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Understand your Business processes

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A business process represents a specific business need or goal, such as hiring an employee, processing a sales order, or reimbursing a business expense. Business processes are broken down into logical steps called activities, each of which can comprise one or more tasks. Tasks are assigned roles that determine which participants will perform the tasks. The transitions between activities determine the order in which they are performed and the basic workflow for the process.

WorkSpace lets you interact with business processes based on your assigned roles within your company.

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Understand your Business processes

  1. 1. Understand your Business Processes
  2. 2. The Context Businesses are faced with customers who demand more: Quality of service Responsiveness Value for money Personalization To deliver on this, an enterprise needs to function in an integrated manner across functional boundaries It is precisely to address the need to move from piece-meal solutions to integrated systems that ERP was introduced
  3. 3. Yet……… • There are many cases of companies which have begun ERP implementation, but dropped it midway • There are many incidences of companies where the expected business results have not materialized • Deloitte Survey: After ERP systems went live, one in four firms suffered some performance drop
  4. 4. The Issues • An ERP solution is a technology enabled business solution • The organization’s business processes may not be ERP ready • Clients with fundamental business problems expect ERP to function as an expensive (but effective) magic wand • Systems cannot function in isolation of people, process and structure issues • What is optimal for a part may be sub-optimal for the whole
  5. 5. The Full Picture…. Systems People Structure Process
  6. 6. The Model Transformation Process Input OutputTransformation Transformed Resources Transforming Resources Goods Services A business process is initiated by an EVENT (Trigger), consumes RESOURCES, performs ACTIVITIES and produces Goods and Services
  7. 7. The Various Transformation Routes Transformed Resources- •Material •Information •Customer Location Change Possession Change Storage Change Reconfiguration Physical Conversion Transforming Resources- •Facilities •Human Resources
  8. 8. Business Processes “It is possible to group processes in an organization into a small number of business transformations” There are three types of Business Processes- End-to-End Process Funnel Process Composite Process
  9. 9. Sample Process Breakdown Business Process Process Element Activities Tasks Concise Manageable Definable
  10. 10. Properties of the Process Elements •Value Chain (Value adds vs. Non-value adds) •Variability (Controllable vs. Uncontrollable causes) •Measurement •Logical Network •Ownership •Automation (Simple & Integrated)
  11. 11. Process Element • A series of activities that transforms an • Should be judged by its contribution to achieving business strategy. OUTPUTINPUT (product/service)
  12. 12. Reengineering Activity Based Industrial/organisational Psychology based Function Function Function Departments Departments Departments Business Process Business Process Business Process Sub Process Activity Duties Tasks Tasks Tasks Operation Steps Operation Steps Action Steps
  13. 13. Types of Process Performance Measures • End of process- originate primarily from customer requirements • Functional boundaries- at point of interface between various functions. • Major sub product – identifying problems at sub process level that constitute the final process • Variances – unplanned “break points”.
  14. 14. What To Measure? • Cycle time: Total elapsed time to complete a specific process. • Costs: Calculated by aggregating all costs within a process • Quantity: Counts the number of “units” processed within a certain period of time • Quality: Measured by degree of meeting customer’s desired product/service attributes (e.g.. Six Sigma standards) • Customer user standards: Includes service level agreements and standard operating procedures
  15. 15. Ways To Develop Process Performance Mapping •Process Maps •Activity Charts •Task Analysis
  16. 16. Process Maps A Process map helps to identify the critical activities within a process • Map from customer to the job that which is most critical to the customer and then to other supporting jobs. • Indicate boundary crossings (between jobs, departments, organisation, etc.) • Map the task in process from left to right, following the continuum of time. • Tasks appearing under each other indicate that they can be undertaken simultaneously
  17. 17. Process Maps Steps and information sources used A) Map from customer down-customer, stakeholders B) Identify process starts and stops- process owners C) Identify activities (tasks) and boundary crossings
  18. 18. Process Maps Steps and information sources used D) Identify hand-offs and bottlenecks- stakeholders E) Estimate cost of each activity- finance, stakeholders F) Standardise performance measures- management, process owners
  19. 19. Activity Charts • Show relationship between activity in process and related systems/sub systems • Provide more explicit information-help to develop better performance measures • Can be used in conjunction with process maps to identify and ultimately reduce number of boundary crossings
  20. 20. Sample Activity Chart Activity: Taking customer order Relationship: Customer Greet customer Ask for first and last name Ask for order Ask for item characteristics Ask for credit/ATM card number Verify card number State order number Inquire about additional items Offer sales items Indicate delivery dates Thank customer for order
  21. 21. Sample Activity Chart Activity: Taking customer order Relationship: Order Entry System Log in names Check availability Log- in order Verify order Number of screen accessed
  22. 22. Sample Activity Chart Activity: Taking customer order Relationship: Credit System Input card number Verify card number Verify credit availability
  23. 23. Task Analysis • Provide a comprehensive listing of task-level details • Graphic illustration of work flow across a process • It does not add any additional information about the process itself.
  24. 24. Sample Task Analysis Some of the activities Task symbols Greet customer Ask for order Ask for credit/ATM card # Verify card number Pick and pack order Move to shipping Ship Inquire/state Transport Perform Inspect Input
  25. 25. Gap Analysis a) Compare performance measures and identify gaps in terms of: • Current vs. ideal • Current vs. benchmark (ERP) b) Compare process to process through: -Activity charts -Cause effect diagrams -Pareto analysis c) Identify actions to bridge gaps
  26. 26. Benchmarking:The Paradigm Shift Companies are looking for a direct support for their  Objectives  Priorities  Mission Goal achievement approach Problem Solving Approach
  27. 27. What is asked from Benchmarking?  To break the ideology of not learning from others  To search for and implement the best practices of - • Competitors • Industry leaders  To understand and prioritise the processes that will have the greatest impact on the company’s objectives by- • Management consensus • Contribution to a major goal • Rank-Order methods followed  To gain superiority and become new benchmarks.
  28. 28. Benchmarking Tasks Management Process Establish Support Sustain User Process “A N- step Process” “Benchmarking is an organization wide phenomenon and needs to be driven with strong management support.”
  29. 29. Benchmarking Targets • Benchmarking should be conducted on  Products and Services (E.g Product Planning, Design and Development)  Business processes  Performance Measurement Tools
  30. 30. Types of Benchmarking • Internal (In- house learning) • Competitive (From the same industry) • Functional (From outside the industry but with similar processes) • Generic
  31. 31. Focus levels of Benchmarking • Strategic (In a Scanning Mode)  Technological Direction  Industry Trends  Investment Selection  Competitive Products and Services. • Operational (Realigning processes to become the ‘vendor of Choice’)
  32. 32. The Benchmarking Process •What is Supplied •Sequence of Work- Steps •Best practice at each Step •What is Delivered •Performance Measures Inputs Work Process Outputs Results Feedback
  33. 33. 5-Phase of Benchmarking Process • Planning • Analysis • Integration Decide-What to Benchmark Identify-Whom to Benchmark Plan- Which best practices Determine- Current performance gap Project- Future performance levels Communication-gain Acceptance Revise-Performance Goals
  34. 34. 5-Phase of Benchmarking Process • Action • Maturity Develop- Action plans Implement- Actions and monitor Progress Determine-when leadership position is attained Assess- Benchmarking as an ongoing process
  35. 35. Elements of a Work Process • Results Critical performance measures serving as a report card • Outputs What is products and delivered to the customer • Process The decision points, handoffs and practices Steps = What is done Practices = How it is done • Inputs Items provided by suppliers that go into the work process
  36. 36. Benchmarking Matrix Known Unkno wn Implemented Not Implemented Known Implemented Not Implemented Unknown Subject Company’s Best practices
  37. 37. Business process Re-engineering • What is Re-engineering??????? NO Patchworks!!!! It’s “Starting All Over Again” It’s the process of reinventing a company…….
  38. 38. Defining Re- engineering • It is- “The Fundamental rethinking and Radical redesign of business Processes to achieve Dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as Cost, Quality, Service and Speed.”
  39. 39. Key Words • Fundamental - Begin with no Assumptions and no Givens - Ignore what is and concentrate on what should be - Why we do what we do?? Why we do it the way we do???? • Radical - Getting to the root of the things - Its about Business Reinvention and not about Business Improvement/Enhancement/Modification
  40. 40. Key Words • Dramatic - Its about Quantum Leaps and not about Marginal or Incremental Improvements - Should be undertaken when there is a need of a Heavy Blasting • Processes - Focus on processes and not on tasks/jobs/people/ structures - The process is right only if it delivers the promised
  41. 41. Case of IBM Credit • Reinventing the process of credit issuance… Original IBM Credit Re-engineered IBM Credit Field sales person Call Logger Credit Worthiness Checker Business Practices Department Pricer Dispatch Clerk Field sales person Deal Structurer Specialists
  42. 42. Case of IBM Credit • What they achieved?? - 90% reduction in cycle time (7 days to 4 hours) - Hundred-fold improvement in productivity - A head- count reduction • How they did that?? - They improved the process of Credit issuance and not the task of credit checking…… - They shattered the assumption that they need specialists to perform specialized tasks…… - They cleared all redundancies from the process
  43. 43. Case of Ford Motor Original Ford Re-engineered Ford procurement process procurement process Purchasing Department Receiving Dock Purchasing Department Vendor Accounts payable Receiving Dock clerk Online database Vendor
  44. 44. Case of Ford Motor • Mazda made them re-engineer the “Accounts payable” department….. - The department could not be re-engineered but what it does could be..!!! - So they eventually reengineered the process of “Procurement” • The ground Rule of “We pay when we receive Invoices” was replaced by “We pay when we receive the Goods”
  45. 45. Case of Kodak Original Product Re-engineered Product Development Process Development Process Sequential/ parallel Body Designers Shutter Designers Film advance mechanism designers Manufacturing Engineers Tooling Engineers Design Groups Integrated Product design Database
  46. 46. Case of Kodak • Re-engineering the product development process….. • How they did it?? - By “Concurrent Engineering” • What they achieved?? - Cut down the product development time from 70 weeks to 38 weeks - Involvement of Tooling Engineers in the design, ensured easy and inexpensive manufacturing - 25% reduction in costs……
  47. 47. What needs to adapt? Business processes or ERP software!! • Research findings on “reengineering policies” of firms- - Choose applications that fit their business and customise a bit – 37% - Customise applications to fit their business – 5% - Reengineer business to fit application – 41% - No policy – 17%
  48. 48. When is “AS IS” model needed? “As Is” requirement analysis is not necessary “As Is” requirement analysis is critical ExtensiveMinimal EXTENT OF CHANGE
  49. 49. Potential problems of using “AS IS” Model? Lost chance to choose software that meets needs Potential to back slide to existing processes Minimal Extensive TightFit EXTENT OF CHANGE
  50. 50. What kind of “TO BE” model is needed? “To Be” analysis is clean sheet reengineering “To Be” analysis is technology enabled portfolio choice Minimal Extensive TightFit EXTENT OF CHANGE
  51. 51. Small-r versus Big-R reengineering “Big R” “Small r” Minimal Extensive EXTENTOFCHANGE EXTENT OF CHANGE (SOFTWARE)
  52. 52. Failure or Success! Potential project failure? Potential project failure? High probability of success Potential project failure? Minimal Extensive Minimal EXTENT OF CHANGE (SOFTWARE) EXTENTOFCHANGE
  53. 53. NOTE We wanted to introduce our organization APAGEN Solutions (P) Ltd. – A Global Software & Solution Provider. We are a business-advantage driven company. We are a part of the Enventa Group and are a proven Odoo/OpenERP implementers for Services, Education, & Sales. We have experience in implementing & maintaining some of the most challenging Odoo/OpenERP installations in companies like Bajaj Hologrphics, Ajay Group, Hanusoft, Enventa Power Systems, Omkam UPS, MV Logistics, Holostic India etc., by means of our Multi-faced OpenERP Partnership (CHANNEL, SERVICES, EDUCATION, and AMS). APAGEN has expertise across all versions of OpenERP across the Logistics, Production, Projects, Human Resource & Financials. The company has an experienced team of Techno-Functional Consultants. APAGEN can add more than expected value to your organization’s IT structure. Along with it, APAGEN has the capability to integrate with all other ERP’s & Other 3rd Party Applications, side by side enabling you to make use of the new dimensional products such as Business Intelligence and Enterprise Portal, Content Management, MDM, Business Server Pages, Java Engine, Web Dympro, Mobile Applications & Alerts. APAGEN has its functionality spread over versatile domains such as Electronics, Media, Engineering, Chemical, FMCG, Retail, Utilities etc...This can be either Discrete, or Process Manufacturing. APAGEN reduces the total cost of your Implementation & System Enablement by working closely with your management & key business users. We understand your Business Requirements & bridge it by organizing Bootstrap Workshops to facilitate organizational preparedness. We also map our solutions to establish seamless Project Governance framework with continuous Risk Mitigation. APAGEN’s easy Data Management Tool & Ready to deploy Industry Specific Add-ons can play a pivotal role in the Customize Development of your organization in a positive manner. Our Innovative Process can help you evaluate your ERP insights with minute details. Assisting you in discovering the ‘Value’ of the same! Our varied methodology & orientation can invariably add value to your organization’s IT Structure. 53
  54. 54. Head Office: E-198B, Sector-63, Noida, India Tel: +91 11 2487892 | Mob.: +91- 9971800665 Thank you Registered Office Meadows House, 21 West End, Pinxton Nottinghamshire NG166NN, United Kingdom Tel: +44-84.46.64.67.92 E-mail: gaurav.kumar@apagen.com | Web: www.apagen.com |

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