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Cognitive psychology

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Cognitive psychology

  1. 1. Presented by: Gerlyn D. Limba MA Dev.Psych. Student Cognitive Psychology
  2. 2. Outline  Topic: Cognitive Psychology  Introduction 1.Defining cognitive Psychology 2.Philosophical antecedents of Psychology:  2.1. Rationalism vs. Empiricism  .Philosophy  Physiology 3. Physiological Antecedents of cognitive Psychology  3.1. Early dialectic s in the Psychology of cognition  Structuralism  Functionalism 4. Emergence of Cognitive Psychology  4.1. Early Role of Psychobiology
  3. 3. Questions discussion 1. How did cognitive Psychology develop from Psychology? 2. What methods do cognitive psychologists use to study how people think?
  4. 4. What is cognitive Psychology?  Cognition: people think cognitive Psychology;  How people perceive, learn, remember and think about information
  5. 5. A dialectic  Developmental process whereby involve overtime through a pattern of transformation.  Thus pattern includes 1. A thesis is proposed—a statement of belief 2. An antitheses emerges- statement that counters a previous statement of belief 3. A synthesis integrates- the most credible features of each two (or more) views.
  6. 6. Philosophical Antecedents of Psychology Rationalism vs. Empiricism Two different approaches to understand human mind: .Philosophy - seek to understand the general nature of the world through introspection. ideas and experiences (from intro,within, and – spect,”look”) Physiology- seek a scientific study of life-sustaining functions of living matter, through empirical (observation-based)methods.
  7. 7. Physiology two philosophers Plato (384-322 B.C)  Rationalist  Believes that the route to knowledge is through logical analysis  This view as a thesis Aristotle  Empiricist  Believes that knowledge that we acquire knowledge via empirical evidence (experience and observation)  This view as an antithesis Therefore, most psychologist today
  8. 8. Psychological Antecedents of cognitive psychology early dialectics in Psychology of cognition Structuralism  Understand the structure of the mind  Wilhelm Wundt (1832- 1920)  Introspection - looking inward at pieces of information passing through consciousness (Lyons,2003). Functionalism  Understand what people do and why they do it?  William James  Pragmatist- knowledge is validated by its usefulness.
  9. 9. Psychological Antecedents early dialectics in Psychology of cognitive Associationism  How events associated with one another in the mind to result in a form of learning.  Ex. Continuity  Similarity  contrast Behaviorism  Focus on observable behavior.  Human brain is a passive organ responding to environment
  10. 10. How did cognitive psychology develop from psychology?  20th century  Wundt focus on the structure of the mind (leading to structuralism)  James and Dewey focus on the process of the mind (functionalism)  Dialectic was associationism by Ebbinghaus and Thordike  Behaviorism- importance of mental associations  Pavlov’s- discovery of classical conditioning  Watson and Skinner Proponents of behaviorism The convergence of development across many fields led to the Emergence of cognitive psychology
  11. 11. Emergence of cognitive Psychology Early role of Psychobiology Karl Spencer Lashley (1890-1958)  the brain is an active, dynamic organizers of behavior  understand the macro-organization of the human brain made possible such complex, Plan activities Game playing Using language
  12. 12. Emergence of cognitive Psychology  Donald Hebb (1949)Proposed  Concept of cell assemblies as the bases for learning in the brain  Neural structures that develop through frequent stimulation (cell assemblies)
  13. 13. Emergence of cognitive Psychology Noam Chomsky ( 1959) a linguist  Stressed both biological and creative potential of language  we learn language by reinforcement  We learn language by LAD or language acquisition device that all human posses
  14. 14. What methods do cognitive psychologists used to study how people think?  experimental methods  Psychobiological techniques  Self-reports  Case studies  Naturalistic observation  Computer simulations  Artificial intelligence
  15. 15.      
  16. 16. Nature of attention and consciousness  attention is the means by which we actively process a limited amount of information available through our senses, stored memories, and other cognitive process.  Stimulus will be processed ( ex. Retrieval from long term-memory)  Consciousness- includes both the feeling of awareness and the content of awareness, some under the focus of attention.
  17. 17. Summary of preconscious processing Preconscious everything we can remember, it is a storehouse of our memory. Therefore, preconscious processing is the evaluation of sensory stimuli that take place before it enters into your conscious awareness. The experience on the past are available and capable of becoming conscious if we are stimulated or expose with the same or similar stimuli. The most common preconscious processing is priming. Another is tip-of-the tongue, and blind sight.
  18. 18. Preconscious processing 1.Priming – occurs when recognition of certain stimuli is affected by prior presentation of the same or similar stimuli. 2.Tip- of- the- tongue phenomenon- which we try to remember something that stored known to be in a memory but that cannot readily be retrieved. 3. Blind sight- the ability to provide accurate information about unseen targets.
  19. 19. Priming 1. Do you know her? 2.Who is she? 3. Can you tell Something About her?
  20. 20. Priming means  It is nonconscious form of human memory concerned with perceptual identification of words and objects.  Activating particular representations or association in memory just before carrying the task.
  21. 21. Tip-of-the-tongue Tip-of-the-tongue is a subjective feeling that people having confident that they know the words for which they are searching yet they cannot recall this word. This is one kind of metacognition is the knowledge and thought about one cognitive process. Lexical retrieval is what we call for the search in a human’s memory storage.
  22. 22. The blindsight  Traces of visual perceptual ability in blind areas ( Kentridge,2003). Some of cognitive functions can occur outside of conscious awareness. We appear to able to sense, perceive, and even response to many stimuli that never enters our conscious awareness.
  23. 23. Case study of patient D.B ( Weiskrantz, 1986) D.B is a 67 years old blind man. Since 26 years old he was blind. Cause by surgical operation which remove his vascular malfunction on his occipital lobe. He was blind on the left half of his visual field. But he can accurately guess many objects, shapes, specifically location and other aspects that could only known of by seeing them.  He “saw” despite his awareness of seeing  D.B ability to provide accurate information about unseen targets is called “blindsight”
  24. 24. three main functions of conscious Attention 1. Vigilance or Signal detection, we detect the appearance of the particular stimulus. (e.g. Screening hand luggage), screeners learn techniques to enable them to maximize “hits” and correct “rejections”, and to minimize “false alarms” and “misses”. 2. selective attention, we choose to attend to some stimuli and ignore others (Cohen,2003; Duncan,1999). (e.g. Reading a book or listening to a lecture while ignoring such stimuli as a nearby radio or television. 3. divided attention, we prudently allocate our available attentional resources to coordinate our performance of more than one task at a time. (e.g. Driver talking to a passengers while driving, and shifting attention from talking toward driving.
  25. 25. Theories of attentional process selective attention 1. Attentional filter or bottleneck theory (ABT)  Information is selectively blocked out or attenuated as it passes from one level of processing to the next.  A process of information serially  Cannot take in all information See illustration below
  26. 26. Filter and bottleneck theories of selective attention ( Broadbent's Model)
  27. 27. Experimental of filter-bottleneck theory
  28. 28. Theories of attentional process 2. Attentional resource theory (ART)  people have a fixed amount of attentional resources  The amount of available attention can vary depending on task, individual ( arousal states), and situation.  Each person decides how much attention will be given ( allocates) to an activity in order to carry out the task Specific theories o Feature-integrated theory o Guided-search theory o Similarity theory
  29. 29. Attentional resource theory ( ART) Explain the ff.  how we can perform more than one attention- demanding task at a time. Ex. Listening to music while writing auditory visual
  30. 30. The Stroop Effect activity 1 A.) Read aloud! Red green blue orange yellow pink
  31. 31. 2. Read aloud and remember the colors Red blue green pink yellow Red blue green pink yellow Red blue green pink yellow Red blue green pink yellow
  32. 32. 3.Read and remember the colors of the ink used. Red blue green pink yellow Red blue green pink yellow Red blue green pink yellow Red blue green pink yellow
  33. 33. Attentional- resource theories of selective attention Stroop effect or stroop effect test  It is an outcome of mental attentional validity and flexibility.  Effect is the ability to record words more than quickly and automatically than to name colors.
  34. 34. Divided attention  Paying attention to two things at once so more task can be performed at the same time.
  35. 35. Theories of attentional process 3. Multiple resource theory (MRT)  We have general attention mechanisms, each having limited resources.  Input and output modalities (e.g, limbs, vision)  Stages of information processing (e.g. Perception, memory, responses output)  Codes of processing information (e.g. Verbal, spatial)
  36. 36. Theories of attentional approaches 3. Multiple resource theory
  37. 37. Summary of attention theory figure:
  38. 38. Perception  Perception is the set of processes by which we recognize, organize, and make sense of the sensations we receive from environmental stimuli ( Epstein & Rogers, 1995) 1. How do we perceive objects in the environment given variable stimulation? 2. What are the two fundamental approaches to explain perception?
  39. 39. Concepts of perception(James Gibson (1966,1979) Consider this riddle: If a tree fall in the forest and no one is around to hear it, does it make a sound? 1. Distal (external) object of the external world (falling tree) 2. Informational medium is the reflected light, sound waves (sound of the falling tree) 3. Proximal stimulation- information contact sensory receptor ( eyes, ears, nose, skin, or mouth) 4. Perceptual object- perception occurs when object reflects properties of the external world.
  40. 40. Perceptual constancies  Perceptual constancy occur when our perception of an object remains the same even when our proximal sensation of the distal object changes ( Gillam,2000). Two main constancies 1. Size constancy- object remain the same size 2. Shape constancy-object remain the same shapes This is an example of Gibson theory
  41. 41. Depth perception  Distance from a surface, usually using your body as a reference surface Ex. Driving-use dept to asses the distance of approaching automobile. Two approaches to explain perception 1.Monocular depth cues— observed with just one eye  textures gradients- nearby objects can be seen clearly but not visible on far away.  Relative size -two objects are known to be the same size, ( e.g. A tree).  Interposition or occlusion- near surface overlaps far surface.  Linear perspective ( parallel lines in the image do not remain parallel in the 2D images  Aerial perspective ( distant fog) due to light scattering by the atmosphere.  Height in the picture plane  Motion parallax- (driving a car) nearby things pass quickly, while far objects appear stationary
  42. 42. Name description example images position We tend to see objects higher up in our field of vision as farther away The fence post at right appear further away not only because they become smaller but also because they appear higher up in the picture Relative size Assuming the object in a scene are the same size, smaller objects are perceive as far away At the right cars in a distance appear smaller than those near to us Linear perspective Parallel lines appear to converge at a distant We know that tracks at right are parallel, when appear closer together we determine they are farther away
  43. 43. Depth perception 2. Binocular depth cues- sensory information in three dimensions from both eyes.  binocular disparity-two eyes receives a slightly different image of the same object as it is being viewed.  Binocular convergence- two eyes must turn inward toward each other as objects get closer to us. 
  44. 44. Theoretical approaches to perception 1. Gestalt theory ( base on 6 principles) 2. Gregory theory ( bottom-up or direct perception) 3. Gibson theory ( top- down or constructive perception)
  45. 45. Gestalt approach to form perception Gestalt theory of perception are according to six principles of how visual perception 1.Figure-ground- 2.Proximity 3.Similarity 4.Closure 5.Continuity 6.symmetry
  46. 46. Gestalt approach to form perception Law of Pragnanz led to several principles
  47. 47. Gestalt principle of perception  Gestalt Principles 1.Figure-ground  When perceiving a visual field, Some objects (figure) seem prominent, & other aspect of the field reside into the background (ground)  figure Ground
  48. 48. Gestalt principle 2.proximity  When we perceive an assortment of objects, we tend to see objects that are close to each other as forming a group.
  49. 49. Gestalt principle 3.Similarity  We tend to group objects on the bases of their similarities
  50. 50. Gestalt principle of perception 4.Continuity  We tend to perceive smoothly flowing or continuous forms rather than disrupted or discontinuous one.
  51. 51. Gestalt principle of perception 5.Closure  We tend to perceptually close up, or complete objects that are not, in fact, complete.
  52. 52. Gestalt Principle 6. Symmetry  We tend to perceive objects as forming mirror images about their center. figure
  53. 53. Theoretical approaches to perception 1. Bottom-up approaches: Direct perception (Gibbson theory) Array of information in our sensory receptor, including the sensory context is all we need to perceive anything. 1. Templates theory 2. prototypes theory 3. features theory 4. structural-description theory 2. top- down approaches: constructive perception (Bruner,1957; Gregory, 1980:)
  54. 54. Theoretical approaches to perception bottom-up: direct perception 1. Templates theories
  55. 55. Theoretical approaches to perception 2. top- down approaches: constructive perception (Bruner,1957; Gregory, 1980:) Gregory’s Theory  Perception is a constructive process  Perception is making the best guess or hypothesis about what we see.  90% of visual information is lost by the time it arrives in the brain for processing  Known us intelligent perception
  56. 56. Summary of the three theories of perception  Gestalt theory : configuration based on the six principles of how visual perception occur.  Gregory’s theory ( top-down or direct perception) : sees lines, shapes, objects in relation to previous perception and proposes the size constancy is significant understanding the images the brain processes.  Gibson theory ( known as ecological theory): with the background, horizon, on other objects, etc. All playing a part unlike Gregory and Gestalt theories Gibson sees a real movement as a vital part of perception
  57. 57. Theoretical approaches to perception bottom-up: direct perception 2. Prototypes theories
  58. 58. Theoretical approaches to perception bottom-up: direct perception 3. Features theories
  59. 59. Theoretical approaches to perception bottom-up: direct perception 4. Structural-description theory
  60. 60. Memory: Models and Research Methods Memory is the means by which we retain and draw on our past experiences to use that information in the present.
  61. 61. Task used for measuring memory 1. Recall vs. Recognition memory Ex. (recall) Fill-in-the- blank task test require that you recall items from memory Recognition ( selection, identification of an items) 2. Implicit vs. Explicit memory Implicit ( collect something but are not consciously aware) Explicit memory ( conscious recollection)
  62. 62. Traditional model memory Two structures of memory 1. Primary memory temporary information currently in use. 2. Secondary memory which hold information permanently or least for a very long term Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin (1968) Propose model of three memory stores 1. Sensory store-limited amount of information 2. Short-term store- longer periods but limited capacity. 3. Long-term store- very large capacity, very long periods
  63. 63. Main alternative models of structure of memory Concept of 1. working memory  Working memory holds only the most recently activated portion of long- term-memory, and it moves these activated elements into and out of brief temporary memory storage. 2.The levels-of-processing frameworks- hypothesis distinction in memory ability based on the degree to which items are elaborated during encoding. 3.Multiple-memory-system model- posit not only a distinction between procedural memory and declarative (semantic) memory but also distinction between semantic and episodic memory.
  64. 64. References: Cognitive Psychology fourth Edition by Robert J. Sternberg