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Social Studies Chapter 7 How Can We Respond in a Diverse Society

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These slides introduce Chapter 7: How Can We Respond in a Diverse Society under Issue 2: Living in a Diverse Society to the Secondary 3 students who are studying Social Studies for the Singapore current syllabus 2016.

These slides are divided into 2 areas.
Management and Impact of Socio-cultural Diversity
1. Assimilation [Slide 14]
2. Integration [Slide 37]
Management and Impact of Socio-economic Diversity
1. Market-based Approach (USA) [Slide 83]
2. Shared Responsibility Approach (Singapore) [Slide 89]
3. Government-financed Approach (Sweden) [Slide 105]

You can also watch the flipped video below.
https://youtu.be/uhOpuIVkRhw

Any feedback is welcome.

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Social Studies Chapter 7 How Can We Respond in a Diverse Society

  1. 1. 7 How Can We Respond In A Diverse Society?
  2. 2. Is Harmony Achievable? Chapter 4: What is Diversity? Chapter 5: Why is There Greater Diversity in Singapore? Chapter 6: What are the Experience s and Effects of Living in a Diverse Society? Chapter 7: How can We Respond in a Diverse Society?
  3. 3. Different ethnic groups in Singapore ( CMIO?) Different religions with significant representation Different nationalities (cultural diversity within a society)
  4. 4. is an economic situation shared by a group of people.
  5. 5. Individual or household’s income Occupation Education Ownership of wealth
  6. 6. Higher Middle Lower (economic diversity within a society)
  7. 7. refers to when income gaps between higher and lower socio-economic groups widen over time.
  8. 8. Chapter 7: How Can We Respond In A Diverse Society? Management and Impact of Socio-cultural Diversity • Assimilation • Integration Management and Impact of Socio-economic Diversity • Market-based approach (USA) • Shared Responsibility Approach (Singapore) • Government-financed Approach (Sweden)
  9. 9. Chapter 7: How Can We Respond In A Diverse Society? Management and Impact of Socio-cultural Diversity • Assimilation • Integration Management and Impact of Socio-economic Diversity • Market-based approach (USA) • Shared Responsibility Approach (Singapore) • Government-financed Approach (Sweden)
  10. 10. is a policy when the government expect immigrants to adopt the beliefs and practices of the majority group in the host country.
  11. 11. Napoleon Bonaparte Eiffel Tower Louvre Museum Mona Lisa painting in the Louvre Tour de France (World’s largest annual sporting event) World famous novel (and musical) by Victor Hugo (1862)
  12. 12. French the Language of Diplomacy and International Relations French Revolution paved the way for the modern nation-state and birth of nationalism
  13. 13. French Philosophers whose ideas shaped the world we know today World Cup 1998 Champion
  14. 14. France has a long history and rich cultural traditions. They wish to preserve their traditions. Assimilation
  15. 15. Apart from the EU, most immigrants to France are from its former colonies.
  16. 16. means secularism where Article 1 of the 1958 French Constitution assures equality before the law for all citizens regardless of origin, religion, race and ethnicity.
  17. 17. “In France, the ideal of harmony in society is achieved through every individual putting aside their affiliations to race and ethnicity, religion and socio-economic status to display their national identity as the only observable aspect of identity in the public domain.”
  18. 18. Education Employment Naturalization Process
  19. 19. Education Secular education • No mention of religion other than in History and Philosophy classes. Adaptation classes • Conducted for the children of immigrants to help them improve their French and eventually join regular French schools (cf. bridging program).
  20. 20. Employment Immigrants face discrimination in companies’ hiring practices. • Three times more likely to be unemployed in 2007. Be employed • Learn French, for communication, build social networks and feel at home. Voila! -
  21. 21. Naturalization Process Induction program to understand life in French and be a French national. • Attend French language courses and a day of civic education • Pass a French cultural and language test.
  22. 22. 1. Does the assimilation policy violate individual rights and freedom of religion and expression? 2. Do religion and cultural practices play a huge influence on a person’s identity? 1. Can it really be suppressed? 2. What happens when you try to suppress it?
  23. 23. 1. Does an assimilation policy make immigrants feel valued? 2. Under what circumstances might an assimilation policy succeed?
  24. 24. Chapter 7: How Can We Respond In A Diverse Society? Management and Impact of Socio-cultural Diversity • Assimilation • Integration Management and Impact of Socio-economic Diversity • Market-based approach (USA) • Shared Responsibility Approach (Singapore) • Government-financed Approach (Sweden)
  25. 25. Merlion Singlish Food
  26. 26. Bilingual Policy (1966) Presidential Council of Minority Rights (PCMR) (1970/1973) Group Representative Constituencies (GRCs) (1988) Ethnic Integration Policy (1989)
  27. 27. English Language It is used as the working language It is more than just a economic decision, It is also a political one. Mother Tongue Mother Tongue Language preserves our cultural heritage.
  28. 28. Official Languages vs Administrative Language The idea is to have a common language where different ethnic groups can communicate with one another.
  29. 29. 16 members (1 Chairman (current CJ), 6 Permanent Members (including PM), 9 other members Also known as Presidential Council for Religious Harmony.
  30. 30. Ensure legislations are not disadvantageous to any racial or religious community. Report on matters affecting racial and religious communities that are referred to it by Parliament or the Government.
  31. 31. A majority Chinese Singapore will not vote for minority candidates. Ensure minorities are represented in Parliament, hence it is important to have GRCs other than SMCs.
  32. 32. PAP talked about playing the role of opposition in Parliament within its own ranks, and followed up with the NMP and NCMP schemes. Going by that logic, why don’t we revert to an all SMC system and have an equivalence of the NMP scheme for the minorities if none are elected?
  33. 33. What can you infer from this cartoon about the GRC system in Singapore?
  34. 34. cf. Raffles Town Plan (1822) Each HDB estate must fill pre- determined percentages of various ethnic groups. It aims to prevent the formation of ethnic enclaves.
  35. 35. 1. Does this plan really work? 2. How many of you actually talk to people of other races in your neighborhood?
  36. 36. Why does Singapore need new immigrants?
  37. 37. Locals born and bred, especially those who served NS Immigrants except Malaysians
  38. 38. This makes the “US” more united and clearer about who they are because they define themselves against the “THEM”.
  39. 39. To help immigrants adapt to the norms, cultures and values in Singapore. Forging of Common Experiences Provision of Community Support Naturalisation Programs
  40. 40. The integration model works only when the spaces of the different communities expand and overlap and they share common experiences. 1. Are all experiences equal in Singapore? 2. Are certain experiences critical to the Singapore core?
  41. 41. Dr Janil Puthucheary “I've spent the last 10 years saving kids' lives.” Response given in 2011 when asked why he did not serve NS.
  42. 42. “This is exactly why people are uncomfortable with him. He has no idea the sacrifices that NSmen has to suffer from - 2 years penalty in life. If he thinks performing an occupation of his choice is equivalent of NS, then what about the male doctors, nurses, teachers who served? Bloody hell a car mechanic saves life too. Should we exempt them from NS? Say so earlier la... then my ICT dun need to serve ok? What he did only underlined how out of touch he is with the male Singaporeans who served NS.” Reaction from a Singaporean identified as Roy 'I've spent the last 10 years saving kids' lives - and got rich doing it! What? Volunteer work? -Reaction from another online user
  43. 43. SAF volunteer scheme allow females and PRs to volunteer (a very toned down version of the compulsory NS that Singaporeans do) in the SAF. Would that appease (male) Singaporeans?
  44. 44. This case study shows common experiences can bond people, and why it can be difficult for immigrants to integrate in Singapore.
  45. 45. Focuses more on the racial and religious harmony. The different circles represent the different communities. Focus more on integrating new immigrants. (Long-term support may be effective)
  46. 46. The Singapore Citizenship Journey is a formal program consisting of three components. 1. Singapore Citizenship e-Journey This is an online journey that allows new citizens to learn about Singapore at their own pace and convenience. 2. Singapore Experiential Tour This half-day tour brings new citizens to learn about our history at key historical landmarks and national institutions. 3. Community Sharing Session New citizens reflect on their journey towards citizenship, share their hopes and aspirations for Singapore, meet other new citizens, and learn how they can actively participate in the community.
  47. 47. Jet Li Gong Li Eduardo Saverin
  48. 48. Chapter 7: How Can We Respond In A Diverse Society? Management and Impact of Socio-cultural Diversity • Assimilation • Integration • Segregation? Management and Impact of Socio-economic Diversity • Market-based approach (USA) • Shared Responsibility Approach (Singapore) • Government-financed Approach (Sweden)
  49. 49. What is the responsibility of the government to its people? • Does it have an obligation to take care of everyone? Who is ‘everyone’? • Is it just citizens? • What about permanent residents? • What about non-resident workers? • What about refugees? What is the likelihood of tension arising from an expanding definition of ‘everyone’?
  50. 50. Different socio-economic groups exist within any country, even in so-called Communist states.
  51. 51. Regardless of your SES, you will fall sick and require healthcare at a point in life.
  52. 52. Those from the higher SES group will have better access to healthcare services because of affordability issues. Those from the lower SES group will defer treatment if they cannot afford it.
  53. 53. Those from the higher SES will have than those from the lower SES, ceteris paribus.
  54. 54. Chapter 7: How Can We Respond In A Diverse Society? Management and Impact of Socio-cultural Diversity • Assimilation • Integration Management and Impact of Socio-economic Diversity • Market-based approach (USA) • Shared Responsibility Approach (Singapore) • Government-financed Approach (Sweden)
  55. 55. The market set the prices without intervention from the government of healthcare People have the freedom to choose their healthcare provider.
  56. 56. Prices can vary significantly between healthcare providers.
  57. 57. Medical insurance ownership is critical because of the high cost of healthcare but not everyone is able to afford the insurance.
  58. 58. of Americans are able to afford private medical coverage beyond what their employers provide.
  59. 59. Watch Michael Moore’s documentary Sicko for a critique of the American healthcare system and how it compares to Socialist models (government-financed approach).
  60. 60. Chapter 7: How Can We Respond In A Diverse Society? Management and Impact of Socio-cultural Diversity • Assimilation • Integration Management and Impact of Socio-economic Diversity • Market-based approach (USA) • Shared Responsibility Approach (Singapore) • Government-financed Approach (Sweden)
  61. 61. Individual responsibility Government Subsidies 3M (Medishield Life, Medisave, Medifund) Community- Support Model
  62. 62. Individual responsibility Fit and healthy people fall sick less easily and less frequently. Therefore, getting people to be fit (by regular exercise) and healthy (by proper diet and non- participation in health adverse habits like smoking) will reduce the consumption of healthcare services.
  63. 63. Health Promotion Board (HPB) under the Ministry of Health. PE lessons in school (now in tertiary institutes ) National Service (not the main rationale but definitely one of the benefits)
  64. 64. If government were to pay for healthcare costs, people will stop staying fit and healthy.
  65. 65. Government Subsidies Almost every country in the world subsidies healthcare, even in the capitalist private American model. Under the Pioneer Generation Package, Pioneers are more heavily subsidized for healthcare than other Singaporeans. Those who qualify for the Community Health Assist Scheme (CHAS) also receive more subsidies.
  66. 66. The rich Singaporeans need less financial help in paying for their healthcare bills than the poorer ones. This is an example of how Singapore manages socio-economic diversity.
  67. 67. Singapore uses Means testing – a mechanism to identify patients who have genuine financial difficulties and determine the quantum of appropriate subsidy.
  68. 68. 3M (Medishield Life, Medisave, Medifund) Ordinary account Medisave (Medical) account Special (Retirement) account
  69. 69. The purpose of MediSave is to force you to save up for the day where you will fall sick (not small illnesses like fever and flu though) and need to pay your medical bills.
  70. 70. Medishield Life is a national health insurance scheme which covers all Singaporeans for all ages. The former national health insurance scheme, called MediShield, only covered 92% of the population. The other 8% have pre-existing illnesses. This means that premiums will be higher for MediShield Life.
  71. 71. Medifund is for patients who cannot pay the bills even after MediSave and MediShield Life. Designed as an endowment fund for sustainability, the initial S$200 million endowment with occasional top-ups is being invested. Interest earned from the investments is then disbursed to pay for the medical bills of needy patients.
  72. 72. Community- Support Model The community helps by setting up community hospitals for long-term care and non-acute cases in order to free up spaces in the government hospitals. The community will raise funds themselves to provide subsidies for the patients.
  73. 73. How successful has the Ministry of Health been in achieving the five principles (1993)? The Government's healthcare philosophy Is based on five fundamental objectives: To nurture a healthy nation by promoting good health; To promote personal responsibility for one's health and avoid over-reliance on state welfare or medical insurance; To provide good and affordable basic medical services to all Singaporeans; To rely on competition and market forces to improve service and raise efficiency To intervene directly in the healthcare sector, when necessary, where the market fails to keep health care costs down.
  74. 74. Chapter 7: How Can We Respond In A Diverse Society? Management and Impact of Socio-cultural Diversity • Assimilation • Integration Management and Impact of Socio-economic Diversity • Market-based approach (USA) • Shared Responsibility Approach (Singapore) • Government-financed Approach (Sweden)
  75. 75. The government provides substantial subsidies and services for most of the healthcare needs of all citizens based on the idea of social and economic equality.
  76. 76. Private medical insurance is available and voluntary. Unlike the U.S., not having private medical insurance in Sweden will not affect you adversely.
  77. 77. 220 euros per annum for medical services 122 euros per year for prescribed drugs
  78. 78. How do you this graph?
  79. 79. 1. Singapore is 2nd worldwide in terms of health outcome (behind Japan). 2. Singapore’s health spending per head is much lower than Japan’s. What does this tell you about the efficiency of Singapore’s healthcare system?
  80. 80. Other possible to assess how a country deals with Personal income tax structure Minimum wage structures and equivalences Education system

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