list of risks and rank them by priority. ¨ Assess impact on cost and schedule for each risk and the dependencies of these risks on external and internal drivers ¨ Assess the probability of occurrence and the probabilistic impact on cost and schedule impact, cost of handling, and cost of the residual risk after handling 28
  29. 29 All Risk Come From Uncertainty
  30. How Do We Measures Progress Toward Done? ¨ Describe the outcomes of the work effort using language the customer understands ¨ Assign Technical Performance Measures to the Deliverables ¨ Assign Measures of Performance, Measures of Effectiveness, Key Performance Parameters, and Integrate these throughout the project 30
  31. The goal of all project management processes are to align all measures of Effectiveness and Performance into a cohesive process to Increase Probability of Success 31
  32. This is What DONE Looks Like 32
  33. Backup Material
  34. 35 Apply Continuous Risk Management to each Performance Based Management process area Identify Needed Capabilities to achieve the project objectives or the end state for a specific scenario. Elicit Technical & Operational Requirements needed for the system capabilities to be fulfilled. Establish Performance Measurement Baseline time– phased network of work activities describing the work to be performed Execute Performance Measurement Baseline activities while assuring technical performance is met I II III IV V
  35. 36 I ‒ Identify Needed Capabilities A Capability is … “Planning, under uncertainty, to provide capabilities suitable for a wide range of modern-day challenges and circumstances while working within an economic framework that necessitates choice.” By Identifying system capabilities, the elicited technical and operational requirements can be traced from the Measures of Effectiveness (MOE) to each deliverable in the Integrated Master Plan and Schedule. Capabilities state the “why” of the system. † Analytic Architecture for Capabilities-Based Planning, Mission-System Analysis, and Transformation, Paul Davis, RAND, 2002
  36. 37 II ‒ Establish the Technical and Operational Requirements Technical and Operational requirements are the basis of Work Packages and Planning Packages and the work efforts needed to produce the deliverables from these Packages. These deliverables fulfill the technical and operational requirements needed to deliver the system Capabilities. Tracing Capabilities to Requirements and back again, assures each requirement has a “home” in the system.
  37. 38 III ‒ Establish the Performance Measurement Baseline The Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB) is the integration of scope, schedule, cost used to assess progress to plan with measures of physical percent complete for the Effectiveness and Performance of the delivered Capabilities. Starting at the Work Package level, a pre–defined performance measure is established. During the performance period assessment of “progress to plan” produce measures of Physical Percent Complete.
  38. 39 IV ‒ Execute the Performance Measurement Baseline Using the Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), each Work Package must start as planned, complete on or near the planned date, and produce the planned technical performance. This is the key to success for any credible Performance Based Management plan. In the absence of this, the project is behind schedule, over budget, and non–compliant with the technical goals.
  39. 40 V ‒ Perform Continuous Risk Management
  40. 41