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Minerals are always solid with particles in repeating patterns- crystals They are only found in Nature. They are formed in the Earth’s mantle (from heat and pressure) – near the surface when oxygen, calcium and carbon combine in the ocean, and when hot, mineral-rich water moves slowly through the cracks in the Earth’s crust.
EXAMPLES OF MINERALS: Quartz Iron CalciteHematite Calcite Diamond
PROPERTIES OF MINERALS:Streak: color of the powder leftbehind when you rub a mineralagainst a white tile called a streakplate.Luster: the way the surface of amineral reflects light, either metallic(shiny) or nonmetallic (dull)Hardness: a mineral’s ability toresist being scratched as measured byMohs’s hardness scale
USES OF MINERALS:Quartz makes glass. Diamonds make jewelry. Hematite can be used to make art. Many things that we see and use every day are made from iron.
What are three testers thatcan be used to determine amineral’s hardness?fingernail, penny, nail
ROCKS: Rocks are made up of two or more minerals. They are not crystals Some rocks form near the surface while others deep in thecrust. There are THREE major categories of Rocks: 1. IGNEOUS 2. SEDIMENTARY 3. METAMORPHIC
IGNEOUS ROCKS: Form when melted rocks harden Fine-grained rocks (smooth) are from lava Coarse-grained rocks (rough) are from magma.Obsidian Basalt Pumice Granite
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS: Formed from layers of sediment, created byweathering, and erosion, that are dropped from Fossilmoving water, and are squeezed and stuck conglomerate rocktogether. Fossils are usually found in sedimentaryrocks. Conglomerate rocks have large pieces androm in shallow water Siltstone is made up of smaller pieces Limestone is made up of fine grained rock Limestone Sandstone is made up of grains the size ofsand. Sandstone
METAMORPHIC ROCKS Existing rocks are changed through high heat and pressure to form different rocks morph = change SlateSchist Marble Gneiss
ROCK CYCLELike most cycles, the materials are used over and over.Process includeweathering, erosion, deposition, melting, compaction, andcementation.