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Interlinguistics in the 21st century
Planned languages as a tool to learn linguistics by doing
Federico Gobbo
Amsterdam / ...
What is Interlinguistics?
2 of 53
Where to put Interlinguistics?
■ General linguistics
□ ‘external’ linguistics
■ sociolinguistics
■ ethnolinguistics
■ lang...
Some basic definitions
■ sociolinguistics investigates language behaviour in relation with
society;
■ ethnolinguistics inve...
The historical priority of speech over writing
[although] no human society [has been] known to exist or to
have existed at...
Two exceptions on the priority of speech
6 of 53
Two exceptions on the priority of speech
■ sign languages
6 of 53
Two exceptions on the priority of speech
■ sign languages ← Sign Linguistics
6 of 53
Two exceptions on the priority of speech
■ sign languages ← Sign Linguistics
■ planned languages
6 of 53
Two exceptions on the priority of speech
■ sign languages ← Sign Linguistics
■ planned languages ← Interlinguistics
6 of 53
What is a planned language?
Languages can be planned from scratch if someone decided to do so,
writing the (normative) gra...
For planned languages orality is a challenge
normative variety
language planning
continuum of language variation
language ...
Community of practice: a sociolinguistic definition
The value of the notion ‘communities of practice’ to
Sociolinguistics a...
Is Interlinguistics old-fashioned?
A taxonomy of planned
languages
11 of 53
Why planning languages from scratch?
Languages can be planned for different purposes. The language can
be secret (esoteric)...
aux
non-aux
pubsecr
<empty>
Esperanto
Latino sine Flexione
Ido
Basic English
Novial
Volap¨uk (19th c.)
Interlinguaetc.
Int...
Tolkien’s languages were secret. . .
Esperanto edition of The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers
. . . became public! E.g., Neo-Sindarin
Source: Italian blog Meditazioni Tolkieniane
Hollywood languages: Dothraki is the new reference
Source: Amazon.com
The strange case of Toki Pona
Source: tokipona.org
The importance of publication
Source: Gobbo (2008)
18 of 53
An evaluation of planned languages
■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun
19 of 53
An evaluation of planned languages
■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun
■ planned languages are a-posterior...
An evaluation of planned languages
■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun
■ planned languages are a-posterior...
An evaluation of planned languages
■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun
■ planned languages are a-posterior...
An evaluation of planned languages
■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun
■ planned languages are a-posterior...
An evaluation of planned languages
■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun
■ planned languages are a-posterior...
Learning linguistics by doing:
university
20 of 53
An innovative teaching tool
■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA
21 of 53
An innovative teaching tool
■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA
■ no similar experiences el...
An innovative teaching tool
■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA
■ no similar experiences el...
An innovative teaching tool
■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA
■ no similar experiences el...
An innovative teaching tool
■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA
■ no similar experiences el...
An innovative teaching tool
■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA
■ no similar experiences el...
Aims
■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing)
22 of 53
Aims
■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing)
■ working in small groups (3 students each)
22 of 53
Aims
■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing)
■ working in small groups (3 students each)
■ chance to us...
Aims
■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing)
■ working in small groups (3 students each)
■ chance to us...
Aims
■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing)
■ working in small groups (3 students each)
■ chance to us...
Aims
■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing)
■ working in small groups (3 students each)
■ chance to us...
How small groups work
■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made
23 of 53
How small groups work
■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made
■ consistency with the original linguistic m...
How small groups work
■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made
■ consistency with the original linguistic m...
How small groups work
■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made
■ consistency with the original linguistic m...
How small groups work
■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made
■ consistency with the original linguistic m...
How small groups work
■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made
■ consistency with the original linguistic m...
Favourite language sketches
1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian
24 of 53
Favourite language sketches
1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian
2. Goa’uld from Stargate universe
24 of 53
Favourite language sketches
1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian
2. Goa’uld from Stargate universe
3. Minionese from De...
Favourite language sketches
1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian
2. Goa’uld from Stargate universe
3. Minionese from De...
Favourite language sketches
1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian
2. Goa’uld from Stargate universe
3. Minionese from De...
Favourite language sketches
1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian
2. Goa’uld from Stargate universe
3. Minionese from De...
An example of Syldavian
Source: Le Sceptre d’Ottokar
An example of Goa’uld
Source: stargate.wikia.com
An example of Minionese
Source: fireflydaily.com
Why Atlantean was dismissed?
The Ancient Language became official!
Source: private email correspondence
Paolini’s present
Ph: Lauren Zurchin
Eternal glory and fame. . .
Source: KAT-blad, 107, Mei 2015
Evaluation
such a task is really a laboratory of language planning, not so
dissimilar to the technical choices a language ...
Learning linguistics by doing:
primary schools
33 of 53
The context
■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy
34 of 53
The context
■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy
■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy
34 of 53
The context
■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy
■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy
■ The linguistic l...
The context
■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy
■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy
■ The linguistic l...
The context
■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy
■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy
■ The linguistic l...
The context
■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy
■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy
■ The linguistic l...
The context
■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy
■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy
■ The linguistic l...
How classes are madeyear
language
male
female
withdisabilities
homelanguages
2012-13 Ara´ık 12 12 1 4: Dutch, French
Serbi...
Long-term goals
■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness
36 of 53
Long-term goals
■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness
■ Orientation and interest towards language diversity
36 of 53
Long-term goals
■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness
■ Orientation and interest towards language diversity
■ All pupi...
Long-term goals
■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness
■ Orientation and interest towards language diversity
■ All pupi...
Long-term goals
■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness
■ Orientation and interest towards language diversity
■ All pupi...
Long-term goals
■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness
■ Orientation and interest towards language diversity
■ All pupi...
Metalinguistic awareness
The first step to plan a secret language is to analyse the language
of instruction, in this case, ...
Proper name in Ukaltuˇc
ph: 2016 C Bonazzoli
Language diversity
The second step is to build the Parts-Of-Speech, that mirrors
Italian, but using the other languages kn...
Example of morphological analysis
ph: 2015 C Bonazzoli
Working together
Nobody works alone in the laboratory: the language is shared among
the class members, while important dec...
Working in parallel in small groups
ph: 2016 C Bonazzoli
Self-esteem in bilinguals
Often pupils who speak other languages at home believe (wrongly!)
that bilingualism is a disadva...
Linguistic creativity
Secret languages are used mainly to write nonsenses, haiku, nursery
rhymes, magic spells. After a wh...
Example of nursery rhyrme in Gatl`oik
ph: 2016 F Gobbo
A page of the Italian-Gatl`oik dictionary
ph: 2016 F Gobbo
Evaluation at the end of the first year
ph: 2016 F Gobbo
Cohesion of the class
An important moment for the sense of belonging of the class is the
secret language name. Of course, ...
Individual proposal for Gatloik-land
ph: 2016 C Bonazzoli
Elaborating Gatloik-land in Minecraft
ph: 2017 C Bonazzoli
Linguistic landscape in Gatloik-land
ph: 2017 C Bonazzoli
Current limits and further directions of the laboratories
■ A pilot experiment (no parallel sections in the Montessori Sch...
Current limits and further directions of the laboratories
■ A pilot experiment (no parallel sections in the Montessori Sch...
Current limits and further directions of the laboratories
■ A pilot experiment (no parallel sections in the Montessori Sch...
Current limits and further directions of the laboratories
■ A pilot experiment (no parallel sections in the Montessori Sch...
Current limits and further directions of the laboratories
■ A pilot experiment (no parallel sections in the Montessori Sch...
Thanks for your attention!
Questions? Comments?
If not now, send afterwards to:
⟨F.Gobbo@uva.nl⟩
Web page: publications.fe...
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Interlinguistics in the 21st century: Planned languages as a tool to learn linguistics by doing

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ACLC seminar, 24 Mar 2017

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Interlinguistics in the 21st century: Planned languages as a tool to learn linguistics by doing

  1. 1. Interlinguistics in the 21st century Planned languages as a tool to learn linguistics by doing Federico Gobbo Amsterdam / Torino ⟨F.Gobbo@uva.nl⟩ ACLC seminar, 24 Mar 2017 1 of 53
  2. 2. What is Interlinguistics? 2 of 53
  3. 3. Where to put Interlinguistics? ■ General linguistics □ ‘external’ linguistics ■ sociolinguistics ■ ethnolinguistics ■ language policy & planning (LPP) Interlinguistics is in-between these areas of ‘external’ linguistics. 3 of 53
  4. 4. Some basic definitions ■ sociolinguistics investigates language behaviour in relation with society; ■ ethnolinguistics investigates the relation between language and identity, in particular ethnic identity; ■ language policy is at the border with law, economics, and political science, dealing with the policies concerning languages: what they are, what they should be; ■ language planning is the set of tools to manipulate languages at any level (status, corpus, acquisition) to apply language policies. 4 of 53
  5. 5. The historical priority of speech over writing [although] no human society [has been] known to exist or to have existed at any time in the past without capacity of speech [. . . ] the vast majority of societies have, until recently, been either totally or very largely illiterate. (Lyons 1981:12-13) According to Ethnologue (2016, 19th ed.) on 7,097 living languages (2015: 7,105) only 3,748 (2015: 3,570) have a developed writing system, but we do not know if there are people who are literate, actually using the language in a written form. The remaining 3,349 languages are likely unwritten. 5 of 53
  6. 6. Two exceptions on the priority of speech 6 of 53
  7. 7. Two exceptions on the priority of speech ■ sign languages 6 of 53
  8. 8. Two exceptions on the priority of speech ■ sign languages ← Sign Linguistics 6 of 53
  9. 9. Two exceptions on the priority of speech ■ sign languages ← Sign Linguistics ■ planned languages 6 of 53
  10. 10. Two exceptions on the priority of speech ■ sign languages ← Sign Linguistics ■ planned languages ← Interlinguistics 6 of 53
  11. 11. What is a planned language? Languages can be planned from scratch if someone decided to do so, writing the (normative) grammar, setting up the (basic) lexicon and giving some texts in the language. You can always identify double articulation (phonetic space + morphosyntactic level) in a planned language – they are languages for human beings – even the “alien” ones, e.g. Klingon. Often the language planner acts alone, rarely in committees or groups – but always with a clear leader, that is called the language planner. 7 of 53
  12. 12. For planned languages orality is a challenge normative variety language planning continuum of language variation language use 8 of 53
  13. 13. Community of practice: a sociolinguistic definition The value of the notion ‘communities of practice’ to Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology lies in the fact that it identifies a social grouping not in virtue of shared abstract characteristics (e.g. class, gender) or simple co-presence (e.g. neighborhood, workplace), but in virtue of shared practice. In the course of regular joint activity, a community of practice develops ways of doing things, views, values, power relations, ways of talking. And the participants engage with these practices in virtue of their place in the community of practice, and of the place of the community of practice in the larger social order. Penelope Eckert (2006), my emphasis 9 of 53
  14. 14. Is Interlinguistics old-fashioned?
  15. 15. A taxonomy of planned languages 11 of 53
  16. 16. Why planning languages from scratch? Languages can be planned for different purposes. The language can be secret (esoteric) if the grammar is known only by initiates; otherwise it is public (exoteric). Languages planned with a public in mind can be: 1. auxiliary, if their purpose is to facilitate the communication among people from different nations; 2. non-auxiliary, when languages are planned for other purposes, often for art, literature, especially fiction. 12 of 53
  17. 17. aux non-aux pubsecr <empty> Esperanto Latino sine Flexione Ido Basic English Novial Volap¨uk (19th c.) Interlinguaetc. International Auxiliary Languages Dothraki Klingon Tolkien (21st c.) Volap¨uk (20th c. Na’vi etc.Hollywood languages Tolkien’s (20th) Bˆal-A I-Balan Tokipona Europanto Laboratory languages
  18. 18. Tolkien’s languages were secret. . . Esperanto edition of The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers
  19. 19. . . . became public! E.g., Neo-Sindarin Source: Italian blog Meditazioni Tolkieniane
  20. 20. Hollywood languages: Dothraki is the new reference Source: Amazon.com
  21. 21. The strange case of Toki Pona Source: tokipona.org
  22. 22. The importance of publication Source: Gobbo (2008) 18 of 53
  23. 23. An evaluation of planned languages ■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun 19 of 53
  24. 24. An evaluation of planned languages ■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun ■ planned languages are a-posteriori, i.e., based on existing languages 19 of 53
  25. 25. An evaluation of planned languages ■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun ■ planned languages are a-posteriori, i.e., based on existing languages ■ the linguistic repertoire of the inventor plays a role 19 of 53
  26. 26. An evaluation of planned languages ■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun ■ planned languages are a-posteriori, i.e., based on existing languages ■ the linguistic repertoire of the inventor plays a role ■ in the last decades, planning languages became more professional 19 of 53
  27. 27. An evaluation of planned languages ■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun ■ planned languages are a-posteriori, i.e., based on existing languages ■ the linguistic repertoire of the inventor plays a role ■ in the last decades, planning languages became more professional ■ knowledge from language typology is a key asset now 19 of 53
  28. 28. An evaluation of planned languages ■ whatever the purpose, language inventors have fun ■ planned languages are a-posteriori, i.e., based on existing languages ■ the linguistic repertoire of the inventor plays a role ■ in the last decades, planning languages became more professional ■ knowledge from language typology is a key asset now ■ the more planned languages, the more difficult to plan 19 of 53
  29. 29. Learning linguistics by doing: university 20 of 53
  30. 30. An innovative teaching tool ■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA 21 of 53
  31. 31. An innovative teaching tool ■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA ■ no similar experiences elsewhere 21 of 53
  32. 32. An innovative teaching tool ■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA ■ no similar experiences elsewhere ■ 8 years of experience in total 21 of 53
  33. 33. An innovative teaching tool ■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA ■ no similar experiences elsewhere ■ 8 years of experience in total ■ task: elaborate an existing language sketch 21 of 53
  34. 34. An innovative teaching tool ■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA ■ no similar experiences elsewhere ■ 8 years of experience in total ■ task: elaborate an existing language sketch ■ Tolkienian model: from Sindarin to Neo-Sindarin 21 of 53
  35. 35. An innovative teaching tool ■ Interlinguistics at the University of Torino and here at the UvA ■ no similar experiences elsewhere ■ 8 years of experience in total ■ task: elaborate an existing language sketch ■ Tolkienian model: from Sindarin to Neo-Sindarin ■ laboratory languages are not published afterwards, but. . . 21 of 53
  36. 36. Aims ■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing) 22 of 53
  37. 37. Aims ■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing) ■ working in small groups (3 students each) 22 of 53
  38. 38. Aims ■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing) ■ working in small groups (3 students each) ■ chance to use all the language knowledge science learnt 22 of 53
  39. 39. Aims ■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing) ■ working in small groups (3 students each) ■ chance to use all the language knowledge science learnt ■ language is culture: diegetic / extra-diegetic levels 22 of 53
  40. 40. Aims ■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing) ■ working in small groups (3 students each) ■ chance to use all the language knowledge science learnt ■ language is culture: diegetic / extra-diegetic levels ■ laboratory languages are not published afterwards, but. . . 22 of 53
  41. 41. Aims ■ apply (inter)linguistics in practice (learning by doing) ■ working in small groups (3 students each) ■ chance to use all the language knowledge science learnt ■ language is culture: diegetic / extra-diegetic levels ■ laboratory languages are not published afterwards, but. . . ■ no similar experiences elsewhere 22 of 53
  42. 42. How small groups work ■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made 23 of 53
  43. 43. How small groups work ■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made ■ consistency with the original linguistic material 23 of 53
  44. 44. How small groups work ■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made ■ consistency with the original linguistic material ■ equilibrium between regularity and cultural background 23 of 53
  45. 45. How small groups work ■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made ■ consistency with the original linguistic material ■ equilibrium between regularity and cultural background ■ primary sources (original material) vs. secondary sources (fans’) 23 of 53
  46. 46. How small groups work ■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made ■ consistency with the original linguistic material ■ equilibrium between regularity and cultural background ■ primary sources (original material) vs. secondary sources (fans’) ■ to be used by actors and by fans as well 23 of 53
  47. 47. How small groups work ■ as if a television series for Hollywood would be made ■ consistency with the original linguistic material ■ equilibrium between regularity and cultural background ■ primary sources (original material) vs. secondary sources (fans’) ■ to be used by actors and by fans as well ■ rules to expand the lexicon easily 23 of 53
  48. 48. Favourite language sketches 1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian 24 of 53
  49. 49. Favourite language sketches 1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian 2. Goa’uld from Stargate universe 24 of 53
  50. 50. Favourite language sketches 1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian 2. Goa’uld from Stargate universe 3. Minionese from Despicable Me Disney movies 24 of 53
  51. 51. Favourite language sketches 1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian 2. Goa’uld from Stargate universe 3. Minionese from Despicable Me Disney movies 4. Marc Okrand’s Atlantean (now dismissed) 24 of 53
  52. 52. Favourite language sketches 1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian 2. Goa’uld from Stargate universe 3. Minionese from Despicable Me Disney movies 4. Marc Okrand’s Atlantean (now dismissed) 5. The Ancient Language in Eragon saga (now public) 24 of 53
  53. 53. Favourite language sketches 1. Herg´e Tin Tin Syldavian & Bordurian 2. Goa’uld from Stargate universe 3. Minionese from Despicable Me Disney movies 4. Marc Okrand’s Atlantean (now dismissed) 5. The Ancient Language in Eragon saga (now public) More and more new sketches from popular culture out every day. 24 of 53
  54. 54. An example of Syldavian Source: Le Sceptre d’Ottokar
  55. 55. An example of Goa’uld Source: stargate.wikia.com
  56. 56. An example of Minionese Source: fireflydaily.com
  57. 57. Why Atlantean was dismissed?
  58. 58. The Ancient Language became official! Source: private email correspondence
  59. 59. Paolini’s present Ph: Lauren Zurchin
  60. 60. Eternal glory and fame. . . Source: KAT-blad, 107, Mei 2015
  61. 61. Evaluation such a task is really a laboratory of language planning, not so dissimilar to the technical choices a language planner fronts every day in order to revitalise a minority or an endangered language, though of course, in the latter case there is a real culture with real people who want to save, restore or promote their own language, while in Hollywood linguistics no real people or culture is involved (Gobbo 2014: 300). 32 of 53
  62. 62. Learning linguistics by doing: primary schools 33 of 53
  63. 63. The context ■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy 34 of 53
  64. 64. The context ■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy ■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy 34 of 53
  65. 65. The context ■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy ■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy ■ The linguistic laboratory is a two-year programme (age: 9-11) □ first year: build the language □ second year: put language in use 34 of 53
  66. 66. The context ■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy ■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy ■ The linguistic laboratory is a two-year programme (age: 9-11) □ first year: build the language □ second year: put language in use ■ 3 editions so far (one concluded) 34 of 53
  67. 67. The context ■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy ■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy ■ The linguistic laboratory is a two-year programme (age: 9-11) □ first year: build the language □ second year: put language in use ■ 3 editions so far (one concluded) ■ No grades, everything done collectively 34 of 53
  68. 68. The context ■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy ■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy ■ The linguistic laboratory is a two-year programme (age: 9-11) □ first year: build the language □ second year: put language in use ■ 3 editions so far (one concluded) ■ No grades, everything done collectively ■ Pupils often speak many languages at home 34 of 53
  69. 69. The context ■ Montessori Primary School in Milan, Italy ■ Montessori method: collaboration and autonomy ■ The linguistic laboratory is a two-year programme (age: 9-11) □ first year: build the language □ second year: put language in use ■ 3 editions so far (one concluded) ■ No grades, everything done collectively ■ Pupils often speak many languages at home ■ Some pupils diagnosed with learning disabilities 34 of 53
  70. 70. How classes are madeyear language male female withdisabilities homelanguages 2012-13 Ara´ık 12 12 1 4: Dutch, French Serbian, Spanish 2015-16 Gatl`oik 14 8 4 6: Flemish, French, German, Japanese, Hebrew, Neapolitan 2016-17 Ukaltuˇc 14 12 1 1: Spanish 35 of 53
  71. 71. Long-term goals ■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness 36 of 53
  72. 72. Long-term goals ■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness ■ Orientation and interest towards language diversity 36 of 53
  73. 73. Long-term goals ■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness ■ Orientation and interest towards language diversity ■ All pupils should work (work together as peers) 36 of 53
  74. 74. Long-term goals ■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness ■ Orientation and interest towards language diversity ■ All pupils should work (work together as peers) ■ Strengthening self-esteem by bilinguals 36 of 53
  75. 75. Long-term goals ■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness ■ Orientation and interest towards language diversity ■ All pupils should work (work together as peers) ■ Strengthening self-esteem by bilinguals ■ Favouriting linguistic creativity in textual production 36 of 53
  76. 76. Long-term goals ■ Increasing the metalinguistic awareness ■ Orientation and interest towards language diversity ■ All pupils should work (work together as peers) ■ Strengthening self-esteem by bilinguals ■ Favouriting linguistic creativity in textual production ■ Consolidating the class cohesion 36 of 53
  77. 77. Metalinguistic awareness The first step to plan a secret language is to analyse the language of instruction, in this case, Italian. We start building the phonological space, which is smaller than Italian. This guarantees that the new language will be comfortable in pronounciation. Typically, some letters [phonemes] are cut away as “unpleasant” or “useless”: <q> [kw], <gl>, [λ], <h>. 37 of 53
  78. 78. Proper name in Ukaltuˇc ph: 2016 C Bonazzoli
  79. 79. Language diversity The second step is to build the Parts-Of-Speech, that mirrors Italian, but using the other languages known in class. Araik, Gatl`oik and Ukaltuˇc are morphologically regular and agglutinative, as most planned languages are. Pupils try to reduce language complexity at their best. 39 of 53
  80. 80. Example of morphological analysis ph: 2015 C Bonazzoli
  81. 81. Working together Nobody works alone in the laboratory: the language is shared among the class members, while important decisions are taken democratically by the whole group, under the guidance of the researcher and the teacher. For example, in the case of Ukaltuˇc we have four grammatical genders: neuter for objects and abstractions, masculine, feminine, and . . . trans – extreme politically correctness. 41 of 53
  82. 82. Working in parallel in small groups ph: 2016 C Bonazzoli
  83. 83. Self-esteem in bilinguals Often pupils who speak other languages at home believe (wrongly!) that bilingualism is a disadvantage, as they feel insecure in Italian, the language of instruction. Giving the possibility of using their linguistic knowledge in the classroom when planning the structure of the secret language legitimates their home languages through school use. 43 of 53
  84. 84. Linguistic creativity Secret languages are used mainly to write nonsenses, haiku, nursery rhymes, magic spells. After a while, adults ask to write bilingual texts, e.g. in Gatl`oik-Italian, in parallel. The Italian version in general is better than in monolingual tasks. After the first year, the language structure is complete and a bilingual dictionary is produced and evaluated together. 44 of 53
  85. 85. Example of nursery rhyrme in Gatl`oik ph: 2016 F Gobbo
  86. 86. A page of the Italian-Gatl`oik dictionary ph: 2016 F Gobbo
  87. 87. Evaluation at the end of the first year ph: 2016 F Gobbo
  88. 88. Cohesion of the class An important moment for the sense of belonging of the class is the secret language name. Of course, the language is shared among the class member but secret for brothers, sisters, parents, and other school members outside the class. In the second year, pupils want to create a utopian country where the language originally belongs, usually conceived as an island. Again, language is culture. They are currently writing the Tourist Guide of Gatloik-land. 48 of 53
  89. 89. Individual proposal for Gatloik-land ph: 2016 C Bonazzoli
  90. 90. Elaborating Gatloik-land in Minecraft ph: 2017 C Bonazzoli
  91. 91. Linguistic landscape in Gatloik-land ph: 2017 C Bonazzoli
  92. 92. Current limits and further directions of the laboratories ■ A pilot experiment (no parallel sections in the Montessori School) 52 of 53
  93. 93. Current limits and further directions of the laboratories ■ A pilot experiment (no parallel sections in the Montessori School) ■ Need of two control groups: Montessori vs. non-Montessori 52 of 53
  94. 94. Current limits and further directions of the laboratories ■ A pilot experiment (no parallel sections in the Montessori School) ■ Need of two control groups: Montessori vs. non-Montessori ■ A theoretical framework to measure results 52 of 53
  95. 95. Current limits and further directions of the laboratories ■ A pilot experiment (no parallel sections in the Montessori School) ■ Need of two control groups: Montessori vs. non-Montessori ■ A theoretical framework to measure results ■ How much is the laboratory language-dependent? 52 of 53
  96. 96. Current limits and further directions of the laboratories ■ A pilot experiment (no parallel sections in the Montessori School) ■ Need of two control groups: Montessori vs. non-Montessori ■ A theoretical framework to measure results ■ How much is the laboratory language-dependent? ■ How much is the laboratory Montessori-dependent? 52 of 53
  97. 97. Thanks for your attention! Questions? Comments? If not now, send afterwards to: ⟨F.Gobbo@uva.nl⟩ Web page: publications.federicogobbo.name c⃝ Federico Gobbo 2016 53 of 53

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