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At this point, you are
heading into meaningful
activities and learning
encounters. Complete the
exercises and answer the
suggested worksheets to
experience lifelong, practical
learning that awaits at the end
of this module.
ENJOY YOUR JOURNEY!
Content Standard Performance Standard
The learner demonstrates
understanding of concepts and
underlying principles in drafting
electrical and electronic layout and
details.
The learner independently drafts
electrical and electronic layout and
details following the job requirements.
Quarter III Time Allotment: 20 hrs.
MODULE 5
Drafting Electrical and Electronic Layout and Details
Introduction
One must realize that electrical and electronic drafting are two of the most
rapidly evolving technologies of the modern age. Electrical drafting is the
transmission and use of electrical power, whether for industry, business or home.
Typical components are generators, controls, transmission of networks, and
lighting, heating and cooling systems. Meanwhile, electronic drafting involves
circuits of products such as radios, TVs, guidance system, radars, computers and
others.
Through this module, you will learn how to draw diagrams of electrical and
electronic circuits using proper symbols, layout and other details.
Objectives:
At the end of this module, you are expected to:
 draft electrical plans and layout; and
 draft auxiliary systems and layout
*****
254
Pre- assessment:
You will be challenged to dig deeper into your prior knowledge and previous
experiences about drafting electrical and electronic layout details. This phase will
guide you in assessing yourself by answering questions that relate with the basics
of drafting electrical and electronic lay-out and details.
Part I: Identification
Directions: Identify the following electrical/electronic symbols. Write your
answer on a separate sheet or in your assignment notebook.
1. 4.
2. 5. R
3. 6. A.C.
Part II: Multiple Choice
Directions: Choose the letter of the best answer then write them in your
answer sheet.
_____1. It is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring
environmental changes associated with combustion.
a. Fire Alarm System c. Fire extinguisher
b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle
_____2. The movement of charged particles in a specific direction is known as ___.
a. current b. power c. resistance d. voltage
_____3. It discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, and
when a predetermined temperature has been reached.
a. Fire detector c. Smoke detector
b. Fire extinguisher d. Fire sprinkle
_____4. It is the electric pressure that causes the current to flow.
a. current b. voltage c. resistance d. power
_____5. A type of smoke detector which uses a very small quantity of
radioactive material.
a. Ionization type detector c. Photoelectric type detector
b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle
_____6. It is the opposition to the flow of charge.
a. voltage b. resistance c. power d. current
255
_____7. A type of smoke alarm that detects larger particles produced by
smoldering fires.
a. Ionization type detector c. Photoelectric type detector
b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle
____8. A movement or flow of electric charge which periodically in reverse
position.
a. Alternating Current c. Direct current
b. Electric circuit d. Power
____9. It is the rate of doing work and is equal to the product of the current and
voltage.
a. voltage b. resistance c. power d. current
____10. It refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the
possibility of a fire that may result in death, injury or property damage.
a. Fire safety c. Fire Alarm System
b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle
Part III: Modified True or False
Directions: Write True if the statement is correct and False if it is not and
underline the word which made the sentence incorrect.
1. According to the current Electrical Notes and Specifications the smallest
size of the wire to be used shall be 12TW.
2. The maximum size of electric wire for service entrance is number 8 AWG.
3. Branch Circuit is a portion of a wiring system extending beyond the final
overcurrent device protecting the circuit.
4. The kitchen requires a high level of general lighting from ceiling fixtures.
5. Intercoms can be portable or mounted permanently in buildings and
vehicles.
Skills Assessment
Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain
in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills
expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking “Not much”, if you are not
so familiar yet, “A little” and/or “A lot”, if you are already familiar with the skills. Don’t
feel bad if you checked “Not Much” in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is
being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the
lesson to be presented.
256
Skills in drafting electrical plans and layout Not Much A little A lot
I can draft lighting and power layout according to
architectural standards.
I can provide appropriate symbols, riser diagram
and circuits in the working plans in accordance
with the Philippine Electrical Code.
I can draft legends and general notes according to
local power service provider.
Learning Goals and Targets:
After reading the introduction and carefully answering the pre assessment
skills test, you might have ideas of what you will be dealing with in this module.
Now prepare to set your goals and targets for this module by completing the activity
below. Write your answer in your notebook.
My goals are:
My targets are:
Goal 4
Goal 3
Goal 2
Goal 1
Target 1
Target 2
Target 3
257
Lesson 1: Draft Electrical Plans and Layouts
This lesson is designed to enhance your recognition of the different
symbols, and materials used in lay-outing the power and lighting plans based on
the Electrical standards.
Ampacity is current-carrying capacity expressed in amperes.
Appliance is utilization equipment generally other than industrial, normally
built in standardized sizes or types, which is installed or connected as a unit
to perform one or more functions such as washing clothes, air conditioning,
food mixing, deep frying etc.
Branch Circuit is a portion of a wiring system extending beyond the final
overcurrent device protecting the circuit.
Building is a structure which stands alone or which is cut off from adjoining
structures by fire walls with all openings therein protected by approved fire
doors.
Circuit breaker is a device designed to open and close a circuit by non-
automatic means and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined
overload of current, without injury to itself when properly applied within its
rating.
Ground is a conducting connection whether intentional or accidental
between an electrical circuit or equipment and earth, or to some conducting
body which serves in place of the earth.
Lighting outlet is an outlet intended for the direct connection of a lamp
holder, a lightning fixture, or a pendent cord terminating in a lamp holder.
Outlet is a point on the wiring system at which current is taken to supply
utilization equipment.
Panel board is a single panel or group of panel units designed to be
assembled. It includes buses, with or without switches and/or automatic
over current protective devices for the control of light, heat or power circuits
of small individual as well as aggregate capacity. Designed to be placed in
a cabinet or cut out box in or against the wall or partition.
Know
258
Parallel circuit has more than one resistor (anything that uses electricity to
do work) and gets its name from having multiple (parallel) paths to move
along. Charges can move through any of several paths.
Receptacle is a contact device installed at an outlet for the connection of
an attachment plug and flexible cord.
Receptacle outlet is an outlet where one or more receptacles are installed.
Parallel circuit has more than one resistor.
Series circuit a circuit in which all parts are connected end to end to provide
a single path for current.
The Flow of Electricity
Electric charges can be made to flow from a source such as battery,
photocell, or electric generator.
Electrical Quantities
1. Current is the movement of charged particles in a wire to a specific
direction. The charged particles may be a positive ion or a negative ion. The
symbol used is (A) and is named ampere. One ampere of current flows in a
conductor when 6.251x1018 electrons pass a given cross section in 1
second.
2. Voltage is also known as electromotive force (emf) or potential difference.
It is the electric pressure that causes current to flow. Potential difference is
the potential energy divided by charge. It is the work needed to move a
charged body against the electric force, toward or away from another
charged body. The symbol for voltage is (V) which is joule per coulomb.
There are several methods of producing an emf. The most common are by
electromagnetic induction in generators and chemical reaction in batteries.
3. Resistance is the opposition to the flow of charge. The symbol for
resistance is (R). The unit used to specify the amount of resistance is the
ohm, represented by the symbol (Ω). All materials offer some resistance to
current but the amount of resistance differs from each other. In direct current
(d-c) this unit is called resistance; in an alternating current (a-c) it is called
impedance.
259
Resistance of the object depends on four factors: 1) length, 2) cross-
sectional area, 3) resistivity of material and 4) temperature.
Factors that Affect Resistance
Ohm’s Law
Although the three electrical quantities: current, voltage and resistance, are
used differently, they are related to each other. This relationship is known as Ohm’s
Law. It is stated as, current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely
proportional to the resistance. It is expressed by the equation:
𝐼 =
𝐸
𝑅
𝐸 = 𝐼 𝑥 𝑅 𝑅 =
𝐸
𝐼
Power and Energy
Electric power is the rate of doing electrical work. It is equal to the product
of the current and voltage. The unit is watt (W) or kilowatt (kW). A kilowatt is 1,000
watts. Work is being done at the rate of “1 watt” when a constant current of 1
ampere is maintained through a resistance by an emf of 1 volt. The power input in
watts to any electrical device in which the element has a resistance (R) and the
current is I given by the equation,
W = I2 R but by Ohm’s Law V = IR; hence W = VI
where W is in watt, R in ohm’s , I in amperes, and v in volts.
Length
Cross-sectional
area
Material
Temperature
E
I R
260
Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC)
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. It is produced
by such sources as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type
electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such
as a wire, but can also be through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a
vacuum as in electron or ion beams. The electric charge flows in a constant
direction. A term formerly used for direct current was Galvanic current.
Alternating current (AC) is the movement (or flow) of electric charge which
periodically in reverses direction. An electric charge for instance would move
forward, then backward, and vice versa. In direct current (DC), the movement or
flow of electric charge is only in one direction. Audio and radio signals carried on
electrical wires are examples of alternating current.
Electrical Circuits
An electrical circuit is a network that has a closed loop, giving a return path
for the current.
There are two types of circuits, namely series circuit and parallel circuit. A
series circuit has two or more loads but current flows through a single conducting
path, while a parallel circuit has more than one path for current to flow.
Series Circuit Parallel Circuit
261
Suggested Activity 1
Direction: Based on what you have learned, try to connect the bulbs,
switch and dry cell in series and parallel circuits.
Series Circuit
Parallel Circuit
Test I. Fill-in the Blanks:
Directions: Fill in the blanks with the correct answers and write it on a
separate sheet.
1. __________ is the movement of charged particles in a specific direction.
2. __________ is the unit of electric current represented by the symbol (A).
3. __________ is also known as electromotive force.
4. Potential difference is the potential energy divided by ____________.
5. The symbol for voltage is ________ which means “joule per coulomb.”
6. __________ is the opposition to the flow of charge.
7. The symbol for resistance is ____________.
8. The unit used to specify the amount of resistance is the _________ which
is represented by the symbol (Ω).
9. The Law that states, “Current is directly proportional to the voltage and
inversely proportional to the resistance” is called ___________.
Process
262
10._________ is the rate of doing electrical work. It is equal to the
product of the current and voltage.
Test II. Modified TRUE or FALSE
Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is correct, if FALSE, change the
underlined word/ words to make the statement correct.
1. An electric circuit provides a complete open path for current to flow.
2. Rubber is relatively a poor conductor of electricity.
3. Materials that do not allow electrons to flow freely are called conductors.
4. When electrons move back and forth, reversing their direction regularly,
the current is called alternating current.
5. A parallel circuit has two or more loads that flow through a single
conducting path.
Electrical Diagrams and Symbols
Graphic symbols are shorthand ways of showing how a circuit works or how
the parts of the circuit are connected. Electrical symbols are used to represent
actual electrical components on drawings. Graphic symbols are usually drawn
using single-line (one-line) diagrams, on schematic diagrams. The same is done
on connection or wiring diagrams. This will give the workman the idea on how the
wiring installation will be done as specified in the work plan.
Output Devices: Lamps, Heater, Motor, etc.
Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component
Lamp (lighting) A transducer which converts
electrical energy to light. This
symbol is used for a lamp
providing illumination, for
example a car headlamp or torch
bulb.
Lamp (indicator) A transducer which converts
electrical energy to light. This
symbol is used for a lamp which
is an indicator, for example a
warning light on a car dashboard.
Heater A transducer which converts
electrical energy to heat.
Motor A transducer which converts
electrical energy to kinetic
energy (motion).
Know
263
Bell A transducer which converts
electrical energy to sound.
Buzzer A transducer which converts
electrical energy to sound.
Inductor
(Coil, Solenoid)
A coil of wire which creates a
magnetic field when current
passes through it. It may have an
iron core inside the coil. It can be
used as a transducer converting
electrical energy to mechanical
energy by pulling on something.
Electrical Legend
Service Entrance
M Meco Meters
Panel Board
Circuit Breaker
Ceiling Light Outlet
Eaves Light
EL
PL
Pin light
Convenience outlet
R Range outlet
A.C. Air-condition outlet
264
T Telephone outlet
S One gang switch
S2 Two gang switch
S3 Three gang switch
Line concealed in ceiling
Line embedded in concrete
Circuit Homerun
Electrical Notes and Specifications
1. The electrical works shall comply with all the provisions in the Electrical
Code and with consideration on the rules and regulations of local power
company.
2. Unless otherwise specified, wiring shall be done with PVC pipe or local
made; minimum size shall be ½ "Ø trade sizes.
3. Electric meters installed by the power utility company are supplied and
installed by the power utility company.
4. The Philippine Electrical Code provides that only professional engineers can
sign the electrical plans.
5. Samples of materials to be used shall be submitted to the construction
engineering office for approval before execution of the work.
6. Smallest size of the wire to be used shall be 12TW wire unless otherwise
specified.
7. The minimum size of electric wire for service entrance is number 8 AWG.
Suggested Activity 2: Identification:
Directions: Identify the following symbols. Write the answer on a separate
sheet of paper.
1. 6.
2. 7. R
Process
265
3. 8.
A.C.
4. M 9. S
5. 10.
Test II. TRUE OR FALSE
Direction: Read each statement carefully. Write A if the statement is TRUE and B
if FALSE.
1. The Philippine Electrical Code provides that only a professional engineer or
associate electrical engineer can sign electrical plans.
2. Electric meters used in residential construction are not supplied and installed
by the power utility company.
3. Smallest size of the wire to be used in residential construction shall be 12TW
wire.
4. Wiring in residential construction shall be done with PVC pipe or local made.
5. The minimum size of electric wire for service entrance in residential
construction is number 4 AWG.
Lighting
Planning for sufficient lighting involves the light, eye and the object. Whether
planning lighting for a residence or for a large commercial building, the same
design factors must be considered. One must consider how much light is needed,
what type has the best quality and how should the light be distributed.
Electrical Fixtures
There are three groups of light fixtures namely, ceiling fixtures, wall
fixtures and portable plug-ins.
Know
266
General Rules to Observe in Illumination Planning
1. The kitchen requires a high level of general lighting from ceiling fixtures.
Specific lighting for all work areas includes, range, sink, tables, and
counters.
2. The bathroom requires a high level of general lighting from ceiling fixtures.
The mirror should have lights on two sides. The shower and water closet
should have a recessed, vapor proof light.
3. The living room requires a low-level of general lighting but should have
specific lighting for areas for reading, and other visual tasks. Decorative
lighting can also be used.
4. The bedroom requires a low level of general lighting but should have specific
lighting for reading in bed on both sides of the dressing-table mirror. The
dressing area requires high level of general lighting. Children’s bedroom
requires a high level of general lighting. Closets should have a fixture placed
high at the front.
5. The dining area requires low level of general lighting with local lighting
over the dining table.
6. The entrance and hallway require a high level of general and decorative
lighting.
7. Traffic areas require a high level of general lighting for safety.
267
70-200 footcandles (750 to 2150 lx) Incandescent lamps
General Lighting Decorative
lightingfootcandle Fluorescent lamps10-20
footcandles (108 to 215 lx) Lux
20-30 footcandles (215 to 320 lx) Specific (local) lighting
8. Television viewing requires a very low level of general lighting. Television
should not be viewed in the dark because the strong contrasts of dark
room and bright screen are tiring to the eyes.
9. Reading and desk areas require a high level of general light and specific
light that is diffused and glareless. There should be no shadow.
10.Outdoor lighting is accomplished by waterproof floodlights and spotlights.
Extensive outdoor lighting will provide convenience, beauty and safety.
Areas that could be illuminated are the landscaping, game areas,
barbecue area, patio, garden, front of picture window, pools and
driveways.
Suggested Activity 3: Identification
Directions: Identify the attribute being described by each statement. Choose
from the pool of words below. Write your answer on a sheet of paper.
1. A sealed glass containing a filament connected at its ends to the contact
area in the base, thereby completing an electric circuit. It provides small
and concentrated glow of light.
2. A gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor.
3. It is equal to the amount of light a candle throws on an object 1' away.
4. The standard unit of illumination in metric system.
5. Lighting method in which light spreads an even, low-level light throughout
a room.
6. Lighting method used to develop different moods and to accent objects for
interests.
7. Lighting method that directs light to an area used for specific visual tasks.
8.
9. Light level used for casual visual tasks, like card playing, conversation,
television, listening to music, etc.
10.Light level used for easy reading, sewing, knitting, house cleaning, etc.
11.Light level used for prolonged detailed tasks such as fine sewing, reading
fine print, drafting, etc.
Process
268
Test II. Presentation: Using the internet, cut-out pictures from magazines or an
excerpt from a movie setting present to the class a scene that best describe one
of the following:
5 Types of Lighting Dispersement
3 Groups of light fixtures
2 Types of Light source
Components of an Electrical System
The components of an electrical system can be arranged in 3 major
categories:
1. Wiring includes conductors and raceways of all types.
2. Power handling equipment
a. transformers
b. switchboards
c. panel boards
d. large switches
e. circuit breakers
3. Utilization equipment, includes lighting, motors, controls and wiring
devices.
.
Know
269
Wiring
Electrical systems in buildings are usually divided into two parts: service and
branch circuits.
Service parts include all the wiring and apparatus needed to bring electricity
into building. Branch circuits distribute the electricity throughout the structure.
Wire used in both service and branch circuit is made of one or more strands
of metal, either copper or aluminum and covered with a flexible plastic insulation.
The size of the wire used in an electric circuit depends on the current to be carried
by the circuit.
The Cir-Kit "concept" of electrical wiring was first developed in 1976 and is
now the predominant world-wide method of dollhouse wiring and electrification. A
great measure of its success can be attributed to the ease of installation and
professional appearance when finished. The Cir-Kit method allows anyone, even
those without electrical knowledge, to successfully construct a completely hidden
and "to scale" lighting system.
Boxes and Cabinets
Distribution box is made from either steel or plastic, which contains a
junction between several conduits. Boxes are usually of a rectangular, octagonal,
or round form having punched or knock-out holes to fit the conduits.
270
Types of Boxes
1. Outlet boxes are those utilized for connection of lighting and receptacle
outlets.
2. Junction boxes are those used for junction of wires in branch and feeder
circuits.
3. Pull boxes are used for pulling of wires in branch and feeder circuits.
Rules in Planning the Electrical System
1. The main source of light in a room should be controlled by a wall switch
located on the latch side of the room’s entrance. It should not be
necessary to walk into a dark room to find the light switch.
2. Electrical outlets (except in the kitchen) should average one for every
6'(1.8m) of wall space.
3. Electrical outlets in the kitchen should average one for every 4'(1.2m) of
wall space.
4. Walls between doors should have an outlet, regardless of the size of the
wall space.
5. Each room should have a light outlet in the ceiling or wall that will be a
major source of light for the whole room.
6. Each room should have adequate lighting for all visual tasks.
7. Each room should have at least one easy-to-reach outlet for the vacuum
cleaner or other appliances that are often used.
8. Not all lights in one room should be on the same circuit.
9. The height of all outlets in the house should be listed on the plans.
10.GFCI receptacle should be provided as outlined.
Service and Branch Requirements
Power is supplied to a building via the service drop. Three heavy wires
together are called the drop that extends from the utility pole or an underground
source to the structure.
271
Types of connections from an electrical pole to the building
1. Overhead Service Drop
2. Overhead pole connection with an underground service lateral to the
building
3. Connection in a manhole or hand hole at the property line with Service
Lateral to the building.
272
Circuit Protective Devices
There are two types of circuit protective devices which are commonly used:
1. Fuse. It is made of thin strip of metal used for safety because when the
current flowing through it becomes too high, it melts and breaks the flow of
electricity. It consists of an alloy link or wire of relatively low melting
temperature which when enclosed in an insulating fiber tube is called a
cartridge fuse, and when in a porcelain cup is known as plug fuse.
2. Circuit breaker. It is an electromechanical device which performs the same
protective function as a fuse and also acts as a switch. It is a reusable device
that protects a circuit from becoming overloaded
Switches
In electronics, a switch is an electrical component that can break an
electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to
another. The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical
device with one or more sets of electrical contacts. Each set of contacts can be in
one of two states: either 'closed' meaning the contacts are touching and electricity
can flow between them, or 'open', meaning the contacts are separated and non-
conducting.
273
Switch Board and Switchgear
Switchboards and switchgear are free standing assembles of switches,
fuses, and/or circuit breakers which normally provide switching and feeder
protection to a number of circuits connected to a main source.
Panel Board
A panel, or panel board, serves basically the same function as a
switchboard, except on a smaller scale, that is, it accepts a relatively large block of
power and distributes it in smaller blocks. Panel boards may be classified as flush-
type or surface-type.
ITEM SYMBOL ILLUSTRATION
SELF CHECK # 1.4
274
Suggested Activity 4: Drafting Design
A. Work individually or in groups, review sections of the Rules in
Planning Electrical Systems and illustrate/draft a design of a workplace (ie.
ergonomic kitchen, class laboratory, futuristic residential structure or an
electronic gadgets factory work area, etc.) taking into consideration the
application of each of the following:
- Power Handling Equipment
- Circuit Protective Devices
- Distribution Boxes
B. Develop 10 safety guidelines for each of the design
Working with Electrical Drawings
Complete electrical plans will guarantee the installation of electrical
wiring exactly as planned. If electrical plans are incomplete and vague, the
totality of the installation is largely affected.
Steps in Preparing the Electrical Plan
If the basic floor plan is already drawn, the designer should:
1. Determine the exact position of all appliances and lighting fixtures
on the plan.
2. Draw the electrical symbols representing the switches, outlets and
electrical devices on the floor plan.
3. Draw a line from each switch to the connecting fixture.
4. Show the position of all outlets and controls using electrical wiring
symbols, however, the entire circuit is not drawn on the electrical
plan.
5. Determine location of power source from nearest power supply
post.
6. Draw the single line riser diagram.
Process
Know
275
7. Determine the number of lighting outlets, convenience outlets and
other electrical fixtures and appliance.
8. Draw the schedule of loads and determine size of wires and
conduits.
9. Compute for total current to determine size of service drop and
sizes of wires.
10.Write electrical construction specification and other notes.
Sample Single Line Riser Diagram
Sample Computation and Schedule of Loads
276
Instruction: Refer to Sample Electrical Plan given on last portion of this
module. Perform the following activities for one complete plate:
1. Locate the proper positioning of electrical fixtures then draft according
to your preferences.
2. Draft and determine the proper position of the service drop and the
location of breaker
3. Draft and determine the locations of switches.
4. Draft and determine the schedule of loads.
5. Finalize the drawing by completing the specifications for the detailed
drawing of electrical plan including the legend.
Enrichment Activities:
1. Obtain old and new drawings from local and foreign countries.
Compare which drawing shows a well-executed electrical draft and
layout details.
Rate and/or comment on certain aspect such as: Electrical
Installation Design Technique; Technical Details; Aesthetics and
Accuracy in drawing and dimensions, etc.
Based on the results of assessment and analysis of both
drawings, create a drawing portfolio which is either a digital (online)
or hardcopy that incorporates your recommendations on the areas
that need further improvement.
2. Draft the existing design and dimensioned floor plan with
electrical layout details of your house which incorporates your
present furniture, closet, computer station, entertainment system etc.
Using the available resources such as Internet, catalogues,
magazines and research articles, update and upgrade the existing
design of your house to make it more suitable, appealing and
comfortable to your lifestyle. Your parent/s will help you on this task,
provided that you have developed an accurate dimensioned plan
electrical draft and layout details, bill of materials and will stay within
a budget of P5,000.00 – P10,000.00.
ReflectandUnderstand
277
Summative Test
Direction: Given the floor plan on Module 1, draft a complete electrical layout of
the ground and second floor including the schedule of loads for each.
Lesson 2: Draft Auxiliary Systems and Layout
This lesson is designed to familiarize you to the auxiliary systems device
that may be used as a substitute or reserve in case of need. Such devices
include fire alarm and protection systems, electronics and communication
system (cable TV, intercoms, music and pagers) and Building Management
System.
SKILLS EVALUATION
Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must
gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the
skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking “Not much”, if you
are not so familiar yet, “A little” and/or “A lot”, if you are already familiar with the
skills. Don’t feel bad if you checked “Not Much” in all of the skills. Keep in mind
that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and
skills on the lesson to be presented.
Skills in drafting auxiliary systems and
layout
Not
Much
A
little
A
lot
 I can layout fire alarm and protection system
symbols in the auxiliary system and layout
plan according to Fire Code
 I can layout electronic and communication
devices according to electrical drafting
requirements
Transfer
278
Learning Goals and Targets:
After reading the introduction and carefully answering the pre
assessment skills test, you might have ideas of what you will be dealing with in
this module. Now prepare to set your goals and targets for this module by
completing the activity below. Write your answer in your notebook.
My goals are:
My targets are:
Operational Definition of Terms
Annunciator an indicator that announces which electrical circuit has been
active (as on a telephone switchboard).
Concealed refers to inaccessibility by the structure or finish of the building.
Damp location is a location subject to a moderate degree of moisture, such as
some basements, some barns, some cold storage warehouse, and the
like.
Demand factor is the ratio of the maximum demand of the system or part of a
system, to the total connected load.
Feeder is a circuit conductor between the service equipment and the branch
circuit overcurrent device.
Goal 4
Goal 3
Goal 2
Goal 1
Target 1
Target 2
Target 3
279
Service is the conductor or equipment for delivering energy from the electricity
supply system to the wiring system of the premises supplied.
Service cable is a service conductor made up in the form of a cable.
Service conductors are supply conductors which extend from the main street
transformers to the service equipment of the premises supplied.
Service drop are overhead service conductors between the last pole or other
aerial support to and including the slicer, if any, to the service entrance
conductors at the building walls, where joined by tap or splice to the
service drop.
Service raceway is a rigid metal conductor, electrical metallic tubing, or other
raceway, that encloses the service entrance conductors.
Switch: General use switch is a switch intended for use in general distribution
and branch circuits. It is rated in ampere, and is capable of interrupting
rated current at its rated voltage.
Switchboard is a large single panel, frame or assembly of panels, on which
are mounted on the face or back or both switches, over-current and other
protective devices; buses and usually instruments.
Utilization equipment is equipment which utilizes electric energy for
mechanical, chemical heating, lighting, or similar useful purposes.
Voltage to the ground is the voltage between the given conductor and the
conductor which is grounded.
Weatherproof refers to the state of being so constructed or protected that
exposure to any weather condition will not interfere its successful
operation.
Graphic Symbols for Auxiliary System
Shown below are electronic symbols that are used to represent actual
electronic components on drawings. Graphic symbols are usually drawn on
single-line (one-line) diagrams, on schematic diagrams, or on connection or
Know
280
wiring diagrams. By marking the symbols, you can relate with parts lists,
descriptions, or instructions of electrical plans and layouts.
Telephone outlet
Push buttons
Buzzer
Bell
Combination Bell Buzzer
CH Chime
Annunciator
D Electric Door Opener
T Bell-Ringing Transformer
Interconnection Box
Outside Telephone
Interconnecting Telephone
R Radio Outlet
TV Television Outlet
F Fire alarm
Suggested Activity 1
Direction: From the floor plan specified on Module 1, locate and place
each of the symbols for auxiliary system, and then draft based on your own
design and preference. Prepare to present your design in class.
Process
281
Fire Alarm Systems
Fire Alarm System is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire
by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. It can be
used to notify people to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency, to
call for emergency forces aid, and to prepare the structure and associated
systems to control the spread of fire and smoke.
Smoke Detectors
If you were to build a house today, smoke detectors would be required
in each bedroom, on each level of the home in the vicinity of the bedrooms,
including basements.
A fire sprinkler is the part of a fire sprinkler system that discharges
water when the effects of a fire have been detected, such as when a
predetermined temperature has been reached. Fire sprinklers can be automatic
or open orifice.
Key Elements of the Local Building Code
 Building a facility should be in accordance with the version of the Local
Building Code is in effect at the time of the building permit application.
 Maintaining a facility and conducting oneself should be in accordance
with the provisions of the fire code, after the building is occupied. This is
based on knowledge of the code by the owner and ensuring that the
occupants and operators of the building are aware of the current
applicable regulations.
Fire safety refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the
possibility of a fire that may result in death, injury, or property damage. It alerts
those in a structure of the presence of fire in the event one occurs. It also
enables those threatened by fire to survive, or to reduce the damage caused
by fire.
Fire safety measures include those that are planned during the construction
of a building or implemented in structures that are already standing, and those
that are taught to occupants of the building.
Threats to fire safety are referred to as fire hazards. A fire hazard may
include a situation that increases the likelihood a fire may start or may impede
escape in the event a fire occurs.
Know
282
I. Direction: Given the Floor Plan from Module 1, perform the following activity
for one complete plate.
1. Locate and draw the position of the following based on the given floor
plan.
a. fire alarm system
b. smoke detectors
c. fire alarms
2. Finalize the fire alarm system by drawing a diagram connecting the
fixtures.
II. Multiple Choice
Directions: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write your answer on a
separate sheet of paper.
1. It is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring
environmental changes associated with combustion.
a. Fire Alarm System c. Fire extinguisher
b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle
2. It discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, and when
a predetermined temperature has been reached.
a. Fire Alarm System c. Fire extinguisher
b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle
3. A type of smoke detector which uses a very small quantity of radioactive
material.
a. Ionization type detector c. Fire sprinkle
b. Fire detector d. Photoelectric type detector
4. A type of smoke alarm that detects larger particles produced by smoldering
fires.
a. Ionization type detector c. Fire sprinkle
b. Fire detector d. Photoelectric type detector
5. It refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the possibility of
a fire that may result in death, injury, or property damage.
a. Fire Alarm System c. Fire extinguisher
b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle
Process
283
Suggested Activity 2:
I. Drafting Auxiliary Electrical Plan
Direction: Given the floor plan below draw an auxiliary electrical plan
containing the following details:
Note: You can make your own design that suits your preferences.
Prepare to present your design in class.
Summative Test
Direction: Using the floor plan from on page 294 and page 295, draft and
develop a Design Brief or a Project Proposal of an Electrical and
Electronic Layout Details that addresses a current social issue.
Possible scenarios might include the design of a residence for
individuals with physical disabilities; the design of a consumer product that
could be used by individuals suffering from arthritis. The project should
demonstrate how human factors (e.g., physical, ethical, and cultural) have been
considered and accommodated architectural planning and designing.
1.Fire alarm 6. Push buttons
2.Telephone outlet 7. Outside telephone
3. Buzzer 8. Interconnecting telephone
4. Bell 9. Annunciator
5. Chime 10. Interconnection Box
Transfer
ReflectandUnderstand
284
SAMPLE ELECTRICAL PLAN
285
286
Post-Assessment
Answer the post assessment below to determine whether
there is significant increase in your understanding of Drafting
Electrical and Electronic Lay-out and Details. The feedback to this
post assessment is appended on page ____
Good Luck!
Part I: Identification
Identify the following symbols and describe where each of these
symbols of each must be placed properly inside a residential structure.
Symbols Name Description
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
7.
Part II: Multiple Choice
Direction: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write the answer on your
answer sheet.
_____1. It is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring
environmental changes associated with combustion.
a. Fire Alarm System c. Fire extinguisher
287
b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle
_____2. It is the movement of charged particles in a specific direction.
a. current b. voltage c. resistance d. power
_____3. It discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, and
when a predetermined temperature has been reached.
a. Fire detector c. Smoke detector
b. Fire extinguisher d. Fire sprinkle
_____4. It is the electric pressure that causes the current to flow.
a. current b. power c. resistance d. voltage
_____5. A type of smoke detector which uses a very small quantity of
radioactive material.
a. Fire detector c. Ionization type detector
b. Fire sprinkle d. Photoelectric type detector
_____6. A type of smoke alarm that detects larger particles produced by
smoldering fires.
a. Ionization type detector c. Photoelectric type detector
b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle
____7. A movement or flow of electric charge which periodically in reverse
position.
a. Alternating Current c. Direct current
b. Electric circuit d. Power
____8. It is the rate of doing work and is equal to the product of the current and
voltage.
a. voltage b. resistance c. power d. current
____9. It refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the
possibility of a fire that may result in death, injury or property damage.
a. Fire safety c. Fire Alarm System
b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle
Part III: True or False
Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if it is not.
1. Smallest size of the wire to be used shall be 12TW unless otherwise
specified.
2. The maximum size of electric wire for service entrance is number 8
AWG.
3. Branch Circuit is a portion of a wiring system extending beyond the final
overcurrent device protecting the circuit.
4. The kitchen requires a high level of general lighting from ceiling fixtures.
5. Intercoms can be portable or mounted permanently in buildings and
vehicles.

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Module 5 module 3 draft electrical and electronic layout and details

  • 1. 253 At this point, you are heading into meaningful activities and learning encounters. Complete the exercises and answer the suggested worksheets to experience lifelong, practical learning that awaits at the end of this module. ENJOY YOUR JOURNEY! Content Standard Performance Standard The learner demonstrates understanding of concepts and underlying principles in drafting electrical and electronic layout and details. The learner independently drafts electrical and electronic layout and details following the job requirements. Quarter III Time Allotment: 20 hrs. MODULE 5 Drafting Electrical and Electronic Layout and Details Introduction One must realize that electrical and electronic drafting are two of the most rapidly evolving technologies of the modern age. Electrical drafting is the transmission and use of electrical power, whether for industry, business or home. Typical components are generators, controls, transmission of networks, and lighting, heating and cooling systems. Meanwhile, electronic drafting involves circuits of products such as radios, TVs, guidance system, radars, computers and others. Through this module, you will learn how to draw diagrams of electrical and electronic circuits using proper symbols, layout and other details. Objectives: At the end of this module, you are expected to:  draft electrical plans and layout; and  draft auxiliary systems and layout *****
  • 2. 254 Pre- assessment: You will be challenged to dig deeper into your prior knowledge and previous experiences about drafting electrical and electronic layout details. This phase will guide you in assessing yourself by answering questions that relate with the basics of drafting electrical and electronic lay-out and details. Part I: Identification Directions: Identify the following electrical/electronic symbols. Write your answer on a separate sheet or in your assignment notebook. 1. 4. 2. 5. R 3. 6. A.C. Part II: Multiple Choice Directions: Choose the letter of the best answer then write them in your answer sheet. _____1. It is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. a. Fire Alarm System c. Fire extinguisher b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle _____2. The movement of charged particles in a specific direction is known as ___. a. current b. power c. resistance d. voltage _____3. It discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, and when a predetermined temperature has been reached. a. Fire detector c. Smoke detector b. Fire extinguisher d. Fire sprinkle _____4. It is the electric pressure that causes the current to flow. a. current b. voltage c. resistance d. power _____5. A type of smoke detector which uses a very small quantity of radioactive material. a. Ionization type detector c. Photoelectric type detector b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle _____6. It is the opposition to the flow of charge. a. voltage b. resistance c. power d. current
  • 3. 255 _____7. A type of smoke alarm that detects larger particles produced by smoldering fires. a. Ionization type detector c. Photoelectric type detector b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle ____8. A movement or flow of electric charge which periodically in reverse position. a. Alternating Current c. Direct current b. Electric circuit d. Power ____9. It is the rate of doing work and is equal to the product of the current and voltage. a. voltage b. resistance c. power d. current ____10. It refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the possibility of a fire that may result in death, injury or property damage. a. Fire safety c. Fire Alarm System b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle Part III: Modified True or False Directions: Write True if the statement is correct and False if it is not and underline the word which made the sentence incorrect. 1. According to the current Electrical Notes and Specifications the smallest size of the wire to be used shall be 12TW. 2. The maximum size of electric wire for service entrance is number 8 AWG. 3. Branch Circuit is a portion of a wiring system extending beyond the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit. 4. The kitchen requires a high level of general lighting from ceiling fixtures. 5. Intercoms can be portable or mounted permanently in buildings and vehicles. Skills Assessment Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking “Not much”, if you are not so familiar yet, “A little” and/or “A lot”, if you are already familiar with the skills. Don’t feel bad if you checked “Not Much” in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the lesson to be presented.
  • 4. 256 Skills in drafting electrical plans and layout Not Much A little A lot I can draft lighting and power layout according to architectural standards. I can provide appropriate symbols, riser diagram and circuits in the working plans in accordance with the Philippine Electrical Code. I can draft legends and general notes according to local power service provider. Learning Goals and Targets: After reading the introduction and carefully answering the pre assessment skills test, you might have ideas of what you will be dealing with in this module. Now prepare to set your goals and targets for this module by completing the activity below. Write your answer in your notebook. My goals are: My targets are: Goal 4 Goal 3 Goal 2 Goal 1 Target 1 Target 2 Target 3
  • 5. 257 Lesson 1: Draft Electrical Plans and Layouts This lesson is designed to enhance your recognition of the different symbols, and materials used in lay-outing the power and lighting plans based on the Electrical standards. Ampacity is current-carrying capacity expressed in amperes. Appliance is utilization equipment generally other than industrial, normally built in standardized sizes or types, which is installed or connected as a unit to perform one or more functions such as washing clothes, air conditioning, food mixing, deep frying etc. Branch Circuit is a portion of a wiring system extending beyond the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit. Building is a structure which stands alone or which is cut off from adjoining structures by fire walls with all openings therein protected by approved fire doors. Circuit breaker is a device designed to open and close a circuit by non- automatic means and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overload of current, without injury to itself when properly applied within its rating. Ground is a conducting connection whether intentional or accidental between an electrical circuit or equipment and earth, or to some conducting body which serves in place of the earth. Lighting outlet is an outlet intended for the direct connection of a lamp holder, a lightning fixture, or a pendent cord terminating in a lamp holder. Outlet is a point on the wiring system at which current is taken to supply utilization equipment. Panel board is a single panel or group of panel units designed to be assembled. It includes buses, with or without switches and/or automatic over current protective devices for the control of light, heat or power circuits of small individual as well as aggregate capacity. Designed to be placed in a cabinet or cut out box in or against the wall or partition. Know
  • 6. 258 Parallel circuit has more than one resistor (anything that uses electricity to do work) and gets its name from having multiple (parallel) paths to move along. Charges can move through any of several paths. Receptacle is a contact device installed at an outlet for the connection of an attachment plug and flexible cord. Receptacle outlet is an outlet where one or more receptacles are installed. Parallel circuit has more than one resistor. Series circuit a circuit in which all parts are connected end to end to provide a single path for current. The Flow of Electricity Electric charges can be made to flow from a source such as battery, photocell, or electric generator. Electrical Quantities 1. Current is the movement of charged particles in a wire to a specific direction. The charged particles may be a positive ion or a negative ion. The symbol used is (A) and is named ampere. One ampere of current flows in a conductor when 6.251x1018 electrons pass a given cross section in 1 second. 2. Voltage is also known as electromotive force (emf) or potential difference. It is the electric pressure that causes current to flow. Potential difference is the potential energy divided by charge. It is the work needed to move a charged body against the electric force, toward or away from another charged body. The symbol for voltage is (V) which is joule per coulomb. There are several methods of producing an emf. The most common are by electromagnetic induction in generators and chemical reaction in batteries. 3. Resistance is the opposition to the flow of charge. The symbol for resistance is (R). The unit used to specify the amount of resistance is the ohm, represented by the symbol (Ω). All materials offer some resistance to current but the amount of resistance differs from each other. In direct current (d-c) this unit is called resistance; in an alternating current (a-c) it is called impedance.
  • 7. 259 Resistance of the object depends on four factors: 1) length, 2) cross- sectional area, 3) resistivity of material and 4) temperature. Factors that Affect Resistance Ohm’s Law Although the three electrical quantities: current, voltage and resistance, are used differently, they are related to each other. This relationship is known as Ohm’s Law. It is stated as, current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance. It is expressed by the equation: 𝐼 = 𝐸 𝑅 𝐸 = 𝐼 𝑥 𝑅 𝑅 = 𝐸 𝐼 Power and Energy Electric power is the rate of doing electrical work. It is equal to the product of the current and voltage. The unit is watt (W) or kilowatt (kW). A kilowatt is 1,000 watts. Work is being done at the rate of “1 watt” when a constant current of 1 ampere is maintained through a resistance by an emf of 1 volt. The power input in watts to any electrical device in which the element has a resistance (R) and the current is I given by the equation, W = I2 R but by Ohm’s Law V = IR; hence W = VI where W is in watt, R in ohm’s , I in amperes, and v in volts. Length Cross-sectional area Material Temperature E I R
  • 8. 260 Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC) Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. It is produced by such sources as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also be through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. The electric charge flows in a constant direction. A term formerly used for direct current was Galvanic current. Alternating current (AC) is the movement (or flow) of electric charge which periodically in reverses direction. An electric charge for instance would move forward, then backward, and vice versa. In direct current (DC), the movement or flow of electric charge is only in one direction. Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are examples of alternating current. Electrical Circuits An electrical circuit is a network that has a closed loop, giving a return path for the current. There are two types of circuits, namely series circuit and parallel circuit. A series circuit has two or more loads but current flows through a single conducting path, while a parallel circuit has more than one path for current to flow. Series Circuit Parallel Circuit
  • 9. 261 Suggested Activity 1 Direction: Based on what you have learned, try to connect the bulbs, switch and dry cell in series and parallel circuits. Series Circuit Parallel Circuit Test I. Fill-in the Blanks: Directions: Fill in the blanks with the correct answers and write it on a separate sheet. 1. __________ is the movement of charged particles in a specific direction. 2. __________ is the unit of electric current represented by the symbol (A). 3. __________ is also known as electromotive force. 4. Potential difference is the potential energy divided by ____________. 5. The symbol for voltage is ________ which means “joule per coulomb.” 6. __________ is the opposition to the flow of charge. 7. The symbol for resistance is ____________. 8. The unit used to specify the amount of resistance is the _________ which is represented by the symbol (Ω). 9. The Law that states, “Current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance” is called ___________. Process
  • 10. 262 10._________ is the rate of doing electrical work. It is equal to the product of the current and voltage. Test II. Modified TRUE or FALSE Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is correct, if FALSE, change the underlined word/ words to make the statement correct. 1. An electric circuit provides a complete open path for current to flow. 2. Rubber is relatively a poor conductor of electricity. 3. Materials that do not allow electrons to flow freely are called conductors. 4. When electrons move back and forth, reversing their direction regularly, the current is called alternating current. 5. A parallel circuit has two or more loads that flow through a single conducting path. Electrical Diagrams and Symbols Graphic symbols are shorthand ways of showing how a circuit works or how the parts of the circuit are connected. Electrical symbols are used to represent actual electrical components on drawings. Graphic symbols are usually drawn using single-line (one-line) diagrams, on schematic diagrams. The same is done on connection or wiring diagrams. This will give the workman the idea on how the wiring installation will be done as specified in the work plan. Output Devices: Lamps, Heater, Motor, etc. Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component Lamp (lighting) A transducer which converts electrical energy to light. This symbol is used for a lamp providing illumination, for example a car headlamp or torch bulb. Lamp (indicator) A transducer which converts electrical energy to light. This symbol is used for a lamp which is an indicator, for example a warning light on a car dashboard. Heater A transducer which converts electrical energy to heat. Motor A transducer which converts electrical energy to kinetic energy (motion). Know
  • 11. 263 Bell A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound. Buzzer A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound. Inductor (Coil, Solenoid) A coil of wire which creates a magnetic field when current passes through it. It may have an iron core inside the coil. It can be used as a transducer converting electrical energy to mechanical energy by pulling on something. Electrical Legend Service Entrance M Meco Meters Panel Board Circuit Breaker Ceiling Light Outlet Eaves Light EL PL Pin light Convenience outlet R Range outlet A.C. Air-condition outlet
  • 12. 264 T Telephone outlet S One gang switch S2 Two gang switch S3 Three gang switch Line concealed in ceiling Line embedded in concrete Circuit Homerun Electrical Notes and Specifications 1. The electrical works shall comply with all the provisions in the Electrical Code and with consideration on the rules and regulations of local power company. 2. Unless otherwise specified, wiring shall be done with PVC pipe or local made; minimum size shall be ½ "Ø trade sizes. 3. Electric meters installed by the power utility company are supplied and installed by the power utility company. 4. The Philippine Electrical Code provides that only professional engineers can sign the electrical plans. 5. Samples of materials to be used shall be submitted to the construction engineering office for approval before execution of the work. 6. Smallest size of the wire to be used shall be 12TW wire unless otherwise specified. 7. The minimum size of electric wire for service entrance is number 8 AWG. Suggested Activity 2: Identification: Directions: Identify the following symbols. Write the answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. 6. 2. 7. R Process
  • 13. 265 3. 8. A.C. 4. M 9. S 5. 10. Test II. TRUE OR FALSE Direction: Read each statement carefully. Write A if the statement is TRUE and B if FALSE. 1. The Philippine Electrical Code provides that only a professional engineer or associate electrical engineer can sign electrical plans. 2. Electric meters used in residential construction are not supplied and installed by the power utility company. 3. Smallest size of the wire to be used in residential construction shall be 12TW wire. 4. Wiring in residential construction shall be done with PVC pipe or local made. 5. The minimum size of electric wire for service entrance in residential construction is number 4 AWG. Lighting Planning for sufficient lighting involves the light, eye and the object. Whether planning lighting for a residence or for a large commercial building, the same design factors must be considered. One must consider how much light is needed, what type has the best quality and how should the light be distributed. Electrical Fixtures There are three groups of light fixtures namely, ceiling fixtures, wall fixtures and portable plug-ins. Know
  • 14. 266 General Rules to Observe in Illumination Planning 1. The kitchen requires a high level of general lighting from ceiling fixtures. Specific lighting for all work areas includes, range, sink, tables, and counters. 2. The bathroom requires a high level of general lighting from ceiling fixtures. The mirror should have lights on two sides. The shower and water closet should have a recessed, vapor proof light. 3. The living room requires a low-level of general lighting but should have specific lighting for areas for reading, and other visual tasks. Decorative lighting can also be used. 4. The bedroom requires a low level of general lighting but should have specific lighting for reading in bed on both sides of the dressing-table mirror. The dressing area requires high level of general lighting. Children’s bedroom requires a high level of general lighting. Closets should have a fixture placed high at the front. 5. The dining area requires low level of general lighting with local lighting over the dining table. 6. The entrance and hallway require a high level of general and decorative lighting. 7. Traffic areas require a high level of general lighting for safety.
  • 15. 267 70-200 footcandles (750 to 2150 lx) Incandescent lamps General Lighting Decorative lightingfootcandle Fluorescent lamps10-20 footcandles (108 to 215 lx) Lux 20-30 footcandles (215 to 320 lx) Specific (local) lighting 8. Television viewing requires a very low level of general lighting. Television should not be viewed in the dark because the strong contrasts of dark room and bright screen are tiring to the eyes. 9. Reading and desk areas require a high level of general light and specific light that is diffused and glareless. There should be no shadow. 10.Outdoor lighting is accomplished by waterproof floodlights and spotlights. Extensive outdoor lighting will provide convenience, beauty and safety. Areas that could be illuminated are the landscaping, game areas, barbecue area, patio, garden, front of picture window, pools and driveways. Suggested Activity 3: Identification Directions: Identify the attribute being described by each statement. Choose from the pool of words below. Write your answer on a sheet of paper. 1. A sealed glass containing a filament connected at its ends to the contact area in the base, thereby completing an electric circuit. It provides small and concentrated glow of light. 2. A gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor. 3. It is equal to the amount of light a candle throws on an object 1' away. 4. The standard unit of illumination in metric system. 5. Lighting method in which light spreads an even, low-level light throughout a room. 6. Lighting method used to develop different moods and to accent objects for interests. 7. Lighting method that directs light to an area used for specific visual tasks. 8. 9. Light level used for casual visual tasks, like card playing, conversation, television, listening to music, etc. 10.Light level used for easy reading, sewing, knitting, house cleaning, etc. 11.Light level used for prolonged detailed tasks such as fine sewing, reading fine print, drafting, etc. Process
  • 16. 268 Test II. Presentation: Using the internet, cut-out pictures from magazines or an excerpt from a movie setting present to the class a scene that best describe one of the following: 5 Types of Lighting Dispersement 3 Groups of light fixtures 2 Types of Light source Components of an Electrical System The components of an electrical system can be arranged in 3 major categories: 1. Wiring includes conductors and raceways of all types. 2. Power handling equipment a. transformers b. switchboards c. panel boards d. large switches e. circuit breakers 3. Utilization equipment, includes lighting, motors, controls and wiring devices. . Know
  • 17. 269 Wiring Electrical systems in buildings are usually divided into two parts: service and branch circuits. Service parts include all the wiring and apparatus needed to bring electricity into building. Branch circuits distribute the electricity throughout the structure. Wire used in both service and branch circuit is made of one or more strands of metal, either copper or aluminum and covered with a flexible plastic insulation. The size of the wire used in an electric circuit depends on the current to be carried by the circuit. The Cir-Kit "concept" of electrical wiring was first developed in 1976 and is now the predominant world-wide method of dollhouse wiring and electrification. A great measure of its success can be attributed to the ease of installation and professional appearance when finished. The Cir-Kit method allows anyone, even those without electrical knowledge, to successfully construct a completely hidden and "to scale" lighting system. Boxes and Cabinets Distribution box is made from either steel or plastic, which contains a junction between several conduits. Boxes are usually of a rectangular, octagonal, or round form having punched or knock-out holes to fit the conduits.
  • 18. 270 Types of Boxes 1. Outlet boxes are those utilized for connection of lighting and receptacle outlets. 2. Junction boxes are those used for junction of wires in branch and feeder circuits. 3. Pull boxes are used for pulling of wires in branch and feeder circuits. Rules in Planning the Electrical System 1. The main source of light in a room should be controlled by a wall switch located on the latch side of the room’s entrance. It should not be necessary to walk into a dark room to find the light switch. 2. Electrical outlets (except in the kitchen) should average one for every 6'(1.8m) of wall space. 3. Electrical outlets in the kitchen should average one for every 4'(1.2m) of wall space. 4. Walls between doors should have an outlet, regardless of the size of the wall space. 5. Each room should have a light outlet in the ceiling or wall that will be a major source of light for the whole room. 6. Each room should have adequate lighting for all visual tasks. 7. Each room should have at least one easy-to-reach outlet for the vacuum cleaner or other appliances that are often used. 8. Not all lights in one room should be on the same circuit. 9. The height of all outlets in the house should be listed on the plans. 10.GFCI receptacle should be provided as outlined. Service and Branch Requirements Power is supplied to a building via the service drop. Three heavy wires together are called the drop that extends from the utility pole or an underground source to the structure.
  • 19. 271 Types of connections from an electrical pole to the building 1. Overhead Service Drop 2. Overhead pole connection with an underground service lateral to the building 3. Connection in a manhole or hand hole at the property line with Service Lateral to the building.
  • 20. 272 Circuit Protective Devices There are two types of circuit protective devices which are commonly used: 1. Fuse. It is made of thin strip of metal used for safety because when the current flowing through it becomes too high, it melts and breaks the flow of electricity. It consists of an alloy link or wire of relatively low melting temperature which when enclosed in an insulating fiber tube is called a cartridge fuse, and when in a porcelain cup is known as plug fuse. 2. Circuit breaker. It is an electromechanical device which performs the same protective function as a fuse and also acts as a switch. It is a reusable device that protects a circuit from becoming overloaded Switches In electronics, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts. Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either 'closed' meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or 'open', meaning the contacts are separated and non- conducting.
  • 21. 273 Switch Board and Switchgear Switchboards and switchgear are free standing assembles of switches, fuses, and/or circuit breakers which normally provide switching and feeder protection to a number of circuits connected to a main source. Panel Board A panel, or panel board, serves basically the same function as a switchboard, except on a smaller scale, that is, it accepts a relatively large block of power and distributes it in smaller blocks. Panel boards may be classified as flush- type or surface-type. ITEM SYMBOL ILLUSTRATION SELF CHECK # 1.4
  • 22. 274 Suggested Activity 4: Drafting Design A. Work individually or in groups, review sections of the Rules in Planning Electrical Systems and illustrate/draft a design of a workplace (ie. ergonomic kitchen, class laboratory, futuristic residential structure or an electronic gadgets factory work area, etc.) taking into consideration the application of each of the following: - Power Handling Equipment - Circuit Protective Devices - Distribution Boxes B. Develop 10 safety guidelines for each of the design Working with Electrical Drawings Complete electrical plans will guarantee the installation of electrical wiring exactly as planned. If electrical plans are incomplete and vague, the totality of the installation is largely affected. Steps in Preparing the Electrical Plan If the basic floor plan is already drawn, the designer should: 1. Determine the exact position of all appliances and lighting fixtures on the plan. 2. Draw the electrical symbols representing the switches, outlets and electrical devices on the floor plan. 3. Draw a line from each switch to the connecting fixture. 4. Show the position of all outlets and controls using electrical wiring symbols, however, the entire circuit is not drawn on the electrical plan. 5. Determine location of power source from nearest power supply post. 6. Draw the single line riser diagram. Process Know
  • 23. 275 7. Determine the number of lighting outlets, convenience outlets and other electrical fixtures and appliance. 8. Draw the schedule of loads and determine size of wires and conduits. 9. Compute for total current to determine size of service drop and sizes of wires. 10.Write electrical construction specification and other notes. Sample Single Line Riser Diagram Sample Computation and Schedule of Loads
  • 24. 276 Instruction: Refer to Sample Electrical Plan given on last portion of this module. Perform the following activities for one complete plate: 1. Locate the proper positioning of electrical fixtures then draft according to your preferences. 2. Draft and determine the proper position of the service drop and the location of breaker 3. Draft and determine the locations of switches. 4. Draft and determine the schedule of loads. 5. Finalize the drawing by completing the specifications for the detailed drawing of electrical plan including the legend. Enrichment Activities: 1. Obtain old and new drawings from local and foreign countries. Compare which drawing shows a well-executed electrical draft and layout details. Rate and/or comment on certain aspect such as: Electrical Installation Design Technique; Technical Details; Aesthetics and Accuracy in drawing and dimensions, etc. Based on the results of assessment and analysis of both drawings, create a drawing portfolio which is either a digital (online) or hardcopy that incorporates your recommendations on the areas that need further improvement. 2. Draft the existing design and dimensioned floor plan with electrical layout details of your house which incorporates your present furniture, closet, computer station, entertainment system etc. Using the available resources such as Internet, catalogues, magazines and research articles, update and upgrade the existing design of your house to make it more suitable, appealing and comfortable to your lifestyle. Your parent/s will help you on this task, provided that you have developed an accurate dimensioned plan electrical draft and layout details, bill of materials and will stay within a budget of P5,000.00 – P10,000.00. ReflectandUnderstand
  • 25. 277 Summative Test Direction: Given the floor plan on Module 1, draft a complete electrical layout of the ground and second floor including the schedule of loads for each. Lesson 2: Draft Auxiliary Systems and Layout This lesson is designed to familiarize you to the auxiliary systems device that may be used as a substitute or reserve in case of need. Such devices include fire alarm and protection systems, electronics and communication system (cable TV, intercoms, music and pagers) and Building Management System. SKILLS EVALUATION Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking “Not much”, if you are not so familiar yet, “A little” and/or “A lot”, if you are already familiar with the skills. Don’t feel bad if you checked “Not Much” in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the lesson to be presented. Skills in drafting auxiliary systems and layout Not Much A little A lot  I can layout fire alarm and protection system symbols in the auxiliary system and layout plan according to Fire Code  I can layout electronic and communication devices according to electrical drafting requirements Transfer
  • 26. 278 Learning Goals and Targets: After reading the introduction and carefully answering the pre assessment skills test, you might have ideas of what you will be dealing with in this module. Now prepare to set your goals and targets for this module by completing the activity below. Write your answer in your notebook. My goals are: My targets are: Operational Definition of Terms Annunciator an indicator that announces which electrical circuit has been active (as on a telephone switchboard). Concealed refers to inaccessibility by the structure or finish of the building. Damp location is a location subject to a moderate degree of moisture, such as some basements, some barns, some cold storage warehouse, and the like. Demand factor is the ratio of the maximum demand of the system or part of a system, to the total connected load. Feeder is a circuit conductor between the service equipment and the branch circuit overcurrent device. Goal 4 Goal 3 Goal 2 Goal 1 Target 1 Target 2 Target 3
  • 27. 279 Service is the conductor or equipment for delivering energy from the electricity supply system to the wiring system of the premises supplied. Service cable is a service conductor made up in the form of a cable. Service conductors are supply conductors which extend from the main street transformers to the service equipment of the premises supplied. Service drop are overhead service conductors between the last pole or other aerial support to and including the slicer, if any, to the service entrance conductors at the building walls, where joined by tap or splice to the service drop. Service raceway is a rigid metal conductor, electrical metallic tubing, or other raceway, that encloses the service entrance conductors. Switch: General use switch is a switch intended for use in general distribution and branch circuits. It is rated in ampere, and is capable of interrupting rated current at its rated voltage. Switchboard is a large single panel, frame or assembly of panels, on which are mounted on the face or back or both switches, over-current and other protective devices; buses and usually instruments. Utilization equipment is equipment which utilizes electric energy for mechanical, chemical heating, lighting, or similar useful purposes. Voltage to the ground is the voltage between the given conductor and the conductor which is grounded. Weatherproof refers to the state of being so constructed or protected that exposure to any weather condition will not interfere its successful operation. Graphic Symbols for Auxiliary System Shown below are electronic symbols that are used to represent actual electronic components on drawings. Graphic symbols are usually drawn on single-line (one-line) diagrams, on schematic diagrams, or on connection or Know
  • 28. 280 wiring diagrams. By marking the symbols, you can relate with parts lists, descriptions, or instructions of electrical plans and layouts. Telephone outlet Push buttons Buzzer Bell Combination Bell Buzzer CH Chime Annunciator D Electric Door Opener T Bell-Ringing Transformer Interconnection Box Outside Telephone Interconnecting Telephone R Radio Outlet TV Television Outlet F Fire alarm Suggested Activity 1 Direction: From the floor plan specified on Module 1, locate and place each of the symbols for auxiliary system, and then draft based on your own design and preference. Prepare to present your design in class. Process
  • 29. 281 Fire Alarm Systems Fire Alarm System is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. It can be used to notify people to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency, to call for emergency forces aid, and to prepare the structure and associated systems to control the spread of fire and smoke. Smoke Detectors If you were to build a house today, smoke detectors would be required in each bedroom, on each level of the home in the vicinity of the bedrooms, including basements. A fire sprinkler is the part of a fire sprinkler system that discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, such as when a predetermined temperature has been reached. Fire sprinklers can be automatic or open orifice. Key Elements of the Local Building Code  Building a facility should be in accordance with the version of the Local Building Code is in effect at the time of the building permit application.  Maintaining a facility and conducting oneself should be in accordance with the provisions of the fire code, after the building is occupied. This is based on knowledge of the code by the owner and ensuring that the occupants and operators of the building are aware of the current applicable regulations. Fire safety refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the possibility of a fire that may result in death, injury, or property damage. It alerts those in a structure of the presence of fire in the event one occurs. It also enables those threatened by fire to survive, or to reduce the damage caused by fire. Fire safety measures include those that are planned during the construction of a building or implemented in structures that are already standing, and those that are taught to occupants of the building. Threats to fire safety are referred to as fire hazards. A fire hazard may include a situation that increases the likelihood a fire may start or may impede escape in the event a fire occurs. Know
  • 30. 282 I. Direction: Given the Floor Plan from Module 1, perform the following activity for one complete plate. 1. Locate and draw the position of the following based on the given floor plan. a. fire alarm system b. smoke detectors c. fire alarms 2. Finalize the fire alarm system by drawing a diagram connecting the fixtures. II. Multiple Choice Directions: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. It is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. a. Fire Alarm System c. Fire extinguisher b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle 2. It discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, and when a predetermined temperature has been reached. a. Fire Alarm System c. Fire extinguisher b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle 3. A type of smoke detector which uses a very small quantity of radioactive material. a. Ionization type detector c. Fire sprinkle b. Fire detector d. Photoelectric type detector 4. A type of smoke alarm that detects larger particles produced by smoldering fires. a. Ionization type detector c. Fire sprinkle b. Fire detector d. Photoelectric type detector 5. It refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the possibility of a fire that may result in death, injury, or property damage. a. Fire Alarm System c. Fire extinguisher b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle Process
  • 31. 283 Suggested Activity 2: I. Drafting Auxiliary Electrical Plan Direction: Given the floor plan below draw an auxiliary electrical plan containing the following details: Note: You can make your own design that suits your preferences. Prepare to present your design in class. Summative Test Direction: Using the floor plan from on page 294 and page 295, draft and develop a Design Brief or a Project Proposal of an Electrical and Electronic Layout Details that addresses a current social issue. Possible scenarios might include the design of a residence for individuals with physical disabilities; the design of a consumer product that could be used by individuals suffering from arthritis. The project should demonstrate how human factors (e.g., physical, ethical, and cultural) have been considered and accommodated architectural planning and designing. 1.Fire alarm 6. Push buttons 2.Telephone outlet 7. Outside telephone 3. Buzzer 8. Interconnecting telephone 4. Bell 9. Annunciator 5. Chime 10. Interconnection Box Transfer ReflectandUnderstand
  • 33. 285
  • 34. 286 Post-Assessment Answer the post assessment below to determine whether there is significant increase in your understanding of Drafting Electrical and Electronic Lay-out and Details. The feedback to this post assessment is appended on page ____ Good Luck! Part I: Identification Identify the following symbols and describe where each of these symbols of each must be placed properly inside a residential structure. Symbols Name Description 1. 2. 3. 4. 6. 7. Part II: Multiple Choice Direction: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write the answer on your answer sheet. _____1. It is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. a. Fire Alarm System c. Fire extinguisher
  • 35. 287 b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle _____2. It is the movement of charged particles in a specific direction. a. current b. voltage c. resistance d. power _____3. It discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, and when a predetermined temperature has been reached. a. Fire detector c. Smoke detector b. Fire extinguisher d. Fire sprinkle _____4. It is the electric pressure that causes the current to flow. a. current b. power c. resistance d. voltage _____5. A type of smoke detector which uses a very small quantity of radioactive material. a. Fire detector c. Ionization type detector b. Fire sprinkle d. Photoelectric type detector _____6. A type of smoke alarm that detects larger particles produced by smoldering fires. a. Ionization type detector c. Photoelectric type detector b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle ____7. A movement or flow of electric charge which periodically in reverse position. a. Alternating Current c. Direct current b. Electric circuit d. Power ____8. It is the rate of doing work and is equal to the product of the current and voltage. a. voltage b. resistance c. power d. current ____9. It refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the possibility of a fire that may result in death, injury or property damage. a. Fire safety c. Fire Alarm System b. Fire detector d. Fire sprinkle Part III: True or False Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if it is not. 1. Smallest size of the wire to be used shall be 12TW unless otherwise specified. 2. The maximum size of electric wire for service entrance is number 8 AWG. 3. Branch Circuit is a portion of a wiring system extending beyond the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit. 4. The kitchen requires a high level of general lighting from ceiling fixtures. 5. Intercoms can be portable or mounted permanently in buildings and vehicles.