The sociological study of gender and work
emerged during the 1960s and 1970s,
as women’s labor force participation
rates rose and as the Women’s
Movement began calling attention to
gender inequality at home and on the
10. The feminist movement, also known as
the women's movement, refers to a series
of social movements and political
campaigns for radical and liberal reforms
on women's issues created by the
inequality between men and women.
Such issues are
• women's liberation,
• reproductive rights,
• domestic violence,
• maternity leave,
• equal pay,
• women's suffrage,
• sexual harassment,
• and sexual violence.
14. ● Workforce – The
people engaged in or
available for work,
either in a country or
area or in aparticular
company or industry.
A. WOMEN AND MEN IN THE WORKFORCE
15. Women in the Workforce
54.6 percent of the workforce is female
Women’s tasks defined as "assisting," "helping
out," or "housework."
More females than males are involved in
Women have been challenged by inequality in the
Men in the Workforce
66 percent of the workforce is male.
Tasks normally done by men valued more highly
than those done by women
Men's tasks defined as "work."
17. 1. Direct sex discrimination – When
an employee is treating unfavorably
because of their sex.
2. Indirect sex discrimination – Occur
if employers or managers hold
assumptions about what sort of work
women and men are capable, or not
capable, of doing.
Discrimination in Workplace
19. if a company paid men more
than women who are doing
the same work.
20. a policy that says only full-time
workers will be promoted might
disadvantage women who are
more likely to work part-time
because of family
21. an employer refused to
employ a woman because
she was pregnant or
because she may become
22. a policy says that all
employees must wear a
particular uniform if it is difficult
for a pregnant employee to
wear that uniform.
23. if a cafe refused to serve
a woman because she is
24. if an employer does not allow staff to take
short breaks at particular times during the
day. This may disadvantage women who
are breastfeeding as they may need to
take breaks to express milk.
25. a company not to employ a
married woman because it
assumes she will want to start
26. This is perhaps one of
the most noticeable
types of discrimination.
This happens when a
person is treating
because of their
association to a
protected class. This
could be because the
employee is of a certain
age, race, gender, has a
•Rejecting a qualified
female job applicant due
to their gender.
•Refusing to provide
disabled workers with
based on their religious
•Denying promotions to
employees from different
workers for taking
3. DIRECT DISCRIMINATION
27. Occurs when employees are
all treated the same, but
certain employees are put
at a disadvantage because
of this. In any
workplace, there are
policies that all
employees are expected to
follow, but not all
employees are exactly
alike, so this can end up
being harmful to some.
4. INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION
•Someone with a
•Someone thought to
have a protected
•You are treated
because of who you
29. •Start by speaking to your employer.
•Be sure to mention that you are
taking the matter seriously and
never hesitate to seek legal
•If your employer does not respond,
contact the Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
•Keep a detailed record of the
improper conduct, noting the date,
parties involved, witnesses,
approximate time, and details of
30. Sex discrimination
● not hiring a woman because the boss
thinks she won't fit into a traditionally male
● offering women and men different rates of
pay or benefits for the same job
● not promoting a woman to a more senior
position because it's assumed the other
staff won't respect her authority
● dividing up work tasks based on whether
staff are male or female
● insisting women wear different clothing at
work to men, for example, short skirts
● not considering women for a particular role.
32. SCHOOL AS GENDER SOCIALIZATION
Gender Socialization – Is the process through which children learn about
the social expectations, attitudes and behaviors typically associated with
boys and girls.
Schools are major contexts for gender socialization, in part because
children spend large amounts of time engaged with peers in such settings.
Schools’ affect gender differentiation via two primary sources: teachers
Teachers and school administrators help in the student’s gender
socialization by demonstrating gender stereotypes.
Students tend to interact with same-gender peers and through these
interactions; they will learn their peer’s expectations as boys or girls.
Media conveys information about the role of gender in people’s lives and
can reinforce gender stereotypes.
33. GENDER DIFFERENCES (biases, inequality i.e admission, retention, giving
Gender discrimination in education exists as well from differential treatment
students receive by either male or female teachers.
Teachers may have higher expectations for boys in math and science, and
for girls; higher expectations in language.
Teachers also were found to also have a tendency to praise students
matching gender expected norms.
Teachers interact with boys more often than with girls by a margin of 10 to
30 percent, depending on the grade level of the students and the personality
of the teacher (Measor & Sykes, 1992)
Teachers have a tendency to talk to boys from a greater physical distance
than when they talk to girls (Wilkinson & Marrett, 1985)
Another way of stating the difference is by what teachers tend to overlook:
with boys, they tend to overlook wrong answers, but with girls, they tend to
overlook right answers.
Gender differences also occur in the realm of classroom behavior.
34. IMPLICATIONS TO PARENTS, POLICIES
A close relationship between parents and school
contributes to improve the quality of the education, both
cognitively and socially.
Students with involved parents are more likely have
high grades, better social skills, show improved
behavior, and adapt well in school.
Parent involvement helps extend teaching outside the
classroom, creates a more positive experience for
children and helps children perform better when they are