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EFFECTIVE
CLINICAL TEACHING
METHODS
Dr. Esther John ,M.Sc (N), PhD
Principal,
Ganga College of Nursing ,
Coimbatore.
GANGA INSTITUTE OF HEALTH SCIENCES,
VATTAMALAI PALYAM ,
NGGO COLONY POST
COIMBATORE
INTRODUCTION
Nursing …..
• Knowledge based professional discipline.
Practice based professional discipline
• Skill based p...
There is a deep gap between theory and practice
CLINICAL TEACHING
“ANY WEAPON IS A GOOD WEAPON AS
LONG AS YOU CAN USE IT WITH SKILL.”
SKILL ACQUISITION
Knowledge is gained by learning; tru...
TYPES OF LEARNING
• INFORMATIVE
• INSPIRATIONAL
• INTEGRATED
• EMPOWERMENT
TYPES OF LEARNING
TEACHER WILL BE
FACILITATOR AND CRITICAL
REFLECTIVE ENCHANCER
STUDENT WILL BE MEANING
MAKER AND KNOWLEDGE
CONSTRUCTOR
IDEAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
SAFE
ENVIRONMENT
LOW STRESS
IDEAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
FUN LEARNING
MOTIVATING
ENVIRONMENT
IDEAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
ALLOWS
PRACTICE
ACCESSIBLE
CONDUCIVE HEALTHY
LEARNING
BE
FAIR
BE
CONSISTENT
BE
UNDERSTANDING
SUSTAINING SAFE LEARNING
ENVIRONMENT
• RESPECT STUDENT’S TIME
• BE COGNIZANT OF STUDENT’S
OTHER RESPONSIBILITY
• MAKE RELAVANT DISCUSSION
• BALANCE PATIENT CAR...
• CLEARLY ARTICULATE
EXPECTATIONS
• ENCOURAGE STUDENTS
TO TAKE RISKS
• ENCOURAGE TEAM
WORK
• ENCOURAGE
QUESTIONS
SUSTAININ...
MATCH THE EDUCATIONAL GOALS TO THE
SETTING OF THE LEARNERS
EDUCATIONAL GOALS
SETTING OF THE LEARNERS
Clinical Teaching is a individualized or group teaching
to the nursing students in the clinical area by the
Nurses Educato...
In preparation of
professional practice, the
clinical setting is the place
where the students come
in contact with patient...
CLASS ROOM TEACHING VS CLINICAL
TEACHING
CLASS ROOM TEACHING
• Large group
• No focus on patient
• Knowledge
• Theoretical...
• Time labelled curriculum
• Ward rounds
• Crowded curriculum.
• Junior nurse – Senior Nurse: endless menial
task
• Self d...
WHY CLINICAL EXPERIENCE?
• Teaching in clinical setting is
a challenge that is different
from those encountered in
the cla...
PRINCIPLES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
• Teaching is not equal to
learning.
• Adults learn differently
• Clinical education
shoul...
Cont . . .
• Clinical teaching is supported by a climate of
mutual Trust & respect
• Clinical teaching & learning should f...
• INDEPENDENT
• SELF DIRECTED
• EXPERIENCE- A RICH SOURCE
OF LEARNING
• PROBLEM CENTRED
APPROACH
• MOTIVATED TO LEARN –
IN...
PURPOSES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
PURPOSES:
 To provide individualized care in a
systematic ,holistic approach
 To develop high technical competent skills...
 To conduct research
 To maintain high standard of nursing practice to
become independent enough to practice nursing
 T...
 To improve the standards of nursing practice
 To learn various diagnostic procedures
 To learn various skill in giving...
• To help in integration of theoretical knowledge into
practice
• To develop communication skills and maintain
interperson...
MODELS OF CLINICAL TEACHING
The instruction
and valuation of
student is done
by the academic
faculty member
who is in the
clinical setting.
TRADITIONA...
An experienced and
expert nurse in the
clinic, work with the
student on a one-to-
one basis in addition
to the ongoing pat...
Partnership Model
Here a staff nurse instructs a small group of
students in the clinical setting
collaboratively with the ...
OUTCOMES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
CLINICAL
KNOWLEDGE
CLINICAL
SKILL
PRACTICAL
PROCEDURES
CLINICAL
REASONING
OUTCOMES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
OUTCOMES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
DATA INTERPRETATION
AND RETRIEVAL
COMMUNICATION
PATIENT
INVESTIGATIONS
PROBLEM SOLVING
KNOWLEDGE
CRITICAL THINKING
DECISION MAKING
2. Skills SKILLS
PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS
ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN YOUR
DOSAI AND AMMA SUTTA DOSAI?
ATTITUDE AND VALUES
CHALLENGES IN CLINICAL TEACHING
• LIMITED CONTROL OVER
TIME
• UNPREDICTABLE CASE LOAD
• EMERGENCIES
• CLIENT DEMANDS
• DEPENDENCE ON OTHERS
CHALLENGES IN ...
• NO TIME FOR ELABORATE TEACHING
• TEACHER CANNOT FOCUS ON ONE
PROBLEM TO TEACH
• TEACHER SHOULD BE A GUIDE OR
FACILITATOR...
CHALLENGES IN CLINICAL TEACHING
•Difficult to set teaching goals , unanticipated events
occur frequently
•Patient too sick...
STEPS IN CLINICAL TEACHING
FORMULATING
OBJECTIVES
DETERMINING
KNOWLEDGE
PLANNING
CONTENT
ORGANIZINGIMPLEMENTINGEVALUATING
Ethical and legal
issues in clinical
teaching
• Patient’s Privacy rights.
• Competent teaching
• Academic dishonesty
LEGAL ISSUES
• Students with disabilities
• Patient safety
• Breach of duty
• Injury
• Negligence
• Liability
• Unsafe cli...
STRENGTHS OF CLINICAL EDUCATION
• Problem centered approach
in the context of professional
practice
• An experience-based ...
FACTORS INFLUENCING CLINICAL
TEACHING
FACTORS INFLUENCING CLINICAL
TEACHING
•Group interaction skills
•Clinical supervision skill
•Clinical competence and profe...
FACTORS INFLUENCING CLINICAL
TEACHING
•Knowledge and analytical ability.
•Organization and clarity of presentation
•Enthus...
PITFALLS IN CLINICAL TEACHING
• Revert to comfort zone
• Information does not fits
learners need
• Inappropriate technique...
METHODS OF CLINICAL TEACHING
SELECTION OF CLINICAL
TEACHING METHODS
• Appropriate to objectives and
desired behavioural changes
• Based on Principles o...
PROCESS
RECORDING
BEDSIDE
CLINIC
CASE METHOD
LABORATORY
METHOD
NURSING
CONFERENCES
NURSING
ROUNDS
TYPES OF CLINICAL TEACHI...
TYPES OF CLINICAL TEACHING METHODS
GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL CONFERENCE
DEMONSTRATION
NURSING ASSIGNMENT
MORNING AND EVENING RO...
TYPES OF CLINICAL TEACHING METHODS
LOGBOOK AND
PORTFOLIO
NURSING RECORD
WRITING
SHADOWING A
JUNIOR NURSE
PROCESS RECORDING
Process recording is a written account
or verbatim recording of all that transpired
during and immediately following the
n...
FEATURES
Written during or immediately following
the interaction
Can be used for Educational and Teaching,
purpose.
 Ca...
PURPOSES
Improve the quality of nurse-patient
interaction.
Assist the student nurse to plan, structure &
evaluate the in...
PURPOSES
To identify thoughts and feelings in
relation to self and others
To increase observational skills
Ability to i...
PRE-REQUISITE FOR PROCESS
RECORDING
Physical setting: Calm and
quiet environment
Obtaining consent
Maintaining confiden...
RECORDING – MODERN AGE
BEDSIDE CLINIC
• Bedside clinic - To study problems
associated with a particular disease or
disorder.
• Always ensure the presence of the...
• Patients with typical diseases are selected.
• Brief history and therapy, nursing problems
are presented along with the ...
• Nursing clinic conducted by Head Nurse/Clinical Instructor.
• Before the client enters, the head nurse points out the
gr...
The student is getting an opportunity to
• Direct observation
• Analyze &
• Make decisions in nursing care.
BEDSIDE CLINIC...
Nursing Care Conferences
Bedside Clinic and Nursing Care Conference
can be used to evaluate the students
Similar to bedside clinic but in the abs...
NURSING ROUNDS
 Involves student’s learning experiences.
 Patient history and medical aspects of his/her care are
included as a backgro...
Share the clinical expertise.
Suggestions are made by the members of the
group.
Avoid telling them everything from the ...
NURSING ROUNDS - TYPES
INFORMATION
GIVING ROUNDS
INSTRUCTIONAL
ROUNDS
PROBLEM SOLVING
ROUNDS
NURSING ROUNDS - ADVANTAGES
INCREASING
• LEARNING
ABILITY
INCREASING
• INTEREST –
SHARE
KNOWLEDGE
SELECTING
• CLIENT WITH
...
DEMONSTRATION
DEMONSTRATION
• Demonstration teaches by “Exhibition &
explanation ”
• It trains the students in the art of careful
observ...
• Planned Involves preliminary
preparation, introductory conference,
performing the procedure and follow
up.
• Unplanned W...
DEMONSTRATION - ADVANTAGES
ACTIVATES
SENSES
OPPORTUNITY
FOR
OBSERVATION &
LEARNING
CREATES
INTEREST BY
USE OF
ILLUSTRATION...
CASE METHOD
CASE METHOD - DEFINITION
METHOD WHICH FOCUSES ON INFORMATION AND FACTS
ABOUT PATIENT, HIS DISEASE CONDITION, AND HIS SOCIA...
CASE METHOD - TYPES
TYPES
CARE STUDY
CASE
ANALYSIS
CASE
INCIDENT
TECHNIQUE
CASE METHOD - TYPES
NURSING CARE STUDY
• Student selects one patient for intensive study.
• Student decides nursing measures to solve
problems.
• Student to be g...
• Concentrated effort of students to solve problems
arouses interest in patients & result in better
nursing care.
• The st...
• Students learn problem-solving approach.
• Report acts as reference material for students.
• Report to be evaluated in t...
CASE ANALYSIS
• An analysis of a case or a condition is done by nursing
students.
• Comprehensive information presented to the students
...
CASE INCIDENT TECHNIQUE
This technique requires immediate
decision and action from a case and
presented to the students for their
analysis and dec...
CASE INCIDENT TECHNIQUE -
ADVANTAGES
INDIVIDUAL
DIFFERENCES
FOR
STUDENTS
OPPORTUNITY
FOR SELF-
EXPRESSION
OPPORTUNITY
FOR ...
• BETTER PERSONAL UNDERSTANDING
• TIME SAVING
• OPPORTUNITY FOR PUBLIC SPEAKING EXPERIENCE
• SOURCE OF MOTIVATION
• FEELS ...
SELF DISCIPLINED
GOAL ORIENTED
MOTIVATED PERSISTENT
INDEPENDENT
SELF
CONFIDENT
CASE INCIDENT TECHNIQUE -
ADVANTAGES
• No opportunity for new ideas
• Requires more time
• No opportunity for writing and for other
creative expressions
• Leav...
NURSING CONFERENCE
“Nursing Conference is defined as the
process in which group discussion is
made using problem solving techniques
to determ...
GROUP CONFERENCE
NURSING CONFERENCE - TYPES
INDIVIDUAL CONFERENCE
GROUP CONFERENCE
• Is a small group teaching method
• The students are allowed to participate
actively in the discussion, ...
• Focuses on the overall development of the
individual student.
• The focus is more directed towards the
development of cl...
• To focus on the overall development of the
individual student with a special emphasis
to the clinical skills.
• To help ...
• To provide opportunity to the students to
refine their clinical skills.
• To encourage innovative and creative ideas
amo...
OPENING
WORKING
CLOSING
NURSING CONFERENCE - PHASES
OPENING PHASE
• The students are informed prior so
that discussion is meaningful
• Patients selected should have typical
s...
WORKING PHASE
• Focus is made on patient information such as bio data,
family background, past and present medical history...
CLOSING PHASE
Suggestions derived from various group
conferences, relevant to the ward
situation is put into the notice of...
• Develop problem solving skills
• Develops team building skills
• Ability to express oneself assertively
• Makes clinical...
•Sharpens the critical thinking
•Helps the students to know about their
progress and hence boosts their self confidence.
•...
•May not be very beneficial if the students are not
accustomed to the clinical setting
•It requires a careful planning
•It...
LABORATORY METHOD
Laboratory method is planned
learning activity dealing with
original data in the solution of a
problem
LABORATORY METHOD -...
• To provide experiences with actual situation such as
nursing laboratory and hospital ward
• To make students to become s...
PREPARATION
WORK PERIOD
EVALUATION
LABORATORY METHOD - TECHNIQUE
BUDGET
POOR
PLANNING
TIME
CONSUMING
LACK OF APPARATUS
LACK OF DIRECTION
LABORATORY METHOD - LIMITATIONS
NURSING ASSIGNMENT
• NURSING ASSIGNMENT
It is the part of learning experiences
where the students are assigned with
patient or other activities concerning
to pati...
FUNCTIONAL
CASE
METHOD
TEAM
METHOD
PRIMARY
CARE
NURSING ASSIGNMENT - METHODS
• Students are to be informed of the objectives of their
assignment
• Students are to be oriented to the clinical area.
• ...
ROLE PLAY
ROLE PLAYING IS A DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE
THAT MAKES POSSIBLE TO GET MAXIMUM
PARTICIPATION OF A GROUP THROUGH ACTING
OUT AN E...
ROLE PLAY - PURPOSES
• TO PROVIDE REAL LIFE SITUATIONS FOR
FIRST HAND INFORMATION
• TO SUPPLEMENT CLASS ROOM
INSTRUCTIONS
ROLE PLAY
DEFINE THE PROBLEM IDENTIFY THE CHARACTER
CONDUCT DISCUSSION
PARTICIPANT PLACEMENT
LENGTH DEPENDS UPON
THE TOPICS
CONDUCT ...
MORNING AND EVENING REPORTS
A report summarizes the services
of the nurse and or the agency.
Reports may be in the form of an
analysis of aspects of a...
REPORTS - TYPES
ORAL REPORT
WRITTEN REPORT
• Report between head nurse and her assistant
• Report between nurse who assigned to
bedside care
• Report to the clinical...
• Clear , concise , complete
• clearly stated and well organized for easy
understanding
• Good oral report are expressed a...
NURSE RECORD WRITING
• IF IT IS WELL WRITTEN ALL PERTINENT
IDENTIFYING DATA, TIME PEOPLE
CONCERNED, THE SITUATION, SIGNATURE OF
THE PERSON MAKI...
FIELD TRIP
FIELD TRIP - PURPOSES
FIELD TRIP - PURPOSES
FIELD TRIP - PURPOSES
FIELD TRIP - PURPOSES
• The field trip must be planned to meet
specific educational objectives rather than
merely a picnic activity.
• Have list...
• Plan field trip with a specific checklist
(permission, transport, booking boarding,
parental notification, safety & emer...
• Field trip enriches the classroom learning
• Field trips provide an opportunity to the
learners to get first hand inform...
• The monotony and boredom of classroom
teaching is eliminated through field trips.
• Field trip gives natural stimulation...
• If the field trip is not planned well with
specific learning objectives it will result in
wastage of teaching learning r...
NURSE RECORD WRITING
PRACTICAL TIPS TO IMPROVE CLINICAL
TEACHING
• Incorporate teaching into your every day
activities
• Teaching can be inextr...
NO CLINICAL SUPERVISION WITHOUT
CLINICAL TEACHING.
TREAT YOUR WEAKEST STUDENT AS YOUR BEST
STUDENT.
TRAITS THAT EVERY STUDENT NURSE
SHOULD HAVE
STRESS
TOLERANCE
EMOTIONAL
STABILITY
TRAITS THAT EVERY STUDENT NURSE
SHOULD HAVE
PHYSICAL ENDURANCE HARD WORK
HONEST RELIABLE
SINCERE COMPETE
AND THEN YOU WILL BECOME DUST
KNOWLEDGE
PASSION
DEDICATION
SKILL
LEADERSHIP
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
Effective clinical teaching methods  - gihs
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Effective clinical teaching methods - gihs

  1. 1. EFFECTIVE CLINICAL TEACHING METHODS Dr. Esther John ,M.Sc (N), PhD Principal, Ganga College of Nursing , Coimbatore.
  2. 2. GANGA INSTITUTE OF HEALTH SCIENCES, VATTAMALAI PALYAM , NGGO COLONY POST COIMBATORE
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Nursing ….. • Knowledge based professional discipline. Practice based professional discipline • Skill based professional discipline
  4. 4. There is a deep gap between theory and practice
  5. 5. CLINICAL TEACHING
  6. 6. “ANY WEAPON IS A GOOD WEAPON AS LONG AS YOU CAN USE IT WITH SKILL.” SKILL ACQUISITION Knowledge is gained by learning; trust by doubt; skill by practice; and love by love.
  7. 7. TYPES OF LEARNING
  8. 8. • INFORMATIVE • INSPIRATIONAL • INTEGRATED • EMPOWERMENT TYPES OF LEARNING
  9. 9. TEACHER WILL BE FACILITATOR AND CRITICAL REFLECTIVE ENCHANCER STUDENT WILL BE MEANING MAKER AND KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTOR
  10. 10. IDEAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT SAFE ENVIRONMENT LOW STRESS
  11. 11. IDEAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FUN LEARNING MOTIVATING ENVIRONMENT
  12. 12. IDEAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ALLOWS PRACTICE ACCESSIBLE CONDUCIVE HEALTHY LEARNING
  13. 13. BE FAIR BE CONSISTENT BE UNDERSTANDING SUSTAINING SAFE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
  14. 14. • RESPECT STUDENT’S TIME • BE COGNIZANT OF STUDENT’S OTHER RESPONSIBILITY • MAKE RELAVANT DISCUSSION • BALANCE PATIENT CARE WITH TAKING THE TIME TO TRAIN STUDENTS SUSTAINING SAFE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
  15. 15. • CLEARLY ARTICULATE EXPECTATIONS • ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO TAKE RISKS • ENCOURAGE TEAM WORK • ENCOURAGE QUESTIONS SUSTAINING SAFE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ASK QUESTIONS
  16. 16. MATCH THE EDUCATIONAL GOALS TO THE SETTING OF THE LEARNERS EDUCATIONAL GOALS SETTING OF THE LEARNERS
  17. 17. Clinical Teaching is a individualized or group teaching to the nursing students in the clinical area by the Nurses Educators , Staff Nurse and Clinical Nurse Managers .
  18. 18. In preparation of professional practice, the clinical setting is the place where the students come in contact with patients or consumers for the purpose of testing theories and learning skills. CUFF SHOULD NOT BE TOO TIGHT OR LOOSE
  19. 19. CLASS ROOM TEACHING VS CLINICAL TEACHING CLASS ROOM TEACHING • Large group • No focus on patient • Knowledge • Theoretical framework • Teacher/students ratio is large • Passive students • Less interactive CLINICAL TEACHING • Small group • Focus on patient • Application of knowledge • Clinical reasoning • Teacher/students ratio is small • Active students • More interactive
  20. 20. • Time labelled curriculum • Ward rounds • Crowded curriculum. • Junior nurse – Senior Nurse: endless menial task • Self directed learning. TRADITIONAL METHODS
  21. 21. WHY CLINICAL EXPERIENCE? • Teaching in clinical setting is a challenge that is different from those encountered in the class room • Like any other skill based profession, nursing also requires the development of relationship between theory and practice. THEORY PRACTICE
  22. 22. PRINCIPLES OF CLINICAL TEACHING • Teaching is not equal to learning. • Adults learn differently • Clinical education should reflect the nature of professional practice
  23. 23. Cont . . . • Clinical teaching is supported by a climate of mutual Trust & respect • Clinical teaching & learning should focus on essential knowledge, skill & attitude PRINCIPLES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
  24. 24. • INDEPENDENT • SELF DIRECTED • EXPERIENCE- A RICH SOURCE OF LEARNING • PROBLEM CENTRED APPROACH • MOTIVATED TO LEARN – INTERNAL DRIVES FOR MOTIVATION MATRIX
  25. 25. PURPOSES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
  26. 26. PURPOSES:  To provide individualized care in a systematic ,holistic approach  To develop high technical competent skills  To practice various procedures  To collect and analyze the data PURPOSES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
  27. 27.  To conduct research  To maintain high standard of nursing practice to become independent enough to practice nursing  To develop ,cognitive ,affective and psychomotor skills PURPOSES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
  28. 28.  To improve the standards of nursing practice  To learn various diagnostic procedures  To learn various skill in giving health education techniques to the client and significant others. PURPOSES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
  29. 29. • To help in integration of theoretical knowledge into practice • To develop communication skills and maintain interpersonal relationship • To develop proficiency and efficiency in carrying out various nursing procedures • To learn managerial skills PURPOSES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
  30. 30. MODELS OF CLINICAL TEACHING
  31. 31. The instruction and valuation of student is done by the academic faculty member who is in the clinical setting. TRADITIONAL MODEL
  32. 32. An experienced and expert nurse in the clinic, work with the student on a one-to- one basis in addition to the ongoing patient care responsibility. PRECEPTOR MODEL
  33. 33. Partnership Model Here a staff nurse instructs a small group of students in the clinical setting collaboratively with the lead teacher ASSOCIATE MODEL
  34. 34. OUTCOMES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
  35. 35. CLINICAL KNOWLEDGE CLINICAL SKILL PRACTICAL PROCEDURES CLINICAL REASONING OUTCOMES OF CLINICAL TEACHING
  36. 36. OUTCOMES OF CLINICAL TEACHING DATA INTERPRETATION AND RETRIEVAL COMMUNICATION PATIENT INVESTIGATIONS
  37. 37. PROBLEM SOLVING KNOWLEDGE CRITICAL THINKING DECISION MAKING
  38. 38. 2. Skills SKILLS PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS
  39. 39. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN YOUR DOSAI AND AMMA SUTTA DOSAI?
  40. 40. ATTITUDE AND VALUES
  41. 41. CHALLENGES IN CLINICAL TEACHING
  42. 42. • LIMITED CONTROL OVER TIME • UNPREDICTABLE CASE LOAD • EMERGENCIES • CLIENT DEMANDS • DEPENDENCE ON OTHERS CHALLENGES IN CLINICAL TEACHING
  43. 43. • NO TIME FOR ELABORATE TEACHING • TEACHER CANNOT FOCUS ON ONE PROBLEM TO TEACH • TEACHER SHOULD BE A GUIDE OR FACILITATOR THAN INFORMATION PROVIDER • DIFFICULTY IN TAKING LEARNING AND SERVICE SIMULTANEOUSLY CHALLENGES IN CLINICAL TEACHING
  44. 44. CHALLENGES IN CLINICAL TEACHING •Difficult to set teaching goals , unanticipated events occur frequently •Patient too sick or unwilling to participate in teaching encounter •Teachers feel insecure about admitting errors in front of patient •Engaging all learners simultaneously can be difficult
  45. 45. STEPS IN CLINICAL TEACHING FORMULATING OBJECTIVES DETERMINING KNOWLEDGE PLANNING CONTENT ORGANIZINGIMPLEMENTINGEVALUATING
  46. 46. Ethical and legal issues in clinical teaching
  47. 47. • Patient’s Privacy rights. • Competent teaching • Academic dishonesty
  48. 48. LEGAL ISSUES • Students with disabilities • Patient safety • Breach of duty • Injury • Negligence • Liability • Unsafe clinical practice • Documentation and record keeping
  49. 49. STRENGTHS OF CLINICAL EDUCATION • Problem centered approach in the context of professional practice • An experience-based learning model and • A combination of individual and team learning
  50. 50. FACTORS INFLUENCING CLINICAL TEACHING
  51. 51. FACTORS INFLUENCING CLINICAL TEACHING •Group interaction skills •Clinical supervision skill •Clinical competence and professionalism
  52. 52. FACTORS INFLUENCING CLINICAL TEACHING •Knowledge and analytical ability. •Organization and clarity of presentation •Enthusiasm and stimulation of interest
  53. 53. PITFALLS IN CLINICAL TEACHING • Revert to comfort zone • Information does not fits learners need • Inappropriate techniques • Blaming the system • Doing attender's job
  54. 54. METHODS OF CLINICAL TEACHING
  55. 55. SELECTION OF CLINICAL TEACHING METHODS • Appropriate to objectives and desired behavioural changes • Based on Principles of learning • According to the capacity of the student • Availability of resources
  56. 56. PROCESS RECORDING BEDSIDE CLINIC CASE METHOD LABORATORY METHOD NURSING CONFERENCES NURSING ROUNDS TYPES OF CLINICAL TEACHING METHODS
  57. 57. TYPES OF CLINICAL TEACHING METHODS GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL CONFERENCE DEMONSTRATION NURSING ASSIGNMENT MORNING AND EVENING ROUNDS ROLE PLAY FIELD TRIP
  58. 58. TYPES OF CLINICAL TEACHING METHODS LOGBOOK AND PORTFOLIO NURSING RECORD WRITING SHADOWING A JUNIOR NURSE
  59. 59. PROCESS RECORDING
  60. 60. Process recording is a written account or verbatim recording of all that transpired during and immediately following the nurse-patient interaction.
  61. 61. FEATURES Written during or immediately following the interaction Can be used for Educational and Teaching, purpose.  Can be used as Therapeutic tool .
  62. 62. PURPOSES Improve the quality of nurse-patient interaction. Assist the student nurse to plan, structure & evaluate the interaction. Gain competency in interpreting and synthesizing raw data under supervision.
  63. 63. PURPOSES To identify thoughts and feelings in relation to self and others To increase observational skills Ability to identify the problem and gain problem solving skills.
  64. 64. PRE-REQUISITE FOR PROCESS RECORDING Physical setting: Calm and quiet environment Obtaining consent Maintaining confidentiality
  65. 65. RECORDING – MODERN AGE
  66. 66. BEDSIDE CLINIC
  67. 67. • Bedside clinic - To study problems associated with a particular disease or disorder. • Always ensure the presence of the patient. • Either the group visits the patient or the patient is brought to the conference room. BEDSIDE CLINIC
  68. 68. • Patients with typical diseases are selected. • Brief history and therapy, nursing problems are presented along with the nursing care including physical, mental and social components will be included. BEDSIDE CLINIC
  69. 69. • Nursing clinic conducted by Head Nurse/Clinical Instructor. • Before the client enters, the head nurse points out the group the observations to be made. This is usually followed by a discussion and questions and answers round. • Summarization done at the end. • Duration: 30 min • Evaluation: Head Nurse and Group members BEDSIDE CLINIC
  70. 70. The student is getting an opportunity to • Direct observation • Analyze & • Make decisions in nursing care. BEDSIDE CLINIC -ADVANTAGES
  71. 71. Nursing Care Conferences
  72. 72. Bedside Clinic and Nursing Care Conference can be used to evaluate the students Similar to bedside clinic but in the absence of the patient. Method of choice when the entire group is acquainted with the patient. Planning to be done earlier. Conducted by the Clinical Instructor. NURSING CARE CONFERENCES
  73. 73. NURSING ROUNDS
  74. 74.  Involves student’s learning experiences.  Patient history and medical aspects of his/her care are included as a background for understanding the nursing care.  The registered nurse responsible for the patient should answer questions aroused in the group & encourage active discussion. NURSING ROUNDS
  75. 75. Share the clinical expertise. Suggestions are made by the members of the group. Avoid telling them everything from the book Suggestions discussed in the rounds will be recorded. NURSING ROUNDS
  76. 76. NURSING ROUNDS - TYPES INFORMATION GIVING ROUNDS INSTRUCTIONAL ROUNDS PROBLEM SOLVING ROUNDS
  77. 77. NURSING ROUNDS - ADVANTAGES INCREASING • LEARNING ABILITY INCREASING • INTEREST – SHARE KNOWLEDGE SELECTING • CLIENT WITH SPECIFIC PROBLEM &PLAN CARE
  78. 78. DEMONSTRATION
  79. 79. DEMONSTRATION • Demonstration teaches by “Exhibition & explanation ” • It trains the students in the art of careful observation
  80. 80. • Planned Involves preliminary preparation, introductory conference, performing the procedure and follow up. • Unplanned When uncommon treatment occurs in the ward, this can be demonstrated to the students if it is not emergency. DEMONSTRATION - TYPES
  81. 81. DEMONSTRATION - ADVANTAGES ACTIVATES SENSES OPPORTUNITY FOR OBSERVATION & LEARNING CREATES INTEREST BY USE OF ILLUSTRATION CORRELATES THEORY & PRACTICE
  82. 82. CASE METHOD
  83. 83. CASE METHOD - DEFINITION METHOD WHICH FOCUSES ON INFORMATION AND FACTS ABOUT PATIENT, HIS DISEASE CONDITION, AND HIS SOCIAL AND PERSONAL HISTORY AND THE APPLICATION OF THIS KNOWLEDGE IN RENDERING NURSING CARE.
  84. 84. CASE METHOD - TYPES TYPES CARE STUDY CASE ANALYSIS CASE INCIDENT TECHNIQUE
  85. 85. CASE METHOD - TYPES
  86. 86. NURSING CARE STUDY
  87. 87. • Student selects one patient for intensive study. • Student decides nursing measures to solve problems. • Student to be given opportunity to take care of patient, to gain his/her confidence, to learn the real nature of his/her problems, and to evaluate her nursing measures. NURSING CARE STUDY
  88. 88. • Concentrated effort of students to solve problems arouses interest in patients & result in better nursing care. • The students learn to recognize the effect of personal and social factors on illness and recovery, to organize the information and identify the problems NURSING CARE STUDY - ADVANTAGES
  89. 89. • Students learn problem-solving approach. • Report acts as reference material for students. • Report to be evaluated in terms of content, organization, clarity of thought and interest. • The oral presentation helps the student to speak in front of the group. NURSING CARE STUDY - ADVANTAGES
  90. 90. CASE ANALYSIS
  91. 91. • An analysis of a case or a condition is done by nursing students. • Comprehensive information presented to the students to aid them make judgment of a problem or situation. • No background information is given students. • The instructor will have facts about case; can be given as requested by the students. CASE ANALYSIS
  92. 92. CASE INCIDENT TECHNIQUE
  93. 93. This technique requires immediate decision and action from a case and presented to the students for their analysis and decision CASE INCIDENT TECHNIQUE
  94. 94. CASE INCIDENT TECHNIQUE - ADVANTAGES INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES FOR STUDENTS OPPORTUNITY FOR SELF- EXPRESSION OPPORTUNITY FOR SELF- EXPRESSION SCIENTIFIC PAPER WRITING CORRECT ERRORS OF INFORMATION DIRECT STUDENT THINKING
  95. 95. • BETTER PERSONAL UNDERSTANDING • TIME SAVING • OPPORTUNITY FOR PUBLIC SPEAKING EXPERIENCE • SOURCE OF MOTIVATION • FEELS ACHIEVED BY PRESENTING HER STUDY TO OTHERS CASE INCIDENT TECHNIQUE - ADVANTAGES
  96. 96. SELF DISCIPLINED GOAL ORIENTED MOTIVATED PERSISTENT INDEPENDENT SELF CONFIDENT CASE INCIDENT TECHNIQUE - ADVANTAGES
  97. 97. • No opportunity for new ideas • Requires more time • No opportunity for writing and for other creative expressions • Leaves no record for future reference CASE INCIDENT TECHNIQUE - DISADVANTAGES
  98. 98. NURSING CONFERENCE
  99. 99. “Nursing Conference is defined as the process in which group discussion is made using problem solving techniques to determine the ways of providing care for the patients to whom students are assigned as part of their clinical experience”. NURSING CONFERENCE - DEFINITION
  100. 100. GROUP CONFERENCE NURSING CONFERENCE - TYPES INDIVIDUAL CONFERENCE
  101. 101. GROUP CONFERENCE • Is a small group teaching method • The students are allowed to participate actively in the discussion, explaining their own experiences in the clinical area • This helps the students to develop problem solving skills, team building skills and the ability to express themselves assertively GROUP CONFERENCE
  102. 102. • Focuses on the overall development of the individual student. • The focus is more directed towards the development of clinical skills. • It mainly deals with the student nursing care ability, level of performance achievements and assignments related to the clinical experiences. INDIVIDUAL CONFERENCE
  103. 103. • To focus on the overall development of the individual student with a special emphasis to the clinical skills. • To help in communicating ideas and viewpoints of students regarding problems pertaining to their clinical posting. NURSING CONFERENCE - PURPOSES
  104. 104. • To provide opportunity to the students to refine their clinical skills. • To encourage innovative and creative ideas among students. • To recognize the ability and limitation of various team members. NURSING CONFERENCE - PURPOSES
  105. 105. OPENING WORKING CLOSING NURSING CONFERENCE - PHASES
  106. 106. OPENING PHASE • The students are informed prior so that discussion is meaningful • Patients selected should have typical signs and symptoms NURSING CONFERENCE - PHASES
  107. 107. WORKING PHASE • Focus is made on patient information such as bio data, family background, past and present medical history, signs and symptoms, line of care and nursing management. • The teacher motivates the students to come forward with innovative and creative ideas suiting the problem or situation. NURSING CONFERENCE - PHASES
  108. 108. CLOSING PHASE Suggestions derived from various group conferences, relevant to the ward situation is put into the notice of the staff working in the same area in a friendly manner. NURSING CONFERENCE - PHASES
  109. 109. • Develop problem solving skills • Develops team building skills • Ability to express oneself assertively • Makes clinical area more interesting place for teaching and learning. • Provides opportunities for the students to express innovative ideas and to refine clinical skills NURSING CONFERENCE - ADVANTAGES
  110. 110. •Sharpens the critical thinking •Helps the students to know about their progress and hence boosts their self confidence. •Boosts the sense of security •Helps the teacher to identify the students attitude and insight regarding the problems of their clients. NURSING CONFERENCE - ADVANTAGES
  111. 111. •May not be very beneficial if the students are not accustomed to the clinical setting •It requires a careful planning •It is a time consuming process •It portrays the personal problems of the patient which should be maintained confidential •Patient involvement is less in this method of teaching and learning NURSING CONFERENCE - ADVANTAGES
  112. 112. LABORATORY METHOD
  113. 113. Laboratory method is planned learning activity dealing with original data in the solution of a problem LABORATORY METHOD - DEFINITION
  114. 114. • To provide experiences with actual situation such as nursing laboratory and hospital ward • To make students to become skillful in manipulation apparatus , practicing laboratory technique • To help the student to acquire scientific attitude and scientific approach to problem solving • To provide first hand experiences with materials. LABORATORY METHOD - PURPOSES
  115. 115. PREPARATION WORK PERIOD EVALUATION LABORATORY METHOD - TECHNIQUE
  116. 116. BUDGET POOR PLANNING TIME CONSUMING LACK OF APPARATUS LACK OF DIRECTION LABORATORY METHOD - LIMITATIONS
  117. 117. NURSING ASSIGNMENT • NURSING ASSIGNMENT
  118. 118. It is the part of learning experiences where the students are assigned with patient or other activities concerning to patient in clinical laboratory . NURSING ASSIGNMENT
  119. 119. FUNCTIONAL CASE METHOD TEAM METHOD PRIMARY CARE NURSING ASSIGNMENT - METHODS
  120. 120. • Students are to be informed of the objectives of their assignment • Students are to be oriented to the clinical area. • Select the area based on the learning experiences of the student needed • Proper guidance and supervision • Provide sufficient time for giving care to the patient • Evaluate the students performances and give corrections NURSING ASSIGNMENT - CRITERIA
  121. 121. ROLE PLAY
  122. 122. ROLE PLAYING IS A DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE THAT MAKES POSSIBLE TO GET MAXIMUM PARTICIPATION OF A GROUP THROUGH ACTING OUT AN EXAMPLE OF SOME PROBLEM OR IDEA UNDER DISCUSSION ROLE PLAY
  123. 123. ROLE PLAY - PURPOSES • TO PROVIDE REAL LIFE SITUATIONS FOR FIRST HAND INFORMATION • TO SUPPLEMENT CLASS ROOM INSTRUCTIONS
  124. 124. ROLE PLAY
  125. 125. DEFINE THE PROBLEM IDENTIFY THE CHARACTER CONDUCT DISCUSSION PARTICIPANT PLACEMENT LENGTH DEPENDS UPON THE TOPICS CONDUCT SHORT CONFERENCES ROLE PLAY
  126. 126. MORNING AND EVENING REPORTS
  127. 127. A report summarizes the services of the nurse and or the agency. Reports may be in the form of an analysis of aspects of a services MORNING AND EVENING REPORTS
  128. 128. REPORTS - TYPES ORAL REPORT WRITTEN REPORT
  129. 129. • Report between head nurse and her assistant • Report between nurse who assigned to bedside care • Report to the clinical instructor • Report of charge nurses to the physician • Day , evening and night reports FORMS OF REPORTS
  130. 130. • Clear , concise , complete • clearly stated and well organized for easy understanding • Good oral report are expressed and presented in an interesting manner and important points are emphasized CRITERIA FOR GOOD REPORT
  131. 131. NURSE RECORD WRITING
  132. 132. • IF IT IS WELL WRITTEN ALL PERTINENT IDENTIFYING DATA, TIME PEOPLE CONCERNED, THE SITUATION, SIGNATURE OF THE PERSON MAKING THE REPORT ARE INCLUDED CRITERIA FOR GOOD REPORT
  133. 133. FIELD TRIP
  134. 134. FIELD TRIP - PURPOSES
  135. 135. FIELD TRIP - PURPOSES
  136. 136. FIELD TRIP - PURPOSES
  137. 137. FIELD TRIP - PURPOSES
  138. 138. • The field trip must be planned to meet specific educational objectives rather than merely a picnic activity. • Have list of all candidates, contact numbers of people to be contacted in case of emergency & special needs. • Submit report on field visit and analyze. FIELD TRIP – GUIDELINES
  139. 139. • Plan field trip with a specific checklist (permission, transport, booking boarding, parental notification, safety & emergency arrangements). • Plan a schedule & route plan for the field trip. Identify leaders & sub leaders. • Assign responsibilities to individuals and make them understand their role. FIELD TRIP – GUIDELINES
  140. 140. • Field trip enriches the classroom learning • Field trips provide an opportunity to the learners to get first hand information from natural settings. • It provides an opportunity to solve the individual's problems by interacting with a group in a natural setting. FIELD TRIP – ADVANTAGES
  141. 141. • The monotony and boredom of classroom teaching is eliminated through field trips. • Field trip gives natural stimulation and motivates the learner to be more interactive and creative. • Field trips help learners learn things very quickly and remember them for longer of time. FIELD TRIP – ADVANTAGES
  142. 142. • If the field trip is not planned well with specific learning objectives it will result in wastage of teaching learning resources. • Field trips are expensive. • Safety and security of the students is a real concern. • If the sought permission is not got, the scheduled plan of the curriculum suffers. FIELD TRIP – DISADVANTAGES
  143. 143. NURSE RECORD WRITING
  144. 144. PRACTICAL TIPS TO IMPROVE CLINICAL TEACHING • Incorporate teaching into your every day activities • Teaching can be inextricably integrated with your patient care activities • Don’t wait for thinks to just get better on their own • Plan teaching activities ahead of time
  145. 145. NO CLINICAL SUPERVISION WITHOUT CLINICAL TEACHING. TREAT YOUR WEAKEST STUDENT AS YOUR BEST STUDENT.
  146. 146. TRAITS THAT EVERY STUDENT NURSE SHOULD HAVE STRESS TOLERANCE EMOTIONAL STABILITY
  147. 147. TRAITS THAT EVERY STUDENT NURSE SHOULD HAVE PHYSICAL ENDURANCE HARD WORK
  148. 148. HONEST RELIABLE SINCERE COMPETE
  149. 149. AND THEN YOU WILL BECOME DUST
  150. 150. KNOWLEDGE PASSION DEDICATION SKILL LEADERSHIP
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