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Fire Protection Systems Unit-I

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Building Utility & Services

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Fire Protection Systems Unit-I

  1. 1. Fire Protection System Unit-I Building Utility & Services
  2. 2. Syllabus • Fire Safety Installations: • Causes of fire in buildings, Safety regulations, NBC- Planning considerations in building, like non-combustible materials, construction, staircases and lift lobbies, fire escapes, and A.C systems, Heat & smoke detectors, Fire Alarm System, Snorkel systems. Heat & smoke detectors, Fire alarm systems, snorkels, ladder, Fire fighting pump and water storage, Dry & wet risers, Automatic Sprinklers, fire chutes
  3. 3. Introduction • Fire safety is a subject connected not only with human and property safety but is related with design of buildings and their services. Fire although a good friend of humanity, when it spreads un- controlled, in buildings can be vicious enemy resulting in heavy loss of property and lives. • Therefore fire protection measures, both in residential buildings and in commercial/ industrial complexes, have assumed a great role in recent years in our country.
  4. 4. Introduction
  5. 5. NBC Regulations
  6. 6. NBC Regulations
  7. 7. NBC Regulations
  8. 8. NBC Regulations
  9. 9. Fire Science • Fire is the process of burning. It is infact a chemical reaction initiated by presence of heat energy in which a substance combines with oxygen in the air and the process is accompanied by emission of energy in the form of heat, light and sound. Therefore, three elements are essential for combustion i.e. • Acombustible matter i.e fuel • Oxygen • Source of heat, Spark flame etc.
  10. 10. Fire Science
  11. 11. Fire Science Fuel Can Be  LIQUID: Grease, Oil, Fuel;  SOLID: Wood, Paper, Metal;  GAS: Natural Gas, Propane, Acetylene.
  12. 12. CLASS “A” FIRES - Ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, cloth.
  13. 13. CLASS “B” FIRES - Flammable liquids such as oil, grease
  14. 14. CLASS “C” FIRES - Energized electrical equipment
  15. 15. CLASS “D” FIRES - Flammable Metals
  16. 16. Fuel Any combustible material – solid, liquid or gas Oxygen The air we breathe is about 21% oxygen – fire needs only 16% oxygen Heat The energy necessary to increase the temperature of fuel to where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur Each of these three elements must be present at the same time to have a fire. A fire will burn until one or more of the elements is removed.
  17. 17. There are 4 classes of fire: Class A Ordinary combustibles or fibrous material, such as wood, paper, cloth, rubber, and some plastics. Class B Flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, paint, paint thinners and propane. Class C Energized electrical equipment, such as appliances, switches, panel boxes and power tools. Class D Certain combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium, and sodium.
  18. 18. Fire Protection • A method of fire protection involves the conveyance of water I pipes to extinguish fire within a building falls into the field of plumbing. Water may be supplied through riser pipes or standpipes. A riser or standpipes with hose connections in a tall buildings may be fed from storage tank, from pump or from a mobile pumping engine in the street connected to a breaching or ‘Siamese Post’ • Automatic sprinkler are the devices that discharge water automatically when the temperature of air surrounding sprinkler reaches a predetermined level.
  19. 19. Fire Protection
  20. 20. Components • Fire protection in land-based buildings, offshore construction or onboard ships is typically achieved via all of the following: • Passive fire protection - the installation of firewalls and fire rated floor assemblies to form fire compartments intended to limit the spread of fire, high temperatures, and smoke. • Active fire protection - manual and automatic detection and suppression of fires, such as fire sprinkler systems and (fire alarm) systems. • Education - the provision of information regarding passive and active fire protection systems to building owners, operators, occupants, and emergency personnel so that they have a working understanding of the intent of these systems and how they perform in the fire safety plan.
  21. 21. Passive Fire Protection
  22. 22. Passive Fire Protection • Passive Fire Protection (PFP) is an integral component of the three components of structural fire protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slow the spread, through use of fire-resistant walls, floors, and doors (amongst other examples).
  23. 23. Passive fire protection • The aim for Passive Fire Protection systems is typically demonstrated in fire testing the ability to maintain the item or the side to be protected at or below either 140 °C (for walls, floors and electrical circuits required to have a fire- resistance rating) or ca. 550 °C, which is considered the critical temperature for structural steel, above which it is in jeopardy of losing its strength, leading to collapse. Smaller components, such as fire dampers, fire doors, etc., follow suit in the main intentions of the basic standard for walls and floors. Fire testing involves live fire exposures upwards of 1100 °C, depending on the fire- resistance rating and duration one is after. More items than just fire exposures are typically required to be tested to ensure the survivability of the system under realistic conditions. • To accomplish these aims, many different types of materials are employed in the design and construction of systems.
  24. 24. Passive fire protection • fire-resistance rated walls • firewalls not only have a rating, they are also designed to sub-divide buildings such that if collapse occurs on one side, this will not affect the other side. They can also be used to eliminate the need for sprinklers, as a trade-off. • fire-resistant glass using multi-layer intumescent technology or wire mesh embedded within the glass may be used in the fabrication of fire-resistance rated windows in walls or fire doors. • fire-resistance rated floors
  25. 25. Fire-resistance Rated Walls
  26. 26. Passive fire protection • occupancy separations (barriers designated as occupancy separations are intended to segregate parts of buildings, where different uses are on each side; for instance, apartments on one side and stores on the other side of the occupancy separation). • closures (fire dampers) Sometimes firestops are treated in building codes identically to closures. Canada de-rates closures, where, for instance a 2 hour closure is acceptable for use in a 3 hour fire separation, so long as the fire separation is not an occupancy separation or firewall. The lowered rating is then referred to as a fire protection rating, both for firestops, unless they contain plastic pipes and regular closures. • firestops
  27. 27. Passive fire Protection
  28. 28. Passive fire protection • grease ducts (These refer to ducts that lead from commercial cooking equipment such as ranges, deep fryers and double-decker and conveyor-equipped pizza ovens to grease duct fans.) • cable coating (application of fire-retardants, which are either endothermic or intumescent, to reduce flamespread and smoke development of combustible cable-jacketing) • spray fireproofing (application of intumescent or endothermic paints, or fibrous or cementitious plasters to keep substrates such as structural steel, electrical or mechanical services, valves, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vessels, vessel skirts, bulkheads or decks below either 140 °C for electrical items or ca. 500 °C for structural steel elements to maintain operability of the item to be protected) • fireproofing cladding (boards used for the same purpose and in the same applications as spray fireproofing) Materials for such cladding include perlite, vermiculite, calcium silicate, gypsum, intumescent epoxy, Durasteel (cellulose-fibre reinforced concrete and punched sheet-metal bonded composite panels), MicroTherm • enclosures (boxes or wraps made of fireproofing materials, including fire-resistive wraps and tapes to protect speciality valves and other items deemed to require protection against fire and heat—an analogy for this would be a safe) or the provision of circuit integrity measures to keep electrical cables operational during an accidental fire.
  29. 29. Passive fire protection
  30. 30. Active fire protection • Active Fire Protection (AFP) is an integral part of fire protection. AFP is characterised by items and/or systems, which require a certain amount of motion and response in order to work, contrary to passive fire protection.
  31. 31. Categories of Active Fire Protection • Active Fire Protection (AFP) is an integral part of fire protection. AFP is characterised by items and/or systems, which require a certain amount of motion and response in order to work, contrary to passive fire protection.
  32. 32. • Fire suppression • Fire can be controlled or extinguished, either manually (firefighting) or automatically. Manual includes the use of a fire extinguisher or a Standpipe system. Automatic means can include a fire sprinkler system, a gaseous clean agent, or firefighting foam system. Automatic suppression systems would usually be found in large commercial kitchens or other high-risk areas. • Sprinkler systems • Fire sprinkler systems are installed in all types of buildings, commercial and residential. They are usually located at ceiling level and are connected to a reliable water source, most commonly city water. A typical sprinkler system operates when heat at the site of a fire causes a glass component in the sprinkler head to fail, thereby releasing the water from the sprinkler head. This means that only the sprinkler head at the fire location operates - not all the sprinklers on a floor or in a building. Sprinkler systems help to reduce the growth of a fire, thereby increasing life safety and limiting structural damage
  33. 33. Categories of Active Fire Protection
  34. 34. Categories of Active Fire Protection • Fire detection • Fire is detected either by locating the smoke, flame or heat, and an alarm is sounded to enable emergency evacuation as well as to dispatch the local fire department. An introduction to fire detection and suppression can be found here. Where a detection system is activated, it can be programmed to carry out other actions. These include de-energising magnetic hold open devices on Fire doors and opening servo-actuated vents in stairways. • Hypoxic air fire prevention • Fire can be prevented by hypoxic air. Hypoxic air fire prevention systems, also known as oxygen reduction systems are new automatic fire prevention systems that reduce permanently the oxygen concentration inside the protected volumes so that ignition or fire spreading cannot occur. Unlike traditional fire suppression systems that usually extinguish fire after it is detected, hypoxic air is able to prevent fires. At lower altitudes hypoxic air is safe to breathe for healthy individuals.
  35. 35. Hypoxic air fire prevention
  36. 36. Construction and maintenance • All AFP systems are required to be installed and maintained in accordance with strict guidelines in order to maintain compliance with the local building code
  37. 37. Requirement of Water • The quantity of water required for fire extinction depends upon the magnitude of fire and duration taken to extinguish it. The use of non-potable water should be avoided for the fear of cross connection and subsequent health hazards. • The size of main ring, dry riser and wet riser, for fire fighting within a building, is designed keeping in mind that a distant hydrant will discharge about 1000 litres per minutes at 3.5 kg/sq.cm pressure. And at any given time at least two hydrants are in operation.
  38. 38. Requirement of Water
  39. 39. Storage of Water • A sufficient Quality of water for the purpose of fire fighting of the building must be made available in an underground tank within the premises. Tank capacity may be taken as 30 min water supply at 1000 litres per minutes The water tank and cover should be designed to take load of 18 tonnes vehicular load if flush below ground level. • The fire fighting storage and pumps requirements as per Development Control Regulation of the Bombay Municipal Corporation
  40. 40. Storage of Water
  41. 41. Systems of Fire Fighting • It may be broadly classified as external (City) and Internal ( Building) fire fighting System • External Fire fighting System • Fire hydrant are generally located at a distance apart of about 90 m to 120 m in inhabitant area and about 300 m in an open area. One fire hydrant for every 4000 to 10000 sq. area is normally provided. • Hydrants are generally provided at street crossings, water demands of one litre per head per day is considered for fire hydrants. Fire hydrants are of two types pillar or post hydrant and sunk or flush hydrants.
  42. 42. External Fire fighting System
  43. 43. Systems of Fire Fighting • Pillar or Post Hydrant • These hydrant remain standing above ground like a post by about 0.9 m to 1.2 m and connected to a water main underground. It consists of a sluice valve, a duck foot bend, a 65 mm dia post one, two or three outlets. These outlets are spaced around the periphery of the hydrant barrel, so that it can serve more number of fire tenders at a time, they are painted red in color, flushed once in every six months and kept in working condition.
  44. 44. Pillar or Post Hydrant
  45. 45. Systems of Fire Fighting • Flush Hydrant • These hydrant are installed underground in a brick or cast iron chamber with its top cover slightly above the street level. Letter F.H. are inscribed on the top of cover for identification. A flush hydrant consists of following components, one sluice valve, a duck-foot bend, a 65 mm dia instantaneous type coupling. Cast Iron Cap permanently secured to the duck-foot bend by means of a chain. Hydrants are connected to underground distribution main by flanged joints. • Hydrants are also used for street washings, flush sewers and watering gardens. • Residual Pressure heads recommended at fire hydrants, for which provision is generally made while designing a system • With pump engine 10 to 14 m • For direct flow 42 to 53 m
  46. 46. Internal Fire Fighting System • The local self govt i.e. Municipal Authorities have been empowered to make by laws to protect lives & properties for fire protection system within their municipal limits. These bylaws are generally based on NFPA (National Fire Protection Act). • The following methods are classified to extinguish fire within the buildings.
  47. 47. Internal Fire Fighting System
  48. 48. Residential Premises Fire Protection System • Fire Hose System Dry Riser/ Wet Riser • Automatic Sprinkler Systems • Potable fire extinguishers, • Fire alarm Systems
  49. 49. Industrial Fire Fighting System • High velocity Water Spray • Medium Velocity fire spray • Foam • Dry chemical Powder • Carbon dioxide • Alarm Gong • Portable fire extinguisher • Fire alarm System
  50. 50. Fire Hose System • This system involves the installation of vertical riser pipe with hose connections at strategic points throughout the building. The standpipe or riser ca-n be kept filled with water is know as wet riser system otherwise it is known as dry riser system • The main features of these systems includes: • Hose & Automatic Sprinkler System • The courtyard of the building should have at least two fire hydrant. • The pumps will have a RPM not exceeding 2000 • These hydrants are connected to an overhead/ storage tank for fire fighting purpose with a booster pump, and a non-return valve near the tank and a fire pump, gate & non-return valve over the underground storage tanks. • The facility to boost water pressure in the riser directly from the mobile pump should also be provided to the wet riser system.
  51. 51. Fire Hose System
  52. 52. Dry Riser System • A dry Riser system or dry pipe system is made of complete water-distribution system with sprinkler head or risers and branches with hydrants throughout the buildings in which there is no running water. • In the sprinkler system the dry pipe system is used partly to protect the interior of the buildings against hazards of burst and leaky pipe to avoid freezing of water in the pipes. • Water is turned into water distribution system either automatically or manually on the outbreak of fire or the sounding of alarm gong to smother or extinguish fire. • When the fuse melts in due to the heat generated by fire, water gushes in and air exhausted through the sprinkler head quickly. • In the preaction system water is admitted to the system by a valve actuated by a thermostatic controlled device that function in advance of the sprinkler system. • The distribution system is laid with a slope of about 1:200, so that the complete water is drained out of the system. • Provision of necessary pressure gauges is made on main water supply, distribution, air tank, pumps, etc.
  53. 53. Dry Riser System
  54. 54. Wet Riser System • The provision of wet riser system whenever made for residential building should have the following features: • The Wet riser are designed for Zonal distribution of water according to height of building • The first riser up to 60 m height should be 10 cm dia • The second riser upto 100m height of 15 cm dia • The third riser upto 150 m height of 15 cm dia • These risers are connected to fire pumps separately provided for this purpose in the buildings • A wet riser must be provided near the enclosure staircase. • The pipe fitting should be approved make and quality by the competent authority.
  55. 55. Fire Hose • Standard fire hose is made up of rubber lined cotton fibre 65 mm in dia, capable of standing routine test pressure of 14 kg/sqcm. Sometimes unlined or rubber lined or rubber cotton hose may be used for this purpose. • The fire hose is housed in a special made glass cabinet
  56. 56. Automatic Sprinkler System • The installation of sprinkler system requires special planning in new building design and usually involves an extensive renovation of an existing building. The sprinkler system may be installed in the following types of buildings or sections of a building as a first aid assistance. i.e. apartment houses, club houses, colleges, dormitories, hospitals, hotels, office buildings, and the basement used as car parking's. • Automatic sprinklers are connected to a water distribution system. A sprinkler nozzle is closed by a fusible plug that melts at a predetermined temperature, above normal room temperature, releasing water to fall on the source of heat.
  57. 57. Automatic Sprinkler System
  58. 58. Automatic Sprinkler System • Sprinklers have the advantage of quickly supplying water to fire before it gain dangerous headway and of preventing the access of air to the fire by smothering it with water. • In some cases an open head sprinkler system for the protection of the interior of the building is provided.
  59. 59. Sprinkler Classification • An automatic sprinkler head is a fire extinguisher nozzle, closed in a state of readiness by a heat sensitive release element. • The sprinkler may be classified as : • (a) Sprinkler based on Release: • Fusable element Sprinkler is opened under the influence of heat by the melting of eutectic metal or chemical. • Glass bulb sprinklers are opened under the influence of heat by the destruction of the glass bulb through pressure of the fluid enclosed therein.
  60. 60. Sprinkler Classification • Sprinkler based on water distribution • Conventional Sprinkler – The Conventional sprinkler have a spherical water distribution directed towards the ground and the ceiling for the definite protection area. • Umbrella Sprinklers- The umbrella sprinklers have a parabolic water distribution directed towards the ground for a definite protection area with some of water sprays the ceilings • Sidewall Sprinkler- The sidewall sprinkler has a one –sided half-parabolic water distribution directed towards the ground for a definite protection area.
  61. 61. Sprinkler Heads
  62. 62. Sprinkler Heads  Types;  Upright  Pendant  Sidewall  Recessed heads
  63. 63. Frangible Bulb Head
  64. 64. frangible bulb
  65. 65. fusible link
  66. 66. Chemical pellet
  67. 67. Sprinkler Heads  Storage Cabinet;  extra heads  sprinkler wrench  Cabinets hold a minimum of six sprinklers and sprinkler wrench in accordance with NFPA® 13. • Less than 300 heads min 6 spares • 300 – 1,000 heads min 12 spares • More than 1000 heads min 24 spares
  68. 68. Sprinkler Classification • Sprinkler based on Arrangements • Universal Sprinkler – This Could be upright and pendent. • Upright Sprinkler- Upright sprinklers are so arranged, that the stream of water is directed upwards against the distribution plate. • Pendent Sprinklers: Pendent sprinkler are so arrangement that the stream of water is directed downward against the distribution plate. • Dry Pendent Sprinkler: Dry pendent sprinkler are kept free of water while in a state of readiness by a special catch construction in the down pipe • Dry upright sprinkler Dry upright sprinkler are upright sprinkler, which are kept free of water while in a state of readiness by a special catch construction up into unheated roof space. • Ceiling Sprinklers: Ceilings sprinklers, in which part of the body of the sprinkler may be mounted above the lower plane of ceiling.
  69. 69. Sprinkler Classification
  70. 70. Sprinkler System Design • The following step may be taken to arrive at suitable sprinkler system • Draw an architectural plan and other indicating the location and size of the water supplies, connecting pipes, feed main risers, gate, check alarm etc. • The sprinkler system piping is installed parallel to the ceiling, and the maximum distance being 250 mm from ceiling • Under the ceiling the area per sprinkler is taken as 6 sq. m to 9 sq. m. • The number of sprinklers on each branch is taken to minimum 8 • If the number increase beyond 8, it is advisable to have 65 mm supply pipe for the same.
  71. 71. Sprinkler System Design
  72. 72. Fire Escapes • A fire escape is a special kind of emergency exit, usually mounted to the outside of a building or occasionally inside but separate from the main areas of the building. • It provides a method of escape in the event of a fire or other emergency that makes the stairwells inside a building inaccessible. Fire escapes are most often found on multiple-story residential buildings, such as apartment buildings. At one time, they were a very important aspect of fire safety for all new construction in urban areas; more recently, however, they have fallen out of common use. • This is due to the improved building codes incorporating fire detectors, technologically advanced fire fighting equipment, which includes better communications and the reach of fire fighting ladder trucks, and more importantly fire sprinklers. The international building codes and other authoritative agencies have incorporated fire sprinklers into multi-story building below 15 stories and not just skyscrapers.
  73. 73. Fire Escapes
  74. 74. Escape chute • An escape chute is a special kind of emergency exit, used where conventional fire escape stairways are impractical. The chute is a fabric (or occasionally metal) tube installed near a special exit on an upper floor or roof of a building, or a tall structure. During use, the chute is deployed, and may be secured at the bottom by a fire fighting crew some distance out from the building. Once the tube is ready, escapees enter the tube and slide down to a lower level or the ground level.
  75. 75. Escape Chute
  76. 76. Industrial Fire fighting Systems • The industrial area constitute variety of combinations of men and material and processes. Therefore, it is necessary to take additional measures for the industries. The capacity for water storage tank for fire fighting of an industrial building is worked out at a rate of 2.5 lit/sqm. Of lattable floor area subjected to minimum of 2,25000 litres. A set of two pumps must be installed to discharged 2275 litres per min at a pressure of 3.5 kg/cm2 at a desired floor. • It must be noted that the requirement of water supply, pumping capacity and other measures and other features of hydrant systems depends on the size of the risk and its fire growth. • Light Hazard Occupancies: Buildings with lower hazard such as school, hospitals, hotels. • Ordinary Hazard Occupancies: Consisting of the majority of the commercial and industrial buildings • High Hazard Occupancies: These occupancies are divided into:- • Process risks such as paint, foam, plastic and foam rubber • High piled storage rises in petroleum products.
  77. 77. Industrial Fire fighting Systems
  78. 78. Methods of Fire Extinguishing • High Voltage Water Spray Systems • High Voltage foam spray extinguishes fire involving oils, or similar flammable liquids. The equipment consists of pipes and nozzles is permanently fixe around the plant to be protected and is usually automatic controlled for immediate operation in the event of fire. • Medium Velocity fire Spray systems • The medium velocity water spray systems protect plant, structures and machinery against fires which involves higher inflammable liquids, gases & solids. When a fire occurs, medium velocity water spray equipment applies water in finely divided droplets travelling at medium speed and give protection to tanks structures and factory equipment's by cooling, by control burning of inflammable liquids and by dilution of explosive gases.
  79. 79. Methods of Fire Extinguishing Foam System • Foam system has earned recognition as a effective method. Foam systems are specially suited for fires in oil storages, flammable liquids such as benzoyl, petrol, alcohol, and lighter petroleum products. In this system fluroprotein foam compounds is applied forcefully to burnin hydrocarbon liquid which prohibits fire spread. This system is generally operated manually.
  80. 80. Methods of Fire Extinguishing • Dry Chemical Powder: • Dry Chemical Powder used to combat fires in flammable liquids, gases and greases include such fires when involved with energized electrical equipment is a potassium bicarbonate based dry chemical. The chemical powder is free flowing, water repellent and non abrasive and when used as a fire extinguisher agent will produce no toxic effects. Because of its excellent fire fighting effectiveness this product is widely used in other high risk areas. • Carbon dioxide or Nitrogen is used as a expelling gas. This system can be effectively installed in restaurants, fuel stations etc.
  81. 81. Dry Chemical Powder
  82. 82. Methods of Fire Extinguishing • Carbon dioxide • Carbon dioxide has been used for many years to extinguish the flammable liquid fires and fire involving electrically energized equipment's. Carbon dioxide about one and half times as heavy air, a property that accounts for its ability to replace air above burning surface and maintain a smothering atmosphere, It is non combustible and does not react with most substances. • (a) Smothering effect: Carbon dioxide is stored under pressure as liquid, when released, it is discharged into the fire area principally as a gas. When released on burning material, it covers then and removes the oxygen to a concentration which cannot support combustion
  83. 83. Carbon dioxide
  84. 84. Methods of Fire Extinguishing • Cooling effect: • The rapid expansion of liquid to gas when carbon dioxide is released from storage cylinder produces a refrigerating effect that converts part of the carbon dioxide into snow. This snow, which has a temperature of 80 0C soon sublimes into gas, absorbing heat from the burning material and surrounding atmosphere.
  85. 85. Portable Fire Extinguisher • Portable extinguishers are manufactured in a variety of shapes & sizes. In order to avoid confusion, extinguisher of the same type, should be similar in shape, appearance and as far as possible, in method of operation. It is also advisable to standardize the sizes, if possible although in some instances less heavy models may be desired, where for example, women are likely to use extinguisher. • The extinguisher should be located in conspicuous positions on bracket or shelves where they can be readily noticed by persons following the normal escape route like exits and stair landing on each floor.
  86. 86. Portable Fire Extinguisher
  87. 87. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Extinguisher Rating System
  89. 89. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS: Stored pressure dry powder (ABC)
  90. 90. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS: Clean agent type extinguishers (Halon)
  91. 91. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS SIZES: Minimum size is 2A:10BC. The number indicates the number of square feet & the letter indicates the type of fire.
  92. 92. Alarm Gong • The sounding of alarm should occur shortly after the opening of a sprinkler head. An alarm valve which is a type of back pressure valve, should be fitted on the main supply pipe immediately above the main stop valve. The alarm gong should be close to the main stop valve, but should be sited outside the building in a position where it will readily be audible to the police and other petrol's. In order to avoid false alarm caused by fluctuations in the pressure of supply, a device is necessary in most types of alarm systems to permit of such temporary fluctuations without lifting of the alarm.
  93. 93. Alarm Gong
  94. 94. Fire Alarm System • It is an integral part of any fire protection system. It is said that the first five minutes of fire are most important than the next five hours. Fire can be extinguished when it is in an incipient stage. Moreover people can be warned of fire hazards and evacuation of the buildings become easy. The heat & smoke detectors detect fire and actuate the alarm system. The system helps evacuation of the premises and to bring fire fighting facilities into action as quickly as possible. The Fire alarm systems are provided in the residential buildings with heights above 15 m and industrial and commercial buildings with height above 24 m. If the height of building is above 35 m. It is necessary to have provision of heat & Smoke Detectors
  95. 95. Features Of Fire Protection ALARMS
  96. 96. Other Features Of Fire Protection DETECTORS & STOBES
  97. 97. Training Services & Maintenances • Training of personnel to handle a fire situation and effectively operate both hand fire appliances and fixed equipment, installed within the premises, say of a factory or a high rise buildings, is normally overlooked. This is incredible in view of the fact that the owner has spent several hundred lakhs to install the best of equipment to protect life and property. In the event of fire emergency, the people around must respond very quickly and put to gainful use of equipment's. • In Addition to this a disaster management plan should be worked out by the owner and made known to all the persons working within the premises.
  98. 98. Training Services & Maintenances
  99. 99. Safety Measures • Apart from the training needs it is necessary to follow certain precautions and alertness while fire is on. Where ever the height of your building, ensure you follow some basic precautions: • Remember to call 100, 101,102,103 (Police, Fire, Ambulance, & Traffic Police) • Do not allow encroachments or storage in courtyards, open courtyards are needed for placing & operating fire and rescue appliances, • Do not allow storage or obstruction in the common corridors and staircases • Do not allow the fire door of staircases to be kept open • Use staircase not lift, in case of fire as lifts may fail, trapping people inside. • Do not allow refuge area to be enclosed or misused. • Do not reenter the fire affected building to collect valuables or for other purposes. • Do not allow fire fighting tanks to be misused or remain empty • Do not switch off the fire or smoke detection system. • Do not switch off electricity of entire building in the event of fire. This will also stop all the fire protection and fire fighting systems installed within.
  100. 100. Safety Measures
  101. 101. Safety Measures • Do not carry any alterations & additions in the buildings, without consulting the fire brigade. • Acquire yourself with the layout of the escape route, staircases, refuge areas and the location of the fire alarms. • Train yourself and the security personnel in the proper operation and use of first aid hose real and fire extinguisher. • Practice evacuation drills. • Irrespective of the magnitude of fire, summon the Fire Brigade at the earliest.
  102. 102. Safety Measures
  103. 103. Safety Measures
  104. 104. References Fire Safety in Buildings :- V.K. Jain New Age Publications Building Services: S.M. Patil Internet Websites
  105. 105. Thanks…..