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  1. 1. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM Defining Integrity At Work 3:22 PM ghazali.mdnoor@gmail.com All rights reserved. This document is the confidential and proprietary property of Ghazali Md. Noor. This document (including the format and the presentation thereof) may not be reproduced, modified, sold or otherwise transferred or provided, in whole or in part, to any other person or entity without the prior written permission of Ghazali Md. Noor. Introduction Welcome! This workbook will serve as your guide to defining integrity at work – your mission, vision, values, and priorities. Values are a powerful source of guidance and inspiration for organisations. They help key people inside and outside an organisation focus and stay aligned on the right targets, give guidance to the right path and boundaries for achieving the targets, and serve to increase an organisation’s velocity toward the target. As your company grows, you need to be able to communicate who you are to new and existing employees and other stakeholders – integrity at work help you do this. Organisation values help everyone in the company guide their activities, behaviours, and decisions. When values are well expressed and baked into a company’s culture, they help you to:  Hire the people who best fit your values  Help the “right-fit” people know that you are the best company to work for  Help the “wrong-fit” people know that your company is not the right company for them  Inspire your staff  Separate staff that are not aligned with your values  Give guidance for the millions of activities, behaviours, and decisions that are made in your company every week  Allow your product market participants to understand where you are going, why you exist, and what is important to you  Inspire your product market participants to purchase and use your products. A values-driven company gives the people, both inside and surrounding the company, extreme clarity on what to expect and what is expected, which helps you to accelerate toward your values and meet your goals! GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 1
  2. 2. Your facilitator Is a professionally qualified accountant awarded with: 1988 Degree from the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators (United Kingdom) 1991 Post Graduate Diploma in Hospital Administration from MPC International Houston, Texas 1992 Associate of the Chartered Governance Professional (United Kingdom) 2000 Awarded Associate member of Institute of Financial Accountants (United Kingdom) 2001 Certified Financial Planner (Financial Planning Association of Malaysia) Next steps & implementation Our programmes are completely customized and affordable. We coordinate your desired outcomes and always exceed the client’s expectation by providing succinct, sustainable take home value. ‫ي‬ِ‫ل‬ ْ‫و‬َ‫ق‬ ‫وا‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫ق‬ْ‫ف‬َ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫س‬ِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ً‫ة‬َ‫د‬ْ‫ق‬ُ‫ع‬ ْ‫ل‬ُ‫ل‬ْ‫اح‬ َ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ِ ‫ر‬ْ‫م‬َ‫أ‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ر‬ِّ‫س‬َ‫ي‬َ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ِ ‫ْر‬‫د‬َ‫ص‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ل‬ ْ‫ح‬َ‫ْر‬‫ش‬‫ا‬ ِّ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ Ertinya: "Ya rabbku, lapangkanlah untukku dadaku, dan mudahkanlah untukku urusanku, dan lepaskanlah kekakuan dari lidahku, supaya mereka mengerti perkataanku." (QS. Thoha: 25-28) 2 Ghazali is a Human Capital practitioner with a distinctive career. He carved a progressive career within diverse business atmospheres. With more than 29 years of experience, he began his career with Johor Corporation in 1988, followed by exposures in petroleum multinationals and media industry. His broad-based experience allows him to develop the coaching element for Maybank’s IT Transformation project for international consultant Booz & Co applied to the Maybank group’s IT team in navigating the vast changes. Areas of focus include: 1. Performance measurement and reporting system implementation utilising Balanced Scorecard methodology; 2. Plan, develop and conduct a fast track recruitment and selection programme; 3. Job Analysis; 4. Psychometric profiling; 5. Training Needs Analysis; and 6. Develop and deliver 24 Leadership learning and development programmes. He is a certified trainer by Advanced Training (UK) Ltd and Ikram Training and Infrastructure Development Institute (ITiDi). Passionate in sharing through lectures and learning, he is registered as a Resource Person with Malaysian Institute of Management and frequent speaker at both local and foreign conferences for Signium International and Asia Business Forum. 15:22 7-Nov-21 Play Book GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM
  3. 3. Insufficient growth in leadership Management Layers More and more organisations are adopting matrix structures, uniting multiple business unites and functions to gain efficiencies and enable cooperation across silos. As the structure of these organisations changes, so too do the competencies required to lead them. – Hay Group Start where the pain is most acute Impending retirements Expanding/new business Critical levers of strategy Highly specialized expertise 3 Image source: Hay Group Employees in a matrix structure belong to at least two formal groups at the same time —a functional group and a product, program, or project team They also report to two bosses—one within the functional group and the other within the team. Composite organisation – Generally, organisations will have combination of different structure for different projects. This term is sometimes confused with structure. Strong Matrix - Power rests with Project Manager. This is more close to Projectized structure. Weak Matrix - Power rests with Functional Manager. This is more close to Functional structure. Balanced Matrix - Power is shared. This is a combination of both Functional and Projectized. Resources would have two managers – Project Manager and Functional Managers. After Project Completion, resources go back to Functional department. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 3
  4. 4. Questions asked by leaders 4 Investment is on an individual ability to motivate themselves and their team  They know what they can handle and what they can’t  Able to motivate themselves and improve their own performance  Manage disruptive emotions to behave more effectively  They take an active interest in others and understand individual perspective and group dynamics  They bring out the best in others, whether as a leader or an individual team member  Helps bring out the best in yourself  Have a positive impact on your organisation  Contribute to organisation  It enables you to choose different behaviors depending on the situation, your strengths, and your role GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 4
  5. 5. What is a Competency? Culture are: values, norms, assumptions, expectations, and definitions that characterize organisations, “how things are done around here” Any measurable characteristic of a person that differentiates level of performance in a given job, role, organisation. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM Sustained success has less to do with market forces than company values; less to do with competitive position than personal beliefs; less to do with resource advantages than vision – culture is sometimes created by the initial founder, sometimes developed consciously by management teams who decide to improve their company’s performance in systemic ways, and sometimes, in the absence of direction, a culture becomes the way to manage the mismanagement. Organisations have cultures (sociological – culture emerges from collective behavior) and organisations are cultures (anthropological – culture resides in individual interpretations). The higher people rise in the ranks of management, the more likely they are to have distorted self- perceptions Senior level managers are likely to rate themselves as much higher on emotional and social competencies than their peers and direct reports rate them. Self-awareness lies at the heart of the EI model and, to a great extent, influences our ability to develop the other competencies. It enables us to sustain our behavior over time, despite setbacks. Social awareness is about how we manage the emotions of others. It’s being aware of others feelings, needs and concerns. Relationship Management is our ability to apply emotional understanding in our dealings with others. This is where emotional intelligence becomes most visible to the people we deal with. Self-Management is about how effectively we manage our own emotions, and how well we control our responses to new or challenging situations. 7-Nov-21 Play Book 5
  6. 6. Self Others Awareness Actions 4% chance Self- Management Positive impact on others Relationship Management Emotional Intelligence Competency Framework Social Competence Awareness of Others (empathy) Understanding others OrganisationalAwareness Service Orientation Developing others -- Leveraging Diversity -- Political Awareness Relationship Management (social skills) Developing Others Inspirational Leadership Conflict Management Change Catalyst Teamwork and Collaboration Communication and Influence The conceptual model Research supports this Is Self-Awareness really at the heart of the model? Low Self- Awareness 17% chance Social Awareness Personal Competence Self Awareness (understanding ourselves) Emotional self-awareness Accurate Self-Assessment Self-Confidence Self-Management (managing ourselves) Self-Control Trustworthiness Conscientiousness Adaptability Achievement Orientation Initiative - Motivation (drive to achieve goals) - Optimism - Commitment- Initiative . GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM ECI research has found that if people lack Self-Awareness, their chances of having Self-Management and Social Awareness are much reduced Emotional Intelligence competency is an ability to recognize, understand, and use emotional information about oneself or others that leads to or causes effective or superior performance.  Ability and personality can not be developed, but we can measure and develop emotional intelligence  Without EI, a person with high IQ, great experience and smart ideas won’t be a great leader  IQ itself is not a great predictor of job performance. IQ represents just 4–25% of variance  You are born with a set IQ, that can not change over your lifetime  Technical skill is acquired through study and experience and is usually the top criteria for promotion Theoretical Framework — An Overview of Emotional Intelligence Twentieth-century research in emotional intelligence began with the 1920’s when Edward Thorndike identified his concept of social intelligence. This concept of social intelligence is one of three groups of intelligences (abstract, concrete, and social) identified by psychologists of that time. Thorndike (1920) defined social intelligence as “the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls—to act wisely in human relations” (p. 228). Thorndike’s definition included interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences in the definition of social intelligence. Psychologist David Wechsler, a student of Thorndike and developer of one of the first IQ measurement instruments – the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – recognized the importance of studying non-cognitive factors. In 1943, Wechsler proposed that non-intellective abilities are crucial in predicting one’s ability to succeed in life. 7-Nov-21 Play Book 6
  7. 7. The Competency Framework Self- Awareness Social Awareness Self- Management Relationship Management • Emotional Self-Awareness • Accurate Self-Assessment • Self-Confidence • Empathy • Organisational Awareness • Service Orientation • Emotional Self- Control • Transparency • Adaptability • Achievement Orientation • Initiative • Optimism • Developing Others • Inspirational Leadership • Change Catalyst • Influence • Conflict Management • Teamwork & Collaboration Self-Awareness  Awareness of one’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs, drives, values, goals  Cognizant of how feelings affect them, other people and their job performance  Thirst for constructive criticism and constant strive for improvement  Self-confident, yet self-deprecating sense of humor Self-Regulation  Ability to control impulses and feelings and channel them in useful ways  Reasonable behavior creating environment of trust and fairness  Comfort with ambiguity and change  Driven to exceed beyond expectations  Propensity for reflection and learning  Pride/passion for work and organization Awareness of Others (empathy)  Ability to “walk in the other’s shoes” and convey understanding  Considers people’s emotions when making decisions  Deep understanding of importance of cultural and ethnic differences  Knows nature of relationship key in coaching and mentoring Relationship Management  Leader’s task is to get work done through other people  Friendliness with a purpose: building rapport and influencing  Importance of networking and building alliances  Comfort with negotiation, mediation, problem solving and conflict management High-IQ professions that require advanced degrees for entry into a field, such as PhDs and MBAs, reveal IQ and training are not what differentiates star performers GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM The desire to maintain the current state requires deliberate investment of energy in the exercise—it must also be intentional. Desired sustainable changes in a team’s norms, shared beliefs, purpose, roles, and identity are, on the whole, discontinuous. That is, they appear as emergent or catastrophic changes. This is a property of complex systems (Casti, 1994). The experience of these changes may be one of surprise or discovery (Boyatzis, 2006a). If a team member is mindful of the group’s dynamics, changes may be anticipated and so appear more as a set of smooth transitions. For example, an observant team member may notice a particularly close, personal relationship developing among three team members and not be surprised when these three people begin to act toward team issues as a coalition (with the same perspective on issues). But to a less observant team member, the appearance of a coalition within the team may seem puzzling and sudden. As a complex system, team development has moments of surprise even for the most observant members or coaches. Personal Assessment Review the slides explaining the 4 components of Emotional Intelligence and their associated competencies. What do you believe are your areas of strength? Your areas of vulnerability? 7-Nov-21 Play Book 7
  8. 8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 multiple intelligences test Multiple Intelligences Test - based on Howard Gardner's MI Model Score the statements: 1 = Mostly Disagree, 2 = Slightly Disagree, 3 = Slightly Agree, 4 = Mostly Agree Alternatively for speed, and if easier for young people - tick the box if the statement is more true for you than not. Adults over 16 complete all questions. Young people between 8-16 answer red questions only. This is page 1 of 4. A short version featuring the young people's questions only is available free from the businessballs website. Score or tick the statements in the white-out boxes only Score I like to learn more about myself I can play a musical instrument I find it easiest to solve problems when I am doing something physical I often have a song or piece of music in my head I find budgeting and managing my money easy I find it easy to make up stories I have always been physically well co-ordinated When talking to someone, I tend to listen to the words they use not just what they mean I enjoy crosswords, word searches or other word puzzles I don’t like ambiguity, I like things to be clear I enjoy logic puzzles such as 'sudoku' I like to meditate Music is very important to me I am a convincing liar (if I want to be) (manual version - see businessballs.com for self-calculating version) 7-Nov-21 Play Book 8 GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM
  9. 9. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 multiple intelligences test I play a sport or dance I am very interested in psychometrics (personality testing) and IQ tests People behaving irrationally annoy me I find that the music that appeals to me is often based on how I feel emotionally I am a very social person and like being with other people I like to be systematic and thorough I find graphs and charts easy to understand I can throw things well - darts, skimming pebbles, frisbees, etc I find it easy to remember quotes or phrases I can always recognise places that I have been before, even when I was very young I enjoy a wide variety of musical styles When I am concentrating I tend to doodle I could manipulate people if I choose to I can predict my feelings and behaviours in certain situations fairly accurately I find mental arithmetic easy I can identify most sounds without seeing what causes them At school one of my favourite subjects is / was English I like to think through a problem carefully, considering all the consequences I enjoy debates and discussions I love adrenaline sports and scary rides I enjoy individual sports best I care about how those around me feel My house is full of pictures and photographs I enjoy and am good at making things - I'm good with my hands I like having music on in the background I find it easy to remember telephone numbers 7-Nov-21 Play Book 9 GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM
  10. 10. multiple intelligences test businessballs.com 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 I set myself goals and plans for the future I am a very tactile person I can tell easily whether someone likes me or dislikes me I can easily imagine how an object would look from another perspective I never use instructions for flat-pack furniture I find it easy to talk to new people To learn something new, I need to just get on and try it I often see clear images when I close my eyes I don’t use my fingers when I count I often talk to myself – out loud or in my head At school I loved / love music lessons When I am abroad, I find it easy to pick up the basics of another language I find ball games easy and enjoyable My favourite subject at school is / was maths I always know how I am feeling I am realistic about my strengths and weaknesses I keep a diary I am very aware of other people’s body language My favourite subject at school was / is art I find pleasure in reading I can read a map easily It upsets me to see someone cry and not be able to help I am good at solving disputes between others I have always dreamed of being a musician or singer I prefer team sports Singing makes me feel happy 7-Nov-21 Play Book 10 GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM
  11. 11. 67 68 69 70 multiple intelligences test I never get lost when I am on my own in a new place If I am learning how to do something, I like to see drawings and diagrams of how it works I am happy spending time alone My friends always come to me for emotional support and advice Add the scores or ticks in each column and write the total for each column in the boxes on the right. Your highest scores indicate your natural strengths and potential - your natural intelligences. There are no right or wrong answers. My strongest intelligences are (write them here): Intelligence type your totals Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Spatial-Visual Interpersonal Intrapersonal You are happiest and most successful when you learn, develop, and work in ways that make best use of your natural intelligences (your strengths and style and brain-type). This indicator can help you to focus on the sort of learning and work that will be most fulfilling and rewarding for you. The multiple intelligences definitions are available in sheet 2 of the MS Excel file containing this test. The file and more information about multiple intelligences are available from the website www.businessballs.com. © V Chislett MSc and A Chapman 2005-06, based on Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Model. www.businessballs.com. Not to be sold or published. The authors accept no liability. 7-Nov-21 Play Book 11 GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM
  12. 12. intelligence type intelligencedescription typical roles, preferences, potential related tasks, activities or tests preferred learning style 1. Linguistic words and language, written and spoken; retention, interpretationand explanation of ideas and information via language, understands relationship between communication and meaning writers, lawyers, journalists, speakers, trainers,copy- writers, English teachers, poets, editors, linguists, translators,PR consultants, media consultants,TV and radio presenters, voice- over artistes write a set of instructions; speak on a subject; edit a written piece or work; write a speech; commentate on an event; apply positive or negative 'spin' to a story words and language 2. Logical - mathematical logical thinking, detecting patterns, scientific reasoning anddeduction; analyse problems, perform mathematical calculations, understands relationship between cause and effect towardsa tangible outcome or result scientists, engineers, computer experts, accountants, statisticians, researchers, analysts, traders, bankers bookmakers, insurance brokers, negotiators, deal-makers, trouble-shooters, directors perform a mental arithmetic calculation; create a process to measure something difficult; analyse how a machine works; create a process; devise a strategy to achieve an aim; assess the value of a business or a proposition numbers and logic 3. Musical musical ability, awareness, appreciation and use of sound; recognition of tonal and rhythmic patterns, understands relationship betweensound and feeling musicians, singers, composers, DJ's, music producers, piano tuners, acoustic engineers, entertainers,party- planners, environment and noise advisors, voice coaches perform a musical piece; sing a song; review a musical work; coach someone to play a musical instrument; specify mood music for telephone systems and receptions music, sounds, rhythm 4. Bodily - Kinesthetic body movementcontrol, manualdexterity, physical agility and balance; eye and body coordination dancers, demonstrators, actors, athletes, divers, sports- people, soldiers, fire-fighters, PTI's, performanceartistes; ergonomists, osteopaths, fishermen, drivers, crafts- people; gardeners, chefs, acupuncturists, healers, adventurers juggle; demonstrate a sports technique; flip a beer- mat; create a mime to explain something;toss a pancake; fly a kite; coach workplace posture, assess work-station ergonomics physical experience and movement, touch and feel 5. Spatial - Visual visual and spatial perception; interpretation and creation of visual images; pictorial imagination and expression; understands relationship between images and meanings, and between space and effect artists, designers, cartoonists, story-boarders, architects, photographers, sculptors, town-planners, visionaries, inventors, engineers, cosmetics and beauty consultants design a costume; interpret a painting; create a room layout; create a corporate logo; design a building;pack a suitcase or the boot of a car pictures, shapes, images,3D space 6. Interpersonal perception of other people's feelings; ability to relate to others; interpretationof behaviour and communications; understandsthe relationships between people and their situations, including other people therapists, HR professionals, mediators, leaders, counsellors, politicians, educators, sales-people, clergy, psychologists, teachers,doctors, healers, organisers, carers, advertising professionals, coaches and mentors; (there is clear association between this type of intelligence and what is now termed 'Emotional Intelligence' or EQ) interpret moods from facial expressions; demonstrate feelings throughbody language; affect the feelings of others in a planned way; coach or counsel another person human contact, communications, cooperation, teamwork 7. Intrapersonal self-awareness, personal cognisance, personal objectivity, the capability to understandoneself, one's relationshipto others and the world, and one's own need for, and reaction to change arguably anyonewho is self-awareand involved in the process of changing personal thoughts, beliefs and behaviour in relation to their situation,other people, their purpose and aims - in this respect there is a similarity to Maslow's Self-Actualisation level, and again there is clear association between this type of intelligence and what is now termed 'Emotional Intelligence' or EQ consider and decide one's own aims and personal changes required to achieve them (not necessarily reveal this to others); considerone's own 'Johari Window', and decide options for development; consider and decide one's own position in relation to the Emotional Intelligence model self-reflection, self-discovery Gardner's Multiple Intelligences - descriptions, preferences, personal potential, related tasks and tests 7-Nov-21 Play Book 12 GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM
  13. 13. Effective Leader Just like trait-based theories, virtue-based theories are picking up momentum (Level 5), principle-centred, value- based leadership, etc. Today’s examples:  Authentic leadership  True North 13 Exalted character He was known as sadiq and amin – credibility and reputation management in today’s language Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) remains the human being whose life is the most documented than any other. His case is unique and outstanding as: a spiritual leader, a father, a husband, a businessman, a political leader, etc. Jafer (RA), a companion of Prophet Muhammad at the court of a Christian King in Abyssinia : “Your majesty! We were ignorant people, worshipping idols, eating carrion, oppressing neighbors, brother fighting brother, the strong dominating the weak, when amidst us was raised a man (Muhammad) whose nobility, integrity and trustworthiness were already well-known” “He called us to worship God alone... he commanded us to speak the truth, to honor our promises, to be kind to our relations, to be helpful to our neighbors, to cease all forbidden acts, to abstain from bloodshed, to avoid obscenities and false witness….” Fakta Pandora Papers yang anda perlu tahu BERITA SEMASA 6 OKTOBER 2021 'Pandora Papers' adalah dokumen terbaru dalam siri pembocoran mega dokumen kewangan sekali gus mendedahkan senarai urus niaga melibatkan tokoh politik, ahli perniagaan, selebriti yang membuka akaun di pusat kewangan pesisir di dunia. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 13
  14. 14. CONCEPT: The Contemporary Ethical Environment “She would never have felt the loss—she was coming up on a billion dollars, and by selling those shares she avoided a loss of $45,673—but she couldn’t resist the chance to daub at the blot on her investment record.” “She was sentenced to prison for five months… and became the very emblem of corporate greed.” Social responsibility Balance between what’s right and what’s profitable Often no clear-cut choices Often shaped by the organisation’s ethical climate Business ethics are the standards of conduct and rules based on moral principles governing how businesses and employees should conduct themselves. There have been several high profile investigations and arrests in the headlines…. Martha Stewart had a billion dollar empire when she made a decision to sell a stock based on an insider trading tip from her stock broker in 2004. Martha Stewart was a self-made business icon. She had to call upon those skills to rebuild her brand after her stint in prison. The meaning of “ethics” is hard to pin down and views of many rest on shaky ground. Many people tend to equate ethics with their feelings. A person following his or her feelings may not do what is right. In fact, feelings frequently deviate from what is ethical. Being ethical is not the same as following the law. The law often incorporates ethical standards to which most citizens subscribe. Finally, being ethical is not the same as doing “whatever society accepts.” What then, is ethics? Ethics is two things. When the unemployment is high, people are more willing to bend the rules to keep their jobs. Social and organisational influences, therefore have significant impact on the ethical behaviour. Money Matters, presents timeless Talmudic wisdom on real-world ethical quandaries. This course will call into question your business theories, challenge your assumptions, and help you gain clarity on the values that matter to you. Topics include: insider trading, living wages, personal bankruptcy, CEO compensation, and freeloading. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 14
  15. 15. The Contemporary Ethical Environment  Organisation officers and traders charged with fraud, conspiracy and insider trading.  ENRON was the Largest Organisation Fraud case in American history.  ENRON executives’ and traders’ greed eliminated: –4,500 ENRON jobs –85,000 Arthur Anderson jobs –Investors lost over 60 billion dollars within a few days; for many it meant losing their old- age security. Individuals can make unethical choices like: –Conflict of Interest –Bribery, gift-giving and receiving –Invasion of privacy or confidentiality –Dishonest hiring practices –Insurance Fraud / Credit Card Fraud –Internet Abuse Conflict of Interest: –Situation in which a business decision may be influenced for personal gain. 15 Unethical Business Practices OneTel: The Collapse Factors of collapse included poor management, trading while insolvent and other breaches of the Australian Corporations Act 2001. Directors paid themselves large bonuses while the company was insolvent. http://www.lawbookco.com.au/academic/CorporateMisconductezine/pdf/Gerald%20Minimizing%20Corporate%20 Collapses.pdf OneTel: Quotes from Brad Keeling (Director) “Sometimes you can be good at promoting something. It becomes very big and you still might be good at promoting but not good enough at managing ” Brad Keeling in his interview with Herald “It probably happens a lot. Whether you're an engineer or a marketer, when things start to boom people feel they're invincible and that feeling of invincibility has to be countered. Everybody is fallible and you have to realise what your capabilities are.” Brad Keeling in his interview with Herald Adelphia Communications, The Indictment: John (CEO), Timothy (CFO), Michael Rigas (VP Operations), James Brown (VP Finance), Michael Mulcahey (Dir) Amongst other things: Routinely used Adelphia's corporate aircraft for their personal affairs, without reimbursement to Adelphia, used approx. US$252,157,176 in Adelphia funds to pay margin calls against loans to the Rigas family. http://www.newsday.com/business/ny-adelphia-indictment,0,6067514.acrobat?coll=ny-business- headlines These uses of Adelphia funds and assets for the benefit of the Rigas Family were not presented to or authorized by the Adelphia Board of Directors, were not disclosed to the Outside Directors, and were not disclosed to the public. http://www.newsday.com/business/ny-adelphia-indictment,0,6067514.acrobat?coll=ny-business- headlines GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 15
  16. 16. WorldCom - WorldCom Inc. said it discovered another $3.3 billion in accounting irregularities on top of the $3.8 billion it announced in June 2002 (http://money.cnn.com/2002/08/08/news/worldcom/) Perwaja Steel – Losses and debts totaling RM10 billion (National Audit Department) Integrity We work with customers and prospects openly, honestly and sincerely. When we say we will do something, we will do it; when we say we cannot or will not do something, then we won’t do it. Excellence We are satisfied with nothing less than the very best in everything we do. We will continue to raise the bar for everyone. The great fun here will be for all of us to discover just how good we can really be. In their 1998 Annual Report, their values are spelt out as: Communication We have an obligation to communicate. Here, we take the time to talk with one another… and to listen. We believe that information is meant to move and that information moves people. Respect We treat others as we would like to be treated ourselves. We do not tolerate abusive or disrespectful treatment. 16 What went wrong? Enron’s Values Use the following scenarios to discuss ethics in the workplace. 1. There is an old saying that“ the customer is always right." What do you think that means? Do you agree with it? Explain. What would you do if you thought a customer was dead wrong? 2. Suppose you are a sales clerk in a store and some of your friends want you to let them shoplift. Think about and discuss the following: a. If you refused to let them shoplift, would that make you a disloyal friend? Explain your answer. b. How would you respond if your friends said to you: i. "Just turn your back. You won't even be involved." ii. "Don't let it bother you. Everybody does it." iii. "The store will never miss it." iv. "This store rips everybody off. We're entitled to get even." c. If they shop lift despite your objections, what would you do? 3. Suppose you have some personal problems that are troubling you. Is it okay to attend to these problems while you are at work? To what degree (or under what circumstances) do you think it's okay to deal with your own personal affairs on company time? 4. When you accept a job, what does the employer owe you, and what do you owe the employer? Organisation scandals have created a market for a new breed of independent third parties who provide/sell guidance on which companies deserve our trust, such as:  Standard & Poors  Institute for Organisation Law and Governance  Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS) ISS uses a Organisation Governance Quotient that measures global companies against 61 different governance criteria. ISS rated Parmalat bottom of the 69 Italian companies in its listings. Integrity is an indispensable moral virtue that includes acting with honesty, fairness, and decency. This video is part of Ethics Defined, an animated library of more than 50 ethics terms and concepts from Ethics Unwrapped, available at https://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/gl... GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 16
  17. 17. Studies on Organisation Failures: 17 4 Areas of Transparency So, what then are business ethics? Studies have shown that a majority of those corporate failures were traceable to the predominance of one individual or several working in concert in the board. Invariably fraudulent practices were found. Failure of checks and balances mechanism. Each Party’s Responsibility  Directors - Issues of compliance & profitability  Directors - Issues of conformance & performance  Shareholders - Questions at AGM & EGM on company’s performance  Shareholders – Nomination of independent directors?  External auditors Independence Change of auditors Who audits the auditors? Organisation Governance Statement Organisation Fraud – system of checks and balances, timely disclosure Related Party Transaction Director’s remuneration and severance package First, ethics refers to well based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific values. Put another way anytime you ask yourself “what you should do,” the question involves an ethical decision. Secondly, ethics refers to the study and development of one’s ethical standards. In other words, ethics are standards or rules you set for yourself that you use to guide your efforts do what is right and wrong, or what you should do. A decision you make is ethical when you choose to do the right thing. Cadbury Report - there is a Code of Best Practice:  Values are those of openness, integrity and accountability.  Openness on the part of companies, within the limits set by their competitive position.  Integrity means both straightforward dealing and completeness.  Boards of directors accountability is through the quality of the information which they provide to shareholders, and the shareholders through their willingness to exercise their responsibilities as owners. Companies Act 2016 (Act 777), s 227 227 Payments to director for loss of office, etc. (1) It shall not be lawful — (a) for a company to make to any director any payment by way of compensation for loss of office as an officer of that company or of a subsidiary of that company or as consideration for or in connection with his retirement from any such office; or (b) for any payment to be made to any director of a company in connection with the transfer of the whole or any part of the undertaking or property of the company, unless particulars with respect to the proposed payment (including the amount thereof) have been disclosed to the members of the company and the proposal has been approved by the company in general meeting and when any such payment has been unlawfully made the amount received by the director shall be deemed to have been received by him in trust for the company. Moral issues greet us each morning in the newspapers; confront us in our work or at school. We are bombarded daily with questions about the justice of our foreign policy, the morality of medical technologies that prolong our lives, the rights of the homeless, and the fairness of facilitators. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 17
  18. 18. Unethical Business Practices Individuals may make unethical choices such as: Conflicts of Interests, Corruption, Bribing and acceptance of Privacy or Confidentiality breach, Unscrupulous hiring practices, Scams of Credit Cards, Insurance / Fraud, Internet Abuse. Conflicts of Interest: The situation in which business decisions may be influenced by personal gain. Code of Ethics/ Conduct:  A formal set of guidelines for maintaining ethics in the workplace.  Codes of Ethics cannot detail a solution for every ethical situation, so corporations provide training in ethical reasoning along with a Code of Ethics The Value Approach The value approach to ethics assumes that there are certain ideals toward which we should strive, which provide for the development of our humanity. These ideals are discovered through thoughtful reflection on what kind of people we have potential to become. Competencies determine what a person CAN do. Commitment determines what they WANT to do. Character determines what they WILL do. 3:22 PM On-the-Job Ethical Dilemmas Telling the truth and adhering to deeply felt ethical principles in business decisions. Situation in which a business decision may be influenced for personal gain. Business people expect employees to be loyal and truthful, but ethical conflicts may arise. Employee’s disclosure of illegal, immoral, or unethical Practices in the organisation. 18 Developing Ethical Muslim using Seerah Rasul Guides If we believe all staff wants to be professional and we want to be ethical transparent then we should be: DOING Talking about our strengths and weaknesses SEEING Honest dialogue and collaboration CREATING A space to take risks, fail, and get back up If we believe _____________________________ (insert belief) and we want to be ________________________________________ (insert a team core value), then we should be: DOING __________________________________ (actions in alignment with core value) SEEING __________________________________ (responses to actions in alignment with core value) CREATING _______________________________ (results/outcomes) GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 18
  19. 19. 19 Enron, The Indictment: Richard Causey (Chief Accountant), Jeffrey Skilling (CEO), Kenneth Lay (Chairman) Defendants' Profit as a Result of the Scheme Enriched themselves through salary, bonuses, grants of stocks and stock options, other profits. Skilling received approximately US$200 million from sale of Enron stock options, netting over US$89 million in profit and was paid more than US$14 million in salary and bonuses. http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/enron/usvlay70704ind.pdf Amongst other things: manipulating Enron's publicly reported financial results, making public statements and representations about Enron's financial performance and results that were false and misleading http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/enron/usvlay70704ind.pdf Lay received US$300 million from sale of Enron stock options, netting over US$217 million profit and paid more than US$19 million in salary and bonuses. Causey received more than US$14 million from sale of Enron stock and options, netting over US$5 million profit and paid more than US$4 million in salary and bonuses. http//news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/enron/usvlay70704ind.pdf Defendants' profit as a result of the scheme Civil Consequences Payments made in breach of the section are held by the director on trust for the company: sub-s (1). The directors responsible for the misapplication of funds (including the recipient) were held jointly and severally liable to repay the company with interest in Re Duomatic Ltd [1969] 1 All ER 161. In an announcement made to Bursa Malaysia on 22 Oct 2002, a company claims on the payments made to 3 defendants, who were past Directors of the company, amounting to approx. RM55m, the majority sum on this claim was based on compensation for loss/termination of office amounting to approx. RM24m which were not approved by the Board of Directors or the shareholders. In the same announcement, the company claims on the return of two motor vehicles which were disposed to the 1st and 2nd Defendants at a substantially less than the true market value and without the approval of the shareholders. Criminal Consequences Directors’ duty upon discovery of fraud: In another announcement on 12.9.2002 a police report was lodged on fictitious invoices to the value of RM259,315,572.96. The police report was made pursuant to a decision of a Special Board of Directors meeting. Transparency – Bona Fide Payment to Directors Section 227 (5)(d) Compensation for loss of office shall not include any bona fide payment by way of pension or lump sum payment in respect of past services where the value or amount does not exceed the total emoluments of the director in the 3 years immediately preceding his retirement or death. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 19
  20. 20. Amongst other things: Fraudulent adjustment to WorldCom’s expenses and revenue. False statements http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/enron/usvlay70704ind.p df 20 WorldCom, The Indictment: Bernard Ebbers (CEO), Scott Sullivan (CFO) Compensation amounting to millions paid to executive officers, loans extended to executive officers which were later forgiven, related party transactions, certain executives utilizing Tyco's corporate resources to fund personal ventures and property acquisitions, to increase their own personal wealth. http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/tyco/nykozlowski91202i nd.pdf The first trial of Kozlowski and Swartz, who are accused of looting the company of $600 million, ended in a mis-trial in April 2004. Prosecutors retrying the men say they'd like to begin proceedings in September 2004 http://www.forbes.com False Statements: “We are pleased with our industry-leading incremental revenue growth of US$1.1 billion this quarter. Commercial services revenues of US$6.4 billion are up 19% year over year.” Statement made by Ebbers to analysts at a conference in 2000. Tyco, The Indictment: Dennis Kozlowski (CEO), Mark Swartz (CFO) Transparency – Executive Pay Listing Requirements 7.25: Fees payable to non-executive directors shall be by a fixed sum, and not by a commission on or percentage of profits or turnover. Salaries payable to executive directors may not include a commission on or percentage of turnover. 7.26: Fees payable to directors shall not be increased except pursuant to a resolution passed at a general meeting, where notice of the proposed increase has been given in the notice convening the meeting. 7.27 A director shall not vote in regard to any contract or proposed contract or arrangement in which he has, directly or indirectly, an interest. Appendix 9C LR 10(b) : the number of directors whose remuneration falls in each successive band of RM50,000 distinguishing between executive and non-executive directors to be disclosed in annual report. Malaysian Code on Organisation Governance B para 4.8 III : The company’s annual report should contain details of remuneration of each directors. Penalties for Breach of LR Para 16.16 LR In the event of any breach of LR, the Exchange may impose such actions or penalties as it considers appropriate Para 16.17(1)(b) LR Against directors (i) caution letter (ii) private reprimand (iii) public reprimand (iv) fine not exceeding RM1m. Dealing with these moral issues is often perplexing. How exactly, should we think through an ethical issue/ what questions should we ask? Some moral issues create controversies simply because we do not bother to check the facts. This first step, although obvious is also among the most important and the most frequently overlooked. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 20
  21. 21. TOOLS: How organisations shape ethical conduct Preach Values of the Prophet Beliefs Right Actions + Right Means Right Ends + Results = Success = “He was …without a bodyguard, without a palace, without a fixed revenue. If ever any man had the right to say that he ruled by a right divine It was Mohammad, for he had all the power without instruments and without its support. He cared not for dressing of power. The simplicity of his private life was in keeping with his public life." Bosworth Smith Observation Practice What do ethics have to do with anything? Ethics, or positive moral values, are things such as honesty, trustworthiness, loyalty and integrity. Integrity is an indispensable moral value that includes acting with honesty, fairness, and decency. Understanding ethics and demonstrating ethical behaviour are ways young people get ahead. It’s not always easy, though, and we sometimes we find ourselves in situations where it might be difficult to be honest or loyal. Understanding what it takes to demonstrate ethical behaviour can help an employee go a long way! Moral issues greet us each morning in the newspapers; confront us in our work or at school. We are bombarded daily with questions about the justice of our foreign policy, the morality of medical technologies that prolong our lives, the rights of the homeless, and the fairness of facilitators. Organisations shape ethical conduct through .. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 22
  22. 22. Ethical Leadership:  Executives must demonstrate ethical behaviour in their actions. Ethical Action:  Helping employees recognize and reason through ethical problems and turning them into ethical actions. 23 Ethical Environment Values of Integrity and Ethics  Leaders began the transformation by first getting the right people on the bus (and the wrong people off the bus)  “Who” questions came before “what” decisions - before vision, strategy, organisation structure, and tactics.  Leaders must be rigorous, not ruthless in people decisions. Three practical disciplines for being rigorous: 1. When in doubt, don’t hire; 2. When you know you need to make a people decision, act; and 3. Put your best people on your best opportunities, not biggest problems Discuss the term “ethics” Use the Ethics Worksheet to have participants assess themselves (the worksheet looks at the following characteristics: trustworthiness, responsibility, integrity and honesty). This is a very informal assessment and it is recommended that the activity be used for discussion and reflection only. It is not recommended that participants share their scores, as this is a personal activity to be used for self examination and potential goalsetting. Once participants score themselves, discuss some of the ways people set goals to better themselves. Ask for recommendations to share for those who would like to improve their trustworthiness, responsibility, integrity and honesty. Remind participants that we all struggle with these issues from time to time–and it is through discussion, reflection and practice that we improve our ethical behaviour. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 23
  23. 23. 24 How do we know when something is “ethical?” Advising Managers Why the normal value of private life tend to break down or become ineffectual in business context, Nash offers five reasons: 1. The analytical framework the managers adopt 2. The goals they set for themselves 3. The organisational structure they belong to 4. The language / methods they use to motivate others 5. Their personal assumptions about the intrinsic worth of other people If ethical issues and concerns do not figure in any of the areas, then it is UNLIKELY that the organisation will be fostering a climate in which the ethical behaviour becomes the norm. 1. Have you defined the problem accurately 2. How would see this from the other side of the fence 3. How did the situation occur in the first place 4. To whom and to what you give your loyalty as a person 5. What is your intention in making this decision 6. Match your intention with the probable results 7. Who is the decision going to injure 8. Can you discuss the decision with the affected party before you make the decision 9. Confident of the long term validity of the decision 10. Can you share the decision with your loved ones 11. What is the symbolic potential of your decision of your action if understood and / or misunderstood 12. Under what circumstances would you allow exceptions to your stand Dozen issues to encourage managers to be ethical Knowledge and wisdom are the major reasons which determine the leadership. ”….Say are those equal, those who know and those who do not know? It is those who are endowed with understanding that receive admonition” [Al-Quran, 39:9] What does it mean to be ethical? Some people think you can’t get ahead by being honest. Do you agree or disagree with this statement. Explain. Associate yourself with good people Associate with well-mannered persons and your manners will improve. Should one see a wise man, who, like a revealer of treasure, points out faults and reproves; let one associate with such a wise person; it will be better, not worse, for him who associates with such a one. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “The dearest and nearest among you to me on the Day of Resurrection will be one who is the best of you in manners; and the most abhorrent among you to me and the farthest of you from me will be the pompous, the garrulous, and Al-Mutafaihiqun.” The Companions asked him: “O Messenger of Allah! We know about the pompous and the garrulous, but we do not know who Al-Mutafaihiqun are.” He replied: “The arrogant people.” Source: Jabir in At-Tirmidhi. Things are of three categories: 1. a matter whose right guidance is clear, which you must follow; 2. a matter whose error is clear, which you must avoid; 3. and a matter about which there is a difference of opinion, which you must entrust to Allah. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 24
  24. 24. 25 Unethical behaviour – some safeguards  Enterprise Risk Management  Fear of punishment  Ostracizing the corrupt  Healthy activism against corruption  Fighting organized crime  Good laws and timely enforcement  Protecting whistle blowers  Active media  Personal integrity  Conscience of and equality before law  Judicial activism  Target unethical conduct at the top  Reject unethical offers Managers in most organisations strive to encourage ethical practices. The litmus test for the ethical practices are:  The golden rule: act as the way you would expect others to act towards you  The Utilitarian Value: act in a way that yields greater good for the largest number of the people  Situational but Natural: action taken under circumstances could be universal law or behaviour  Professional Ethics: peer reviewed by professional  The TV test: Can you share with a large audience  The Legal Test: Should be in conformity with the laws The four way test: 1. Is the decision truthful / 2. fair / 3. beneficial to all concerned / 4. generate goodwill and foster friendship Promoting Ethics at Workplace Compassion is one of the few things we can practice that will bring immediate and long-term happiness to our lives. The key to developing compassion in your life is to make it a daily practice. The first step in cultivating compassion is to develop empathy for your fellow human beings. When we encounter someone who mistreats us, instead of acting in anger, withdraw. But determine that if people do you good, you will do good to them; and if they oppress you, you will not oppress them. Apakah itu integriti? Mengapa amalan ini penting untuk diamalkan dalam setiap individu? Video ini mengupas secara ringkas tentang isu integriti melalui temuramah bersama beberapa orang awam selaras dengan tema pertandingan mencipta video integriti anjuran Unit Integriti & Ombudsman Negeri (UNION) dengan kerjasama Unit Komunikasi Awam Sarawak (UKAS) - "Sarawak Negeri Maju Berintegriti Tinggi". GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 25
  25. 25. Ethical behaviour Your score can range anywhere from 18 to 54. The higher your score, the more ethical behaviour you demonstrate on a regular basis. If you scored low, or are unhappy with your score, it just means you have a little more work to do. 26 Sacrifice of the lamb Just as the Prophet (S.A.W.), and his companions landed from their rides, and laid the loads down, it was decided that they would sacrifice a lamb for dinner. One of the companions volunteered: "I will sacrifice the lamb." Another: "I will skin it." Third: "I will cook it." Fourth: " I will...." The Prophet (S.A.W.): "I will gather the wood from the desert." The group: "O Messenger of Allah, it is not becoming of you to discomfort yourself as such. You rest. We will be honoured to do all this on our own." The Prophet (S.A.W.): "I know that you are eager to do it all, but Allah isn't pleased with the slave who distinguishes between himself and his companions, and considers himself better than others.“ Then he went to the desert, and gathered some wood, and brought it to the group. We are ALL a work in progress–and we can ALWAYS choose to change our behaviours. If you think you would like to talk to someone about your score, please show this paper to a facilitator or an adult you trust. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 26
  26. 26. The Redundancy Dilemma You are a Senior Supervisor in the Operations Department of a major financial services firm, based in the south, which is in the process of restructuring This morning Eddie, one of your team, who is an old friend, tells you that his daughter has just passed the entrance exam for a prestigious independent school. Although the fees will be tough, Eddie says that he and his wife will do whatever is necessary to find the money. He extends, and you accept, an invitation to dinner that evening Later, your Divisional Manager rings to tell you, in confidence, that results are bad and he needs to look for a 25% reduction in headcount He sends you a list of names to be discussed at a meeting that afternoon and emphasises the importance of confidentiality Reviewing the list, you notice Eddie’s name as a potential candidate, based on his disappointing performance appraisal As Eddie’s Manager, how are you going to deal with the situation? Option 1: You will argue for Eddie’s retention. You decide that you will let Eddie know, in confidence, over dinner Option 2: You will argue for Eddie’s retention. You decide not to mention anything to Eddie over dinner Option 3: You agree that Eddie is a logical candidate. You will, however, let Eddie know, in confidence, over dinner Option 4: You agree that Eddie is a logical candidate. You decide not to mention anything over dinner 27 Is it fair to argue for his retention based on friendship, rather than merit? Is it fair to just tell Eddie and not the other staff affected? What happens when he tells someone else? Your boss told you “in confidence”. Would you betray that confidence? Do you have the authority to reveal this sensitive information? What will Eddie think of you if you don’t tell him? How can you balance your responsibility to Eddie and your company? Management involves taking difficult decisions – balance those of a friend with your employer and all staff GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 27
  27. 27. The Acid Test Your answers Questions Warm-up exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. Why did you join your company (the 1-3 truly important differentiators)? 2. What is important to you about your company (the 1-3 truly important things that get you excited)? 3. What do you do in your company? 4. What is the one thing that is your unique competitive advantage in the company (the one thing that you do uniquely well)? Each member of the team should answer the following questions: The building you are in is on fire – you are trapped in a room with one of your parent’s who is incapable of getting out unaided and a scientist who has the cure for a major disease. Who should you save – the one you love or the one who could cure millions? Is it the ‘greatest good for the greatest number’? Or should family be put above all? What would happen if another person you love has the disease the scientist has the cure for? You are driving home from a night out when you accidentally hit a pedestrian who now looks seriously injured. You know you will probably end up going to jail if you stay as you were not paying attention properly and have been drinking. No one is around and if you leave now it is likely you won’t get found out. Would you stay and help the person you hit and face the risk of going to jail? Or would you leave the person, even though it is likely they will not be found for hours and will die. Values are attitudes or character traits that enable us to be and to act in ways that develop our highest potential. Values are like habits that once acquired they become the characteristic of a person. Moreover, a person who has developed values will be naturally disposed to act in ways consistent with moral principles. In dealing with an ethical problem using the value approach, we must ask, what kind of person should I be? What will promote the development of character within my community and me? Focuses on attitudes, dispositions, or character traits that enable us to be and to act in ways that develop our human potential. It asks whether any given action demonstrates human behaviour at its best. Examples: honesty, courage, faithfulness, trustworthiness, integrity, etc.. The principle states: “What is ethical is what develops moral values in us and our communities.” GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 29
  28. 28. Brainstorming exercise Brainstorm as many ways as you can to make a RM10 profit by the end of the day in a new venture. Insert your best 5 ways in priority order below: 30 Values defined My best ideas for making a RM10 profit by the end of the day: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Your company’s values are what you aspire to be as a company. They are the longest-term and most aggressive goals for your company. Your values can be organized in many different ways, but most frequently are organized as your company’s mission, vision, values, and priorities. The ultimate goal of identifying, expressing, and living your integrity at work is for everyone in and around your organisation to embrace and act in a manner consistent with your values, including the millions of small decisions and behaviours that take place on a weekly basis, thereby allowing you to truly reach your values. Essentially, you reach your values by living your values. Your values goal can be broken down into mission, vision, value, and priority goals:  Mission Goal – All of the people in your organisation understand your organisation’s purpose and work toward meeting that purpose in their daily work.  Vision Goal – All of the people in your organisation understand what you want your company and customer set to “look like” longer term and they use this understanding to both motivate and guide their work.  Value Goal – All of the people in your organisation work in a manner that is consistent with your values and principles.  Priorities – All of the people in your organisation understand your priorities if there is ever any conflict between individual values. Values serve as a guide for everyone inside and outside of your organisation for explaining who you are, where you want to go, and how you’re going to get there. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 30
  29. 29. Choices and Values : What’s Important to Me? Take a few minutes to think about the meaning of the items listed below. Indicate with a check mark the items that are important to you. 22. A secure and positive family life 23. An enjoyable, leisurely life 24. Unlimited travel, fine foods, entertainment, recreational, and cultural opportunities 25. Getting things changed for the better 26. A beautiful home in the setting of your choice 27. A chance to develop creativity/potential in any area 28. Owning a possession of great value 29. To speak up for my personal beliefs 30. To have better feelings about myself 31. To be needed and to be important to others 32. To become a good parent 33. To have a better relationship with my parents 34. To be sexy 35. To persevere in what I am doing 36. Time for prayer 37. To give of myself freely in helping others 38. A safe and secure environment 39. To be loved by a special few 40. To be trusted by others 1. A physical appearance to be proud of 2. To constantly seek knowledge 3. Being an honest person 4. To have political power 5. Being known as a “real” person 6. A meaningful relationship 7. Self-confidence and personal growth 8. Enjoyment of nature and beauty 9. A life with meaning, purpose, fulfilment 10. Continuing to learn and gain knowledge 11. A chance to help the sick and disadvantaged 12. To be attractive to others 13. Some honest and close friends 14. A long and healthy life 15. A meaningful relationship with God 16. A good marriage 17. Satisfaction/success in the career of your choice 18. An equal opportunity for all people 19. Freedom to live life as you want 20. A financially comfortable life 21. Accomplishment of something worthwhile 31 NAME___________________ Date_________ Period_______ List below the number of the four or five items that are most important to you: A.____ B.____ C.____ D.____ E.____ When you have listed the 4 to 5 items that are most important to you, refer to the “Value Characteristics” sheet and write the appropriate characteristics related to these numbers. What values are not Values are confusing to a lot of people running emerging growth technology companies. Most of the time we find that values are so confusing and appear so difficult to create that companies tend to avoid them altogether. Some companies think of values as a poster to motivate employees. Other companies have senior managers who believe that values are for the “troops” but not for them. These issues, and others, have led the vast majority of companies to have very poor values practices and most people to have a general disregard for or disbelief in the practice. Clearly, these approaches do not meet the goals of true values and the poor approaches used by other companies make it much more difficult for you to implement the practice of true values. Organisation values are often – but should not be – confused with “product values,” “brand values,” “customer values,” “business unit values,” “functional values,” or any other values that can be developed for a specific initiative. Organisation values are different in that they are the umbrella over all the other values. They should be aligned, but different. What is your conclusion from this exercise? Participants will decide what they value and how values affect their choices in everyday living. Participant Handouts: What’s Important to Me?, Value Characteristics, What is a Value? facilitator Instructions Have participants fill out the checklist ‘What’s Important To Me?’ (Note: before copying, review list for any that may not be appropriate for your community and delete or change.) GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 31
  30. 30. Choices and Values: Value Characteristics Write the characteristic that corresponds to the numbers you selected on the checklist. NUMBER CHARACTERISTIC 5 Sincerity 3, 40 Honesty, Integrity 7, 30 Emotional well-being, Stability 8 Artistic appreciation 2, 10 Education, Intelligence, Wisdom 11, 37, 18 (Altruism) Compassion, Fairness, Justice 1, 12, 34 Appearance, Beauty, Approval 6, 13, 31, 39 Love, Friendship, Personal closeness 14, 38 Health, Personal safety, Security 15, 36 Religion, Spirituality 16, 22, 32, 33 Family, Love, Emotional security 9, 17, 21, 27 Fulfilment, Intellectual and Vocational achievement 19 Personal freedom, Independence 20, 26, 28 Financial security, Money, Status 23, 24 Pleasure, Travel, Material satisfaction 4, 25 Power, Achievement 29 Courage 35 Perseverance 1.______________________________________________ 2.______________________________________________ 3.______________________________________________ 4.______________________________________________ 5.______________________________________________ 32 What is a value? Ask participants to go back through the list and pick the four to five values that are the most important to them and write the numbers in the blanks at the bottom. Then have them refer to the ‘Values Characteristics’ handout, find the numbers they have chosen on the left side of the page and write the corresponding words on the lines at the bottom of the page. Refer participants to ‘What is a Value?’ Discuss the definition of values. Do the participants think the four or five they have selected are the qualities that motivate them to act as they do? Have participants share their values with a friend. Did they have any the same? (It is natural for people to associate with people who share the same values). Values are those inner standards from which you receive the motivation to act as you do and by which you judge behaviour (both yours and others). Values signify what is important and worthwhile. They serve as the basis for moral codes and ethical reflection. Individuals have their own values based on many aspects including family, religion, peers, culture, race, social background, gender, etc.. Values guide individuals, professions, communities, and institutions. 1. A value must be chosen freely. If you don’t cheat because someone tells you not to, or because you know you will get into trouble with some authority figure, say, you are not freely acting on your values of honesty and integrity. 2. A value is always chosen from among alternatives. If you don’t cheat because you are taking a test in an empty room without any resources, you cannot say you chose not to cheat. There must always be an alternative in choosing your value. 3. A value results from a choice made after thoughtful consideration of choices. If you don’t cheat because it never occurred to you to do otherwise, there is no value at play. If you cheat thoughtlessly or carelessly, it does not reflect a value. Only when you carefully consider alternatives and consequences and then make a choice is value reflected in that decision. 4. When you value something, it has a positive quality for you. If your decision not to cheat is something you feel good about, then it is based on a value. You like yourself for your honesty and integrity. You prize them and cherish these qualities in yourself. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 32
  31. 31. Values Prioritization Values Auction and Discussion You have 100 Resource Points to spend. Using your Resource Cards, bid on the values that are worth most to you. 20 Resource Points purchases a value automatically, whereas only the top bidders will get to claim the values for point values below 20. List values you want to bid for, and circle values you won through bidding. Values I want to bid for: _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 33 NAME___________________ Date_________ Period_______ Values prioritization Discussion Points: 1. Why did we do a “bidding” for these values, do you think? How does the bidding represent what we do with values in real life? 2. What might the “resource cards” represent in real life? How and what do we spend to gain and develop our values? 3. Where do our values come from? Who or what influences the values we have, get, keep, or discard? 4. Is your set of most important values the same as someone else’s? How might these similarities and differences play out in decisions we make as a group? 5. (Optional) How does class or economic resources affect our ability to gain some of these values? What do you think about this issue? 5. You are willing to publicly stand by your values. Not only are you proud of your choice not to cheat, you will speak about your position and even try to convince others not to cheat. You declare in your actions and your words that you value honesty and integrity. 6. When you have a value, it shows up in every aspect of your life. You don’t just talk about having honesty and integrity – you live it. You will spend time and energy on developing your honesty and integrity. You will associate with people who also value honesty and integrity. You will make sacrifices (money or otherwise) to live by your values. 7. Values show up again and again in your actions. Not cheating on one thing does not mean you hold a value. Only when you make the same kind of choices over and over again in similar circumstances is value at play. Because of your honesty and integrity, you don’t cheat on anything. From small quizzes to big tests, from board games to big contests, your value is in effect in every circumstance. Adapted from materials found on: http://www.mtsu.edu/~u101irm/valuedef.html Originally from Louis E. Raths, Merrill Harmin, and Sidney B. Simon, Values and Teaching, Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co., 1978. Participants are asked to prioritize their own values and reflect on the importance of values in individual and group decision-making. Participants are asked to link outcomes important to them with values they may hold. Facilitator Instructions Participants are asked to prioritize their own values and reflect on the importance of values in individual and group decision-making. Participants are asked to link outcomes important to them with values they may hold. This activity follows the ‘Choices and Values’ one. Participant Handouts – Values Prioritization, What is a Value?, Values Definition Table, materials from Choices and Values activity Ask participants to offer their definitions of the word ‘value’. What do people mean when they say things like ‘family values’, ‘school values’, ‘religious values’ etc.? Review the ‘What is a Value?’ sheet that lists the criteria for values to clarify what makes a value a true value. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 33
  32. 32. Bidding Resource Points 34 NAME ___________________ Date_________ Period_______ What the Prophet (SAW) did? Provide the ‘Values Definition Table’ and explain that 1) participants might use it as a resource when they’re having difficulty verbalizing what the value at play might be, and 2) as lengthy as this list might be, it is still an incomplete one, and it is important that they continue to think about the criteria for values in coming up with values relevant to a given situation. Review the ‘Choices and Values: Value Characteristics Sheet’. Ask participants to prioritize their top values on the Value Characteristics Sheet. Have participants rank their values in order of importance. Discuss what participants felt they learned from the activity of prioritizing values – Was it difficult? What was challenging about it? Did they learn anything new about themselves and their own priorities? He removed duality in public role and private life. Since his every moment is reported, we know that even before he was appointed the Prophet, he was upfront and honest. As the Prophet began to speak in the community, many were moved and his expression was commanding and deeply touching. What was so amazing in his speeches is that they were natural, the Prophet says: “Every one of you is a shepherd and will be accountable for his flock. The ruler is a shepherd and will be accountable for his community; a man is a shepherd of his family and will be accountable for them; a woman is a shepherd of her husband’s household and will be accountable for her charge; a slave is a shepherd looking after his master’s property and will be accountable for it. Indeed, every one of you is a shepherd and will be accountable for what is under their care.” Source: Bukhari and Muslim, on the Authority of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 34
  33. 33. Values Definition Table Cheerfulness Quality of being light-hearted; lessening gloom Citizenship Exercising the duties, rights, and privileges of being a citizen Clear Thinking Acting intelligently without mental confusion Collaboration Working cooperatively with others Commitment Feeling bound in mind or heart to someone or doing something Community Sharing, participation, and fellowship with others Compassion Being deeply aware of and wanting to lessen the suffering of others Competence Being qualified to do something Competitiveness Doing something better than others Composure Maintaining a peaceful or calm state of mind Concern Taking an interest in someone or something Conscientiousness Doing things very carefully and thoroughly Consideration Thinking through things carefully, being thoughtful Consistency Doing things reliably and in the same way Constancy Remaining faithful to a person or an action in the face of change Cooperation Working willingly with others to accomplish something Courage Ability to face danger, fear, and obstacles with confidence Value Definition Acceptance Having people receive you well Accomplishment Doing or finishing something well Accountability Feeling obligated to or being willing to accept responsibility Adaptability Ability to change behaviour to fit new situations Adventurousness Tendency to do new and daring things Allegiance Loyalty or feeling obligated to be loyal Altruism Caring for others without regard to yourself Ambition Eagerness or strong desire to achieve something Appreciation Ability to see the quality and the importance of people and things Aspiration Strong and persistent desire for high achievement Assiduousness Quality of never quitting, being persistent, and working hard Authenticity Quality of being trustworthy or genuine Autonomy Quality of being independent Benevolence Tendency to do kind and giving things Camaraderie Goodwill and light-hearted connection to friends Caring Feeling and showing concern for others Changeability Ability to adapt to different circumstances Charity Generosity toward others Chastity Innocence and purity 35 NAME____________________ Date_________ Period_______ First we need to go back to the basics  Every organisation should be guided by a set of values and beliefs  Provides an underlying framework for making decisions – part of the organisation’s culture  Values are often rooted in ethical themes, such as honesty, trust, integrity, respect, fairness, . . . .  Values should be applicable across the entire organisation  Values may be appropriate for certain best management practices – best in terms of quality, exceptional customer service, etc.. Value is noble behaviour, and sin is that which creates doubt and you do not like people to know about it. Source: Nawwas bin Sam’an in Sahih Muslim Those who take bribes and those who give bribes are cursed by God. Source: Bukhari and Muslim, on the Authority of ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Amr Ibn Al-’As. Greed and faith can never co-exist in the human heart. Source: An-Nasa’i, on the Authority of Abu Hurayrah Mutual consultation and unity or Shura are important and basic principles of democratic leadership Managerial leaders in Islam must consult with their people before making any decision. It is also the fundamental aspect of democratic system. Leaders must consult with their subordinators in formulating any strategy or policy. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 35
  34. 34. Values Definition Table 2 of 4 Faith Confident and complete belief in someone or something Faithfulness Sticking firmly and devotedly to someone or something Fidelity Faithfulness, loyalty, or devotion Flexibility Ability to respond to change Forgiveness Willingness to stop blaming or being angry with someone Fortitude Ability to face danger, pain, or obstacle with calm resolve Friendship Having a relationship based on mutual respect and good will Generosity Willingness and desire to give Gentleness Being mild, calm, and docile Genuine Being true and not fake Giving Offering knowledge or things without expecting anything in return Goodness Being kind, thoughtful, or honest Goodwill Friendly attitude that says you wish good things to happen to others Gratitude Feeling thankful for or appreciating things, people, or their actions Hardworking Working hard, well, and tirelessly Helpfulness Giving useful help or advice in a friendly way Honesty Acting straightforwardly and fairly Honour Being upright in character and having personal integrity Hope Feeling that something you want can be yours or will happen 36 Value Definition Courtesy Consideration for others Credibility Having people believe you Decency Conforming to the standards of proper or modest behaviour Dedication Devoting energy and time without concern for yourself Democracy Believing that everyone deserves the same rights and respect Dependability Being reliable Determination Having strong will, purpose, or character Diversity Respecting and wanting difference and variety Easiness Being relaxed and informal in attitude or standards Education Gathering and growing knowledge or skill through learning Efficiency Ability to make things happen with a reasonable amount of effort Empathy Ability to identify with other people’s situations and feelings Encouragement Ability to get others to take action Equality Believing that everyone deserves the same treatment Equity Wanting things to be just, impartial, and fair Excellence Having qualities to an unusual degree Fairness Doing things consistently with rules, logic, and ethics Whenever God makes a man responsible for other people, whether in greater or lesser numbers, he will be questioned as to whether he ruled his charges in accordance with God’s decrees or not, and that will not be all. God will question him even about his family members. Source: Ibn Hanbal, on the authority of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar. “And those who answer the call of their lord and to worship none but him and performed their prayer and who conduct their affairs by mutual consultation and who spend of what we have bestowed on them” (Al Quran - 42:38) GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 36
  35. 35. Values Definition Table 3 of 4 Peace Being free of conflict and violence Perseverance Sticking firmly and consistently to a course of action or belief Promise-Keeping Keeping your word that you will certainly something Prudence Doing something right because it is the right thing to do Punctuality Adherence to the exact time of a commitment or event Purity Having done no wrong Reason Ability to think through and make good decisions Recognition Having people see and give you credit for all you have done Reliability Doing things consistently so that others can depend and trust you Repentance Feeling sorry and wanting to right past wrong Resilience Ability to bounce back quickly from change or bad circumstances Resourcefulness Ability to act effectively and creatively, especially in tough situations Respect Showing polite attitude toward people or things that are important Responsibility Being accountable and answerable for something Righteousness Being without guilt or sin Sacrifice Willingness to give up a thing for something else more important Self-Control Being able to control your emotions, desires, or actions Self-Discipline Ability to make yourself do something even if you don’t want to Value Definition Humility Feeling that you are not better than others Industriousness Working hard and regularly Ingenuity Having inventive skill or imagination Initiative Ability to energetically start and follow through with a plan or task Integrity Strictly following what you believe is right and good Joy Intense happiness Justice Strictly following what you believe is fair and just Kindness Wanting to be good, kind, and giving to others Law-Abiding Following all the rules and laws of society Liberty Choosing freely to act, believe, or express yourself in your own way Love Feeling strong desire or attraction toward a person or idea Loyalty Feeling devotion, attachment, and affection toward a person or idea Mercy Forgiving someone even though you have the power to punish them Moderation Having neither too little nor too much of anything Morals Your own belief about what is right or wrong that guides your actions Obedience Following the rules of what is required in a given situation Optimism Expecting the best possible outcome with bright hope Patience Waiting and withstanding without complaining or getting angry 37 The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person is sharply different from one who is leader first… The best test, and difficult to administer, is: Do those served grow as persons? Do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? And, what is the effect on the least privileged in society? Will they benefit or at least not be further deprived?“ Engage the group members in responding to all of the above points This practice will identify the group’s identity for the members. It also brings the members closer to understanding themselves in the group of which they have chosen to be a part. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 37
  36. 36. Value Definition Sensitivity Being aware of the needs and emotions of others Serenity Being calm in mind and even in temper Sharing Wanting others to take part, enjoy, or use together or in turns Sincerity Genuineness and honesty; not fake Sobriety Being calm, cool, and serious; freedom from extreme passions Stamina Having the physical or mental strength to do something for an extended period Stewardship Carefully conducting, supervising, or managing something Supportive Giving support and help Thoughtfulness Tendency to anticipate people’s needs or wishes Tolerance Recognizing and respecting the beliefs and practices of others Tranquility Being calm and peaceful Trustworthiness Having people believe you and have confidence in you Understanding Having a positive, truthful relationship with others Wisdom Ability to make good decisions based on experience and learning Values Definition Table 4 of 4 38 Case Study A social worker in a support group for abused women is gradually delegating her responsibilities to the group members. Her intention is to move the group from a professionally- supported group to a member-led group. This is due to the changing atmosphere in her agency, lack of funding and a positive move towards self-sufficiency. She is aware that some women in the group are more committed and attuned to group work. However, she feels that for the group to sustain itself, all the members need to take ownership. She starts to move the group to a shared leadership model by asking the group the above questions. In a simple exercise of going through the above points, group members gradually create an identity and a vision for their group. Ultimately all causal paths start from learning perspective… and to improve learning This is the step to begin looking at the work that needs to be done in any given group. Follower interaction with a leader A person in a position of responsibility must not require his subordinates to do anything that is not permitted by Islam. If he does, then they must not obey him. He also said: “No one may be obeyed in what constitutes disobedience of God”. If a commander orders someone to do what is forbidden, that person must disobey the order. One who walks with a tyrant, in the full knowledge that he is a tyrant, in order to strengthen him, is such as has already left the fold of Islam. Source: Al-Bayhaqi, on the Authority of Aus Bin Shurahabil GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 38
  37. 37. Inks How might you respond to this threat? Option 1: Call a meeting of the staff Committee and recommend that the footer should be removed because, on balance, jobs are important Option 2: Alter the footer as requested, without further discussion, because it is essential that Knights is awarded the mandate Option 3: Call a meeting of the staff Committee and recommend that they should stand up for their principles Option 4: You tell Inks that it is an internal matter for Knights and it is quite inappropriate that a client should try to influence internal company policy 39 You are a Relationship Manager at Knights, a boutique Organisation Finance house and are leading a bid for an important mandate from Inks plc., which manufactures printing ink and cartridges Knights has a reputation for high ethical standards and encourages charitable activities by its staff, including using its corporate e-mail “footer” to support nominated charities The current charity, which is chosen by a staff Committee, has an environmental focus aimed at combating global warming and their e-mail message includes the words: “Do not print this e-mail unless absolutely necessary” You receive an irate phone call from the Managing Director of Inks plc., who has taken offence at the wording on your e-mail footer and threatens that if the wording is not removed by the end of the day, he will ensure that Knights does not win the mandate Failure to win the mandate may result in one or two redundancies in your firm Is this actually a serious issue? Why not just remove the footer and be done with it? Staff may claim that it is a “matter of principle” Care of staff is also a “matter of principle” What happens when two principles conflict? A number of colleagues may be losing their jobs, so they need to be involved Is the “customer always right”? At some point an evaluation of the merits of the two principles has to take place If you accommodate Inks on this, what happens if they become more demanding? Are you comfortable in making people redundant over this? Would you be willing to lose your job over this issue? GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 39
  38. 38. The 3 Elements Of Moral Courage Courage: Moral courage is the courage to be moral – whatever adheres to five core moral values of honesty, respect, responsibility, fairness and compassion that quality of mind which enables one to encounter danger & difficulties with firmness or without fear or fainting of heart Two types of courage 1. Physical- Value related 2. Moral- Value driven Aqidah Sharia Islam Akhlaq Values Danger Moral courage Endurance Many large organisations set out their purposes and values as a part of the job of managing stakeholder relationships. Such guidelines, or ethical codes, set out desirable conduct and best practices, provide framework to help employees resolve ethical dilemmas they may encounter in their work. The individual at work We all have rights, duties, responsibilities, powers, interests etc. which accrue to us as people within a society. We do not lose these moral responsibilities as we enter the work place; instead we gain new ones that are contingent to holding the post within the organisation. These new powers, responsibilities, duties, interests, concerns etc. can be different from the ones we had before, they may even be in conflict with them Many of the moral dilemmas faced at the workplace are raised by issues that are not peculiar to work but are to do with interpersonal relationships with the people you are dealing with. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 41
  39. 39. Resolving an Ethical Dilemma 42 Secrecy, Confidentiality and Loyalty Thinkers have debated the relative merit of these approaches for centuries, but for getting help with handling ethical dilemmas, think of them as complementary strategies for analyzing and resolving problems. It is however, assumed that the relevant laws and regulations are duly complied with. Three steps are involved: 1. Analyze the consequences 2. Analyze the actions 3. Make a decision While the theories may look conflicting at some stages, they actually complement one another in practice. Each acts as a check on the limitations of the other. Generally there are three major approaches that we use in handling ethical dilemmas. They are Philosophical / Moral / Value ethics by conducting through rational and secular outlook that is grounded in the notions of human happiness and well being Focusing on the practical consequences (results oriented – Utilitarian) of what we do -- Teleological ethics Islam Focusing on the fact that actions have intrinsic moral value; some actions are good (telling the truth, honoring promises) while some are bad (dishonesty, coercion). No matter how much good comes out of lying, the action will never be good. Deontological (action oriented - -Universalism) The problem of protection of confidential information and the circumstances under which it is to be disclosed arises both in public and private capacities. The duty to tell the truth need to be qualified whether the person you are telling the truth is entitled to know it. Gossip has some value in organisational cohesion, but those who engage in this, walk a thin line between passing on what is justifiable in the public domain (the weather, last night’s episode in the disco, new policy for space allocation), or what one may know but not casually and promiscuously disclose (X’s marital problem, Y’s alcoholism, Z’s state of health) It also matters how one came to be in possession of such information. Many social positions and occupations require one to be entrusted with information which one may not deal with as if one has learned it in a private capacity. The confidentiality of medical report is near absolute; can be made available to other medical person who may need this for further treatment or to the court of law. Contractual, professional and moral obligations not to disclose specific information. Clearly, the organisations have the right to protect the information whose disclosure to the competitors may threaten its prosperity or survival (client list, industrial processes, management structures – things coming under Intellectual Property Right – IPR) GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 42
  40. 40. Islam, Iman, Ihsan Moral Bases of Islamic Leadership Leadership in Islam is rooted in belief and willing submission to the Creator, God. It centers on serving Him. IHSAN Perfection Excellence ISLAM Submission Surrender This moral character will be reflected by his increasingly strong belief in God as he progresses through stages of spiritual development IMAN Faith Power, Authority & Trust We owe special degree of consideration who are closest to us. What is laudable as a private person becomes suspect once we are acting in trust of a third party (organisation). It is even more suspect if what makes it possible for that person to act in that way is that the power and authority lent by the organisation itself Though it is clear in principle, drawing a line between private and public is not easy. To serve God, a Muslim leader is to act in accordance with the injunctions of God and His Prophet (saw), and must develop a strong Islamic moral character. This moral character will be reflected by his increasingly strong belief in God as he progresses through taqwa stages of spiritual development:  iman,  islam, and  ihsan. Ihsan means doing good and being kind to others. Enlightenment. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 43
  41. 41. 44 Moral Courage in Practice Cases: Why is it important for us? A purchasing manager giving purchase orders to a cousin (otherwise well qualified) who could be in financial straits? Show special consideration to friends and relatives who apply for jobs within the organisation. Using your influence to get a relative / friend a job though he is adequately qualified. Using organisation’s stationery or reprographic facilities for work of a charitable organisation with which he / she is associated. A financial journalist use the knowledge gained from doing the job to tip off friends about risky investments Why should moral courage matter so much these days? In part because we see so many examples of its lack– in corporate settings and legal proceedings, in politics sports, entertainment and in personal and social relationship. But there is another deeper reason. The proving of one’s courage has long been a rite of passage from youth to adulthood. With physical courage less obviously in demand as we move onto the 21st century, the young could begin testing themselves against a courage that is moral rather than physical. If the need for physical courage is dwindling in everyday life, the opposite is happening for moral courage and soon be an indicator of MATURITY Responding to these points moves the group towards a concrete way of looking at actual tasks within any given group. It also enables the group to develop an identity which they can package in a brochure or flyer to describe their group and recruit new members. The prophet facilitated everything for everyone: if you are not able to pray standing up, you may pray sitting or even lying down. What will you think of a ruling that makes a couple to forcefully remain married forever even if their characters and interests are not compatibles? The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) clearly legislated against such practices. Couples are free to divorce if they chose to do so. He addressed everyone including his companions in the most beloved way and treated each one of them with dignity to such an extent that each one felt that he was the most beloved to him amongst all the others. It is a well- known fact that the Prophet was the supremely successful man in the entire human history (see the greatest 100 in History of humanity by Michael Hart). He was not just a hero, as Thomas Carlyle has called him, according to the Qur’an; he was the best example for all mankind (33:21). GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 44
  42. 42. The two scenarios # 1 Scenario # 2 – Whistle Blowing The law is very clear in this; the duty to respect confidentiality does not extend to cover the breaches of law or other wrongful actions, nor does it release an employee from a legal obligation to disclose information to the appropriate authority. Though the law can protect the employee from immediate dismissal for whistle blowing, it can not protect him against loss of promotion, non renewal of contract or other forms of victimization. (A new law is in the offing for the protection of such whistle blowers.) Someone using skills and knowledge gained in one employment to be used to get a new job (AIS officers switching jobs during mid career, BBC / National Geographic ? CNN trained technicians go to a competitor). The law is very clear and distinguishes between confidential information, which is the property of the organisation and can not be passed on to the new employer and the employee’s skills and knowledge which form a part of the employee’s ability which he or she is entitled to use for the furtherance of their careers. Case of Rati Kanta Basu taking employment with STAR immediately after retirement from IAS (DG / Doordarshan) The ethical dilemmas at work place are supposed to be product of the different roles that a manager is expected play simultaneously. However, should the ethical standards differ for the different role play? Most argue that the ethical standards should not be changed or ignored because the context has changed Managers sometimes, try to rationalize their unethical behaviour. In doing so they make a reflection on their own character than that of the organisation When the unemployment is high, people are more willing to bend the rules to keep their jobs. Social and organisational influences, therefore have significant impact on the ethical behaviour. Resolving Dilemmas Personal attributes a leader should develop in himself/herself: 1. Develop competency in the area in which you are leading others. Whoever delegates a position to someone whereas he sees someone else as more competent (for the position), verily he has cheated Allah and His Apostle and all the Muslims. Source: Ibn Taymiyya, Assiyasah Ash-Shar’iyya , 1996 2. Stress value and behave with integrity. Value is noble behaviour, and sin is that which creates doubt and you do not like people to know about it. Source: Nawwas bin Sam’an in Sahih Muslim Those who take bribes and those who give bribes are cursed by God. Source: Bukhari and Muslim, on the Authority of ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Amr Ibn Al-’As. Greed and faith can never co-exist in the human heart. Source: An-Nasa’i, on the Authority of Abu Hurayrah 3. Maintain balance and self-control. Three things are part of the good morals of a believer. When he is overcome by anger, his anger should not drive him to falsehood. When he is happy, his happiness should not take him beyond the bounds of what is right. When he has power, he should not stake a claim to something which is not his. Source: At-Tirmidhi, on the Authority of Anas Ibn Malik 4. Be proactive and action-oriented especially when confronting evil. Whosoever of you sees an evil action, let him change it with his hand; and if he is not able to do so, then with his tongue; and if he is not able to do so, then with his heart, for that is the minimum that is desirable from a believer. Source: An-Nasa’i, on the Authority of Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri. GUIDANCE FOR THE ETHICAL MUSLIM 7-Nov-21 Play Book 45