• For more than 40 years, humanity’s demand
on nature has exceeded what our planet can
• We would need the regenerative capacity of
1.7 Earths to provide the natural resources and
ecological services we currently use.
• Only for a brief period can we cut trees faster
than they mature, harvest more fish than the
oceans can replenish, or emit more carbon into
the atmosphere than the forests and oceans can
• The consequences of “overshoot” are
already clear: habitat and species loss, and
accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere.
• The Ecological Footprint adds up all the ecological
services people demand that compete for space.
• It includes the biologically productive area (or bio-
capacity) needed for crops, grazing land, built-up areas,
fishing grounds and forest products.
• It also includes the area of forest needed to
absorb carbon dioxide emissions that cannot be
absorbed by the ocean.
• Carbon from burning fossil fuels has been the dominant
component of humanity’s Ecological Footprint for more
than half a century and its share continues to grow.
9. Ecological Footprint
• The ecological footprint is a method promoted by
the Global Footprint Network to measure human
demand on natural capital, i.e. the quantity of
nature it takes to support people or an economy.
10. Ecological Footprint
• The accounts contrast the biologically productive
area people use for their consumption to the
biologically productive area available within a region
or the world.
12. Ecological Footprint Definition
• Ecological footprint is a method of gauging
humans’ dependence on natural resources by
calculating how much of the environment is
needed to sustain a particular lifestyle.
• In other words, it measures the demand versus the
supply of nature.
• The Ecological Footprint is the only metric that
measures how much nature we have and how
much nature we use.
13. Ecological Footprint Definition
• More specifically, the ecological footprint measures the
amount of “biologically productive” land or water that
enables the population to sustain itself.
• This measurement takes into account the resources a
population needs to (1) produce goods and (2) “assimilate,”
or clean up, its waste.
• Biologically productive land and water can include arable
land, pastures, and parts of the sea that contain marine life.
• The units for ecological footprint are global hectares (gha),
which measure the amount of biologically productive land
with a productivity equal to the world average.
14. The Ecological Footprint Measures The Amount Of
“Biologically Productive” Land Or Water That Enables The
Population To Sustain Itself
15. Ecological Footprint Definition
• The simplest way to define an ecological footprint
is the amount of environmental resources
necessary to produce the goods and services that
support an individual's particular lifestyle.
17. Ecological Footprint
• The first academic publication about
ecological footprints was written by William
Rees in 1992.
• The ecological footprint concept and
calculation method was developed as the PhD
dissertation of Mathis Wackernagel, under
Rees' supervision at the University of
British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada,
from 1990 to 1994.
19. Ecological Footprint
• For some perspective, some ecological footprints of
several countries are listed below. These values were
listed for the year 2017 in the Global Footprint
Network's Open Data Platform:
• United States: 8.0 gha/person
• Russia: 5.5 gha/person
• Switzerland: 4.5 gha/person
• Japan: 4.7 gha/person
• France: 4.6 gha/person
• China: 3.7 gha/person
• Indonesia: 1.7 gha/person
• Peru: 2.1 gha/person
20. Ecological Footprint
• Note that ecological footprints can be
counterbalanced by biocapacity, which refers to the
ability of a biologically productive area to
continuously generate renewable resources and clean
up its wastes.
• An area is considered unsustainable if a land’s
ecological footprint is greater than its biocapacity.
21. Ecological Footprint
• Conceived in 1990 by Mathis Wackernagel and
William Rees at the University of British
Columbia, the Ecological Footprint launched the
broader Footprint movement, including the carbon
Footprint, and is now widely used by scientists,
businesses, governments, individuals, and institutions
working to monitor ecological resource use and
advance sustainable development.
• The most prominent calculations are those
produced for countries. We call those the National
Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts.
24. Ecological Footprint
• Both the Ecological Footprint and biocapacity
are expressed in global hectares, globally
comparable, standardized hectares with world
• Each city, state or nation’s Ecological
Footprint can be compared to its
biocapacity, or that of the world.
25. Ecological Footprint
• If a population’s Ecological Footprint exceeds
the region’s biocapacity, that region runs a
• Its demand for the goods and services that its
land and seas can provide, fruits and
vegetables, meat, fish, wood, cotton for
clothing, and carbon dioxide absorption,
exceeds what the region’s ecosystems can
27. Ecological Footprint
• In more popular communications, we also
call this “an ecological deficit.”
• A region in ecological deficit meets demand by
importing, liquidating its own ecological assets
(such as overfishing), and/or emitting carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere.
• If a region’s biocapacity exceeds its Ecological
Footprint, it has a biocapacity reserve.
29. Ecological Footprint
• It has become one of the most widely used
measures of humanity’s effect upon the
environment and has been used to highlight
both the apparent unsustainability of current
practices and the inequalities in resource
consumption between and within countries.
31. Ecological Footprint
• One can estimate the EF, measured in “global
hectares” (gha), at various scales for individuals,
regions, countries, and humanity as a whole.
• (One hectare equals 2.47 acres.)
32. Ecological Footprint
• EF calculations have questioned the
sustainability and equity of current
consumption and production practices.
33. Ecological Footprint
• The Global Footprint Network (GFN), a
nonprofit organization that partnered with
hundreds of cities, businesses, and other entities
to advance the EF as a metric of sustainability,
calculates the per capita global footprint.
• In 2014 the per capita global footprint was 2.8
• Since global bio-capacity that year was 1.7 gha
per person, the EF of humanity overshot Earth’s
bio-capacity by 1.1 gha.
35. Ecological Footprint
• In other words, 1.7 “Earths” would be needed
to sustain current resource demands
• or, alternatively, it takes Earth more than one
year and eight months to regenerate what is
used in one year.
• The implication of such “ecological overshoot,”
which began in the mid-1970s, is that life-
supporting biological resources, such as fisheries,
forest resources, rangeland, and agricultural land,
are being depleted.
36. Applicability of Ecological Footprint
• EF analysis can show whether a country is living
within the bio-capacity of its own territory or whether
it is an “ecological debtor,” drawing on the
ecological “capital” of other parts of the world.
37. Applicability of Ecological Footprint
• Per capita EFs show a wide divergence in the
demands on nature from people in different
societies, ranging from Qatar at the high end
(15.5 gha/person) to Haiti at the low end (0.7),
with the United States (8.4), Germany (5.1),
China (3.7), and others in between (2014 data).
• These figures are the basis of claims such that if
all of humanity consumed like the average
American, about five Earths would be needed.
EFs also vary greatly within countries according
to level of affluence.
38. Applicability of Ecological Footprint
• Researchers have combined footprint analysis
with measures of human development to assess
whether countries are on track toward sustainable
development defined as a per capita EF lower
than the available per capita biocapacity with a
high rating (above 0.8) on the United Nations
Human Development Index (HDI).
• (The HDI is a metric that combines a country’s average life
expectancy, educational attainment, and income into a
measure of economic and social progress.)
40. Applicability of Ecological Footprint
• Environmental educators and activists have used
the EF to raise awareness of unsustainable
consumption patterns, often with the goal of
encouraging a change in lifestyles and, less
frequently, to promote awareness of wider structural
forces driving such patterns.
41. Applicability of Ecological Footprint
• Many online footprint calculators have appeared on
nongovernmental organization Web sites with such
goals in mind.
• Those calculators allow people to calculate their
personal EF and to make comparisons with estimates
of available biocapacity or to average footprints of
other people locally and globally.
42. Applicability of Ecological Footprint
• Meanwhile, social scientists have used the EF
as a comprehensive indicator of the
ecological impacts of humans on the planet in
order to test empirically different social
theories of the forces driving those impacts.
43. What is the Ecological Footprint?
• Humans need food, shelter and heating (in some
locations) to survive.
• Our planet’s ecological resources help fulfill these
• But how many resources do we consume?
• This question can be answered using the Ecological
45. What is the Ecological Footprint?
• Just as a bank statement tracks income
against expenditures, Ecological Footprint
accounting measures a population’s demand
for natural ecosystems’ supply of resources
46. What is the Ecological Footprint?
• On the demand side, the Ecological
Footprint measures an individual or a
population’s demand for plant-based food and
fiber products, livestock and fish products,
timber and other forest products, space for
urban infrastructure, and forest to absorb its
carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels.
48. What is the Ecological Footprint?
• On the supply side, a city, state, or nation’s
biocapacity represents its biologically
productive land and sea area, including forest
lands, grazing lands, cropland, fishing
grounds, and built-up land.
• The Ecological Footprint can be calculated
for a single individual, city, region,
country and the entire planet.
50. What is the Ecological Footprint?
• The gap between Ecological Footprint and
biocapacity is determined by several factors.
Our personal Footprint is the product of how
much we use and how efficiently this is being
• The biocapacity per person is determined by
how many hectares of productive area there is,
how productive each hectare is, and how many
people (in a city, country, or the world) share
52. What is the Ecological Footprint?
• Many countries are “in the red,” which means
they use more natural resources (Ecological
Footprint) than their ecosystems can
• They are running an “ecological deficit.”
When a country’s biocapacity is greater
than its population’s Ecological Footprint,
on the other hand, the country boasts an
53. What is the Ecological Footprint?
• The Ecological Footprint is a resource
accounting tool used by governments,
businesses, educational institutions and NGOs
to answer to a specific resource question:
• How much of the biological capacity of the
planet is required by a given human activity
55. What does the Ecological Footprint
• The Ecological Footprint measures the amount
of biologically productive land and sea area an
individual, a region, all of humanity, or a
human activity that compete for biologically
• This includes producing renewable resources,
accommodating urban infrastructure and roads,
and breaking down or absorbing waste products,
particularly carbon dioxide emissions from fossil
fuel. The Footprint then can be compared to
how much land and sea area is available.
57. What is the Ecological Footprint?
• Biologically productive land and sea includes
cropland, forest and fishing grounds, and do not
include deserts, glaciers and the open ocean.
• Current Ecological Footprint Accounts use global
hectares as a measurement unit, which makes data
and results globally comparable.
59. What is the Ecological Footprint?
• Nations (also cities and states) can run
ecological deficits by liquidating their own
resources, such as by overfishing; importing
resources from other areas; and/or emitting
more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than
their own ecosystems can absorb.
61. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
• Ecological Footprints can be calculated for
individual people, groups of people (such as a
nation), and activities (such as manufacturing a
• The Ecological Footprint of a person is calculated by
adding up all of people’s demands that compete for
biologically productive space, such as cropland to grow
potatoes or cotton, or forest to produce timber or to
sequester carbon dioxide emissions.
• All of these materials and wastes are then
individually translated into an equivalent number of
63. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
• To accomplish this, an amount of material consumed by
that person (tonnes per year) is divided by the yield of
the specific land or sea area (annual tonnes per hectare)
from which it was harvested, or where its waste
material was absorbed.
• The number of hectares that result from this
calculation are then converted to global hectares
using yield and equivalence factors.
• The sum of the global hectares needed to support a
person is that person’s total Ecological Footprint.
64. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
• The Ecological Footprint of a group of people, such
as a city or nation, is simply the sum of the
Ecological Footprint of all the residents of that city
• Typically, the Footprint is reported as “the Footprint
• It is the productive area needed to provide for that
person’s or population’s consumption. Ecological
Footprint accounts can also calculate the Footprint of
production which is the direct demand on nature by that
• What the economy produces plus all that is
imported minus what the economy exports is the
amount that population consumes.
66. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
• The focus of ecological footprint accounting is
• The total amount of such resources which the planet
produces according to this model has been dubbed
68. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
• Since 2003, Global Footprint Network has
calculated the ecological footprint from UN
data sources for the world as a whole and for
over 200 nations (known as the National
69. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
• For 2017 Global Footprint Network estimated
humanity's ecological footprint as 1.73 planet
• According to their calculations this means that
humanity's demands were 1.73 times more than what
the planet's ecosystems renewed.
70. For 2017 Global Footprint Network estimated humanity's
ecological footprint as 1.73 planet Earths.
71. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
• In 2007, the average biologically productive area
per person worldwide was approximately 1.8
global hectares (gha) per capita.
• The U.S. footprint per capita was 9.0 gha, and that of
Switzerland was 5.6 gha, while China's was 1.8 gha.
The WWF claims that the human footprint has
exceeded the biocapacity (the available supply of
natural resources) of the planet by 20%
72. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
• Humanity's ecological footprint was 7.0 billion
gha in 1961 and increased to 20.6 billion gha
• The world-average ecological footprint in
2014 was 2.8 global hectares per person.
73. How is an Ecological Footprint
• The Earth's biocapacity has not increased at the same
rate as the ecological footprint. The increase of
biocapacity averaged at only 0.5% per year (SD =
• Because of agricultural intensification, biocapacity
was at 9.6 billion gha in 1961 and grew to 12.2
billion gha in 2016
75. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
• According to Wackernagel and his organization, the Earth
has been in "overshoot", where humanity is using more
resources and generating waste at a pace that the ecosystem
cannot renew, since the 1970s.
• In 2018, Earth Overshoot Day, the date where humanity
has used more from nature than the planet can renew in
the entire year, was estimated to be August 1.
• In 2020, because of reduction in resource demand due to
COVID-19 lockdowns, Earth Overshoot Day was delayed
to August 22.
• Now more than 85% of humanity lives in countries that
run an ecological deficit
77. How is an Ecological Footprint calculated?
• According to Rees, "the average world citizen
has an eco-footprint of about 2.7 global
average hectares while there are only 2.1
global hectare of bioproductive land and water
per capita on earth.
• This means that humanity has already
overshot global biocapacity by 30% and
now lives unsustainably by depleting stocks
of 'natural capital'.
79. Understanding Ecological Footprint
• Human activities utilize resources and produces
waste. As the human population increases, the global
consumption and utilization of resources increases.
• This calls for the measure of the nature’s capacity to
meet the increasing demand by people. Ecological
Footprint is one of the leading measures of the
unending human demand on nature.
• The Ecological footprint therefore tries to take into
account whether the planet has the capacity to keep
up with the increasing demands of humanity.
81. Understanding the Ecological Footprint
• Environment sustainability covers anything that is
needed to save the status of future human beings. It
is highly agreed that during the recent times
environmental sustainability is facing challenges
from several parameters.
• Among these challenges include food production
challenges and the transportation required to reach the
final consumer. Food production is singled out because
it depends on water, preservatives, refrigeration, and
energy, and results in emission of carbon extracts.
• It is understood by many that carbon emissions are
the leading causes of environmental challenges
followed by solid wastes and water during the food
82. Understanding the Ecological Footprint
• In many countries, wood and timber are used for
commercial purposes. In fact, wood is among the most
important raw materials in today’s construction
industry. The increased demand for wood has led to
massive destruction of forests and the ecosystem.
• Trees are made to use or absorb carbon dioxide and release
oxygen in a process called photosynthesis. Tress help in
trying to strike a balance as far as the carbon emissions and
oxygen provision is concerned.
• Therefore the more trees are destroyed the more carbon
dioxide remains in the atmosphere leading to problems
with the ecosystem. It is because of this reason that
people and countries are called upon to plant and
preserve the forest cover.
83. Understanding the Ecological Footprint
• The factories also use a lot of water to cool the
machines and clean some of their products. The
dirty water that is usually combined with chemicals
is then released back into the rivers and oceans.
• This not only poses a risk to the marine life but to the
people who depend on the water obtained from these
water bodies. It is no wonder that water levels in these
water bodies is reducing at an alarming rate and people
are exposed to different water related diseases because
of water contamination.
84. Understanding the Ecological Footprint
• The need for raw materials to manufacture
products has led to an increased encroachment
on the natural resources which are scarce in
nature. The manufacturing process in itself is a
problem to the nature.
• These factories that are mushrooming every day
use a lot of fuel for their processes. The machines
emit carbon into the air creating problems in the
ozone layer leading to global warming.
85. Understanding Ecological Footprint
• In a layman’s language, ecological footprint is the
effect of human activities measured in terms of the
area of biologically productive land and water
needed to produce the goods consumed and get rid
of the waste generated.
• It is the amount of the environment required to produce
the goods and services necessary to support a particular
• Calculation of footprint takes into account just about
everything we do: from the way we eat, the way we
travel, the house we live and other lifestyle habits that
we practice each day.
87. Understanding Ecological Footprint
• As per Living Planet Report of 2000 done by
World Wildlife Fund, total global consumption of
natural resources has steadily risen by 50 percent
• This does not correspond with the natural resources
as the earth’s natural resources have decreased by
over 30 percent.
• Due to population increase in urban areas, it is
essential to consider the environmental impacts of
these urban areas.
88. Due to population increase in urban areas, it is
essential to consider the environmental impacts of
these urban areas.
89. Understanding Ecological Footprint
• Currently, according to Global Footprint
Network, if everyone lived the lifestyle of the
average American US citizen i.e. similar
eating, transportation, living, and
consumption habits, we would need 5
planets to support ourselves.
90. If everyone lived the lifestyle of the average American US
citizen we would need 5 planets to support ourselves
91. How does the Ecological Footprint
• The Ecological Footprint essentially measures the
supply and demand on nature.
• This means that on the supply side, biocapacity
represents the natural productive land areas.
• These include forests, fisheries, pastures and
cropland. When left uninterrupted or unexploited
these areas have the capacity to absorb almost all the
waste produced by humans particularly carbon
93. How does the Ecological Footprint Work?
• The ecological footprint represents the
productive areas needed to provide renewable
resources people are using and to also absorb
the waste produced.
• Additionally, the productive area that is currently
occupied by the human infrastructure including,
building, roads, air strips and airports, is included
in the footprint calculation.
• This is because the built-up land is no longer
available for regeneration of resources.
94. How does the Ecological Footprint Work?
• Ecological footprint helps in analyzing the
pressure on our planet and ecological footprint
analysis can be a useful tool to educate people to
manage our ecological assets more wisely and take
collective action to make sure that a nation’s demand
for products and services remain within its borders.
95. Advantages of Ecological Footprint
• The qualitative research is conducted to highlight
worst affected geographical areas and workable
solutions to manage and prevent further problems
to these areas. The ecological footprint gives
accurate figures that prevent overdoing or under-
• It is essential to point out that correct and effective
improvement plans that will lead to efficient utilization
of the remaining resources hence reduce the ecological
• The analysis obtained from the ecological footprint
can be used to gain standardized indicators and
create solutions for them.
97. Ecological Footprint Effects
• According to the website "Redefining Progress,"
humans are currently exceeding the Earth's limits
by 39 percent.
• The earth has a limited quantity of resources it can
provide, and humanity's global footprint is surpassing
• The effects of our global footprint on the earth are
already notable, and the situation will only worsen
in the years to come as our global footprint increases
and the effects become more obvious.
98. According to the website "Redefining Progress,"
humans are currently exceeding the Earth's limits by
99. Ecological Footprint Effects
Depletion of Natural Resources
• Natural resources refer to substances found on the Earth
that we use to benefit our daily lives, such as oil. Most of
our natural resources are vanishing at an alarming rate. Oil
consumption rates rise every year.
• Currently, humanity consumes around 85 million
barrels of oil everyday.
• According to a study completed by the International Energy
Agency, by 2030 that amount will rise to 113 barrels a day.
• The problem is, the Earth only has so much of any
natural resource, which means each one will eventually
101. Ecological Footprint Effects
Increase in Greenhouse Gas Emissions
• Greenhouse gases are gases released into the
atmosphere either naturally or through human
intervention that traps heat. The fragile balance
of natural greenhouses gases plays a factor in the
overall climate on earth. Too many human-caused
greenhouse gases may lead to global warming.
• According to the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA), many greenhouse gas levels are
expected to rise in the future.
103. Ecological Footprint Effects
Depletion of Water Sources
• Despite the Earth being practically covered by water,
very little of it is actually usable.
• Our global footprint threatens the water resources humanity
can use. Pollution of streams and rivers can go as far as
ruining the entire water source.
• Major oil spills and industrial runoff can render a water
source unsuitable for human consumption. An increase in
population also leads to water decrease.
• As humanity expands, more water sources are needed to
hydrate the population and to provide watering for
livestock and agricultural lands to feed the increased
105. Ecological Footprint Effects
Poor Air Quality
• Pollution and a decrease of trees and plant life have a
negative impact on the Earth's air quality.
• Industrial plants, boating equipment, and personal vehicles all
release gases into the air that are harmful for both the
environment and humans. Air quality also suffers because of
• As more agricultural lands are needed to meet the
demands of humanity, forests and plant life are cut down
to make room for the needed growth.
• Since trees and plants work to provide clean air for the
environment, reducing their numbers leads to poorer air
107. Measures to Reduce Your Ecological
• Ecological Footprint: The impact of a person or
community on the environment, expressed as the
amount of land required to sustain their use of
• It’s estimated it would take 5 Earths to sustain the
world population if everyone lived like we do in the
• When considering factors like food, water-use, waste
and transportation, it’s clear there’s an urgent need for
more sustainable daily actions. Luckily, you can start
creating these habits today!
108. Measures to Reduce Your Ecological
• There are many simple things you can do to
reduce your ecological footprint.
110. Use Cleaner Transportation
Don’t drive when there is an alternative.
• Walk, bike, or take public transport whenever possible.
• If you don’t own and drive a car on average you can reduce
your total ecological footprint by as much as 20 per cent.
Using it less will reduce your footprint, helps to avoid
traffic jam and keeps your cities air cleaner.
• A 2011 study carried out by the European Cycling
Federation compared carbon emissions from a bicycle
(including manufacturing) to motorized vehicles and found
that for every passenger kilometer travelled by bike, 21
grams of carbon were released as opposed to 271 grams for
someone riding or driving in a car and 101 grams for people
taking the bus.
112. Use Cleaner Transportation
If you need a car make it a small as possible one and
reduce the mileage.
• Smaller, and mainly smaller-engined, cars are usually
much more energy efficient than larger ones.
Check your car regularly.
• Have your vehicle serviced regularly to keep the
emission control systems operating at peak efficiency.
Check your car’s air filter monthly, and keep the tires
adequately inflated to maximize gas mileage.
• If you sit idle for more than 30 seconds, turn off the
engine (except in traffic).
114. Use Cleaner Transportation
Avoid short airplane trips – take a bus or train instead.
• Flights cause a large and growing part of our collective
footprint – it has two to four times the impact of CO2
emissions on climate change because it releases water
vapor and nitrous oxide at high altitude.
• If you can’t avoid flying, make clearing donations to
projects on climate protection.
• Or utilize the emission calculator on atmos fair to
figure out how much greenhouse gas emissions are
caused by your flights. With your donation to atmosfair
you enable them to run projects where these emissions
will be saved.
116. Add Energy-Saving Features to Your Home
Install energy-saving lamps in your home – but be sure to
dispose of old bulbs safely.
• Make sure your walls and ceilings are insulated, and
consider double-pane windows. Explore green design
features for your building, like passive solar heating, a
rainwater catchment or greywater recycling system, and
• Choose energy efficient appliances, including low flow
shower heads, faucets, and toilets.
• Choose furnishings that are second-hand, recycled, or
• Use biodegradable, non-toxic cleaning products – for
your health and environment.
118. Cultivate Energy-Saving Habits
• Keep the thermostat relatively low in winter and
ease up on the air conditioning in summer.
• Keep your A/C filters clean to keep the A/C operating
at peak efficiency. Take a look at our tips for keeping
cool without A/C.
• Unplug your electronics when not in use. To make it
easier, use a power strip. Even when turned off, items
like your television, computer, and cell phone charger
still sip power.
• Dry your clothes naturally whenever possible rather
than using power-guzzling tumble dryers.
• Defrost your refrigerator and freezer regularly.
120. Reduce your Foods and Goods Footprint
Shop at your local farmer’s market.
• Look for local, in-season foods that haven’t travelled
long distances to reach you.
• Organic and other forms of low-input farming that
use minimal or no pesticides and fertilizers which are
energy intensive in their manufacture consume up to
40 per cent less energy, and support higher levels of
wildlife on farms.
122. Reduce your Foods and Goods Footprint
Choose foods with less packaging to reduce waste.
Plant a garden.
Growing our own fruit and vegetables reduces all the
energy and waste which normally goes into getting
food from the field to our plates such as transport,
refrigeration and packaging.
In your garden you can compost food waste as well.
Garbage that is not contaminated with degradable
(biological) waste can be more easily recycled and
125. Reduce your Foods and Goods Footprint
Going meatless for just one meal a week can
make a difference more often is even better.
The livestock industry contributes more
greenhouse gas emissions globally than the
transport sector and the ecological footprint of
vegetarians is estimated to be around half that
of meat eaters
127. Reduce your Foods and Goods Footprint
Try to get your things repaired, this supports
local business and avoids waste. Replace items
only when you really need to and try to buy
quality products that will have a longer life-span.
Recycle all your paper, glass, aluminum, and
Don’t forget electronics! Do an online search to
find the recycling options in your area.
129. Try Out Easy Ways to Save Water
• Take shorter, less frequent showers – this saves water
and the energy necessary to heat it.
• Run the dishwasher and the washing machine only
• Wash your car less often. Take it to a carwash; usually
commercial carwashes use less water per wash than you
would need at home.
• Avoid hosing down or power-washing your deck,
walkways, or driveway. Regularly look for and fix
• Plant drought-tolerant plants in your garden and
131. Purchase carbon offsets
• Individuals, companies, or governments
purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their
own greenhouse gas emissions from
transportation, electricity use, and other
• For example, an individual might purchase
carbon offsets to compensate for the
greenhouse gas emissions caused by personal
• The ecological footprint acts as a wakeup call
to the people and countries in the world to
observe and regulate their activities that put
the environment at risk.
• If everyone observed his or her ecological
footprint, there will be less environmental
• Problems like carbon emissions, lack of fresh air,
increased desertification, global warming and
increased environmental pollution would be
• The biocapacity or biological capacity of an
ecosystem is an estimate of its production of certain
biological materials such as natural resources, and its
absorption and filtering of other materials such as
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
• Biocapacity is expressed in terms of global
hectares per person, thus is dependent on human
• The Human Footprint is an ecological footprint map
of human influence on the terrestrial systems of the
• The map is made to a resolution of 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi)
and is an aggregate of eight factors: major roadways,
navigable waterways, railways, crop lands, pasture
lands, the built environment, light pollution, and
human population density
• The carrying capacity of an environment is
the maximum population size of a biological
species that can be sustained by that specific
environment, given the food, habitat, water,
and other resources available.
Earth Overshoot Day
• Earth Overshoot Day (EOD) is the calculated
illustrative calendar date on which humanity's
resource consumption for the year exceeds Earth’s
capacity to regenerate those resources that year. The
term "overshoot" represents the level by which
human population's demand overshoots the
sustainable amount of biological resources
regenerated on Earth.
Tragedy of the Commons
• Tragedy of the Commons is an environmental
science problem where individuals have
access to a shared resource and act in their
own interest, at the expense of other
• This can result in overconsumption, and
depletion of resources.
Happy Planet Index
• The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is an index of
human well-being and environmental impact
• Each country's HPI value is a function of its average
subjective life satisfaction, life expectancy at birth,
and ecological footprint per capita. The index is
weighted to give progressively higher scores to
nations with lower ecological footprints.
150. Earth Overshoot Day
Earth Overshoot Day
We busted Earth's budget.
• In 2021, Earth Overshoot Day fell on July 29.
• Earth Overshoot Day marks the date when humanity
has exhausted nature’s budget for the year. For the
rest of the year, we are maintaining our ecological
deficit by drawing down local resource stocks and
accumulating carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. We
are operating in overshoot.
153. Corona and ecological foot print
• COVID-19 has Caused Humanity’s Ecological
Footprint to Contract by 3 Weeks
• However, true sustainability that allows all to thrive
on Earth can only be achieved by design, not disaster.
154. Corona and ecological foot print
• According to the Global Footprint Network, Earth
Overshoot Day 2020 lands on August 22, more than
three weeks later than in 2019 (July 29). The date
reflects the 9.3% reduction of humanity’s ecological
footprint from January 1st to Earth Overshoot Day
compared to the same period last year, which is a direct
consequence of the corona virus-induced lockdowns
around the world. Decreases in wood harvest and
CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are the
major drivers behind the historic shift in the long-term
growth of humanity’s Ecological Footprint.
155. Corona and ecological foot print
• “This shift in the year-to-year date of Earth
Overshoot Day represents the greatest ever single-
year shift since the beginning of global overshoot in
the early 1970s. In several instances the date was
pushed back temporarily, such as in the aftermath of
the post-2008 Great Recession, but the general trend
remains that of a consistent upward trajectory.” –
Earth Overshoot Calculation Report 2020
• Ecological Footprint Calculator
• Reducing India’s global footprint
• Earth Overshoot Day
• Global Footprint Network: Home
• Reducing India’s global footprint
• How much Nature do we have? How much do we use? (Ted
• Human Footprint | National Geographic
• The Ecological Footprint: Accounting for a Small Planet
COVID-19 has Caused Humanity’s Ecological Footprint to Contract by 3 Weeks
Earth Overshoot Day
Ecological Footprint by Country 2022
Reduce Your Ecological Footprint
What is the Ecological Footprint?
WHAT IS YOUR Ecological Footprint?
8 Ways to Reduce Your Ecological Footprint
163. Ecological Footprint of World’s Superpower
United States — 8.04, No of Earth Planet required — 4.8
Russia — 5.69, No of Earth Planet required — 3.3
China — 3.71, No of Earth Planet required — 2