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WEBINAR: How to Use a Fishbone Diagram (aka Cause & Effect Diagram)

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The Fishbone (aka Cause & Effect or Ishikawa) Diagram is a seemingly simple method of conducting structured brainstorming around the root cause of a process problem. So why is it so hard to get it right? We'll walk through some classic ways to build a Fishbone Diagram, we'll show you some of the common missteps and we'll provide examples of what they look like when they're properly executed. Join us for a guided tour of the Fishbone!

You can find the rest of the webinar materials and questions from the webinar here:
https://goleansixsigma.com/webinar-use-fishbone-diagram/

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WEBINAR: How to Use a Fishbone Diagram (aka Cause & Effect Diagram)

  1. 1. 9/10/2017 1 Presented by Elisabeth Swan Managing Partner & Executive Advisor at GoLeanSixSigma.com How to Use a Fishbone Diagram
  2. 2. 2 Our Expert: Elisabeth • Managing Partner & Executive Advisor at GoLeanSixSigma.com • Master Black Belt • Certified Executive Coach at Burnham Rosen Group • BA in English Literature from Columbia University/Barnard College • Born in the UK
  3. 3. 3 How to Interact • Ask a question • Answer polls
  4. 4. 4 Let’s Interact! Where are you from? Share your location in the Questions area in your Control Panel!
  5. 5. 5 Who Is GoLeanSixSigma.com? GoLeanSixSigma.com makes it easy for everyone everywhere to build their problem-solving muscles. We provide the most practical, easy to understand and enjoyable Lean and Six Sigma resources available.
  6. 6. 6 We’ve Helped People From…
  7. 7. 7 • What is a Fishbone (aka Cause & Effect or Ishikawa) Diagram? • Why and when should we use a Fishbone Diagram? • What’s the right way to build a Fishbone Diagram? • Are there any ways not to use a Fishbone Diagram? • What do “proper” Fishbones look like? Today’s Agenda
  8. 8. 8 The “Y” and the “X” • X1, X2… • Independent • Input • Cause • Problem • Control • Garbage In The Y • Y • Dependent • Output • Effect • Symptom • Monitor • Garbage Out The X
  9. 9. 9 Pseudo Equation Y = ƒ(x1, x2…xn) ?
  10. 10. 10 Y and X at Bahama Bistro Speed of Service Menu Item Availability Food Freshness Order Accuracy Customer Satisfaction Y X X X X X Ambience
  11. 11. 11 Fishbone Diagram: aka “Ishikawa” or “Cause & Effect” is a method of structured brainstorming to get to root cause • Conducted in groups • Uses categories • Uses hierarchy What Is a Fishbone Diagram? Y X XX X
  12. 12. 12 Fishbone Diagram
  13. 13. 13 What’s your experience with Fishbone Diagrams? A.Totally new to me B.I use them but not sure I’m using them effectively C.I know about them but don’t use them D.I use them all the time – great tools Poll #1:
  14. 14. 14 How to Construct Issue or “Y” in “Fish Head” Two methods: 1. Pre-Label Fishbones • Transactional Categories • Manufacturing Categories 2. Brainstorm and affinitize root causes into categories that are process specific • Groupings become “Fishbone” labels
  15. 15. 15 1. Pre-Label Advantages •Easy to set up •Causes unexpected ideas •Does not require upfront work •Can combine with brainstormed categories Disadvantages •Limits ideas •Not focused on the process
  16. 16. 16 Manufacturing Categories Operator or Design Engineer Specific Parts or Materials Standard Operating Procedures Environment (physical, political, etc.) Variation
  17. 17. 17 Transactional Categories Software Separate Job Functions Process Documentation Environment (physical, political, etc.)
  18. 18. 18 •More focused on specific process •Organic •Involves group •Good to practice Affinity Analysis – generic organizational technique 2. Affinity Analysis
  19. 19. 19 Brainstorming Menu Food Service
  20. 20. 20 Fishbone Diagram The Y Service Menu Food PresentationAmbience Ordering Customer Satisfaction
  21. 21. 21 Which method do you use to build the Fishbone Diagram? A. I use the standard Manufacturing or Transactional labels B. I brainstorm and affinitize categories first C. I just pick labels that seem appropriate given the issue D.None of the above Poll #2:
  22. 22. 22 Fishbone Diagram Example Stale Bread Limited Options Too slow Too Noisy Radish is only garish Method is complicated Kitchen takes too long with lunch orders Storage Dropped dishes Vendor availability PresentationAmbience Ordering Service Menu Food Why such variation in customer satisfaction?
  23. 23. 23 Turn Into Measures Stale Bread Limited Options Too slow Too Noisy Radish is only garish Method is complicated PresentationAmbience Ordering Service Menu Food Why such variation in customer satisfaction? Service Cycle Time Noise levels above 100 decibels # Available garnishes # dropped dishes” per hour Dropped dishes Age of Bread # Steps to order # Options
  24. 24. 24 Looking for Correlation CustomerSatisfaction Service Cycle Time Y X
  25. 25. 25 Caution: Solutions Masquerading… Stale Bread Limited Options Too slow Too Noisy Radish is only garnish Method is complicated PresentationAmbience Ordering Service Menu Food Why such variation in customer satisfaction? Not enough waitress training Should build booths Need more inspection Lack of automated ordering Missing “Fusion” Options Need to Increase Condiments
  26. 26. 26 Fishbone Trap Why is this problem happening? Inadequate Training Lack of Automation Insufficient Staff Lack of Inspections Lack of software “Lack of” X Category Category Category Category Category Category
  27. 27. 27 •Lack of training  Level of operator knowledge •Procedure not followed  % of time procedure followed •Inadequate staffing  # of man hours utilized •Lack of inspection  % returned meals Solutions  Measurable Causes
  28. 28. 28 •Run by teenagers •Assume turnover •Build processes with visual management •Low need for training Level of Training
  29. 29. 29 Number of Inspections •Add time (waste) •Cause delays •Initiated by failures •Provide false sense of security •Never removed “We inspect because we expect a defect”
  30. 30. 30https://image.freepik.com/free-vector/multimedia-desktop-pc- illustration_72147494127.jpg Automation Myths Myth 1: No need to address this issue now – Software “X” is coming Myth 2: Software “X” will solve the process issue Myth 3: Automation will streamline the process
  31. 31. 31 Solution Parking Lot Solutions • Have Joey do everything • Outsource the cooking • Get rid of Marketing • Close early • Switch to Italian food
  32. 32. 32http://www.libationlab.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/redherring.png • Beware of solutions masquerading as problems • Key phrases: “Lack of…”, “Insufficient…”, “Inadequate…” • Don’t assume training is the issue • Is process too complicated? • Clean up process before automating “Red Herring” Root Causes
  33. 33. 33 One Fishbone Leads to Another… PresentationAmbience Ordering Service Menu Food Why such variation in customer satisfaction? Service Cycle Time Noise levels above 100 decibels # Available garnishes # dropped dishes” per hour Age of Bread # Steps to order # Options
  34. 34. 34 # Steps between stations New Fishbone Diagram # items taking too long to prepare # Sandwiches taking > 10 mins Packaging process for pick-up varies # Servers who don’t turn in orders right away # of items taking > 15 mins to cook % transactions stuck # staff allowed to use system “Not my job” thinking # wrong special orders # of steps to prep # Steps required for restocking during rush Documentation Political Environment Servers Point-of-Sale Software Kitchen Layout Food Types Why do food orders take so long for lunch customers? # Staff allowed to cross-train
  35. 35. 35 The Five Whys • Repeatedly ask “Why” • Work the causal chain • Done by those in the process • Could be more or less than 5 “Whys” Benefits: • Simple – no stats • Get past symptoms • Good for processes involving human factors
  36. 36. 36 Five Whys Example http://clipart-library.com/clipart/33678.htm
  37. 37. 37 Fishbone and Five Whys Packaging process for items for pick- up varies # Servers who don’t turn the orders in right away ServersKitchen Layout Could lead to nested fishbones
  38. 38. 38 Five Whys Template
  39. 39. 39 •Count the number of options • Root causes • Solutions • Customer Comments •Divide by 3 •Hand out N/3 Dots to each person •Narrow the list Multi-Voting Options It’s Marketing’s fault Lack of new software Not enough staff Need more inspection Need a new manager Need more money
  40. 40. 40 # Steps between stations # items take too long to prepare# Sandwiches take > 10 mins Packaging process for pick-up varies # Servers who don’t turn in orders right away # of items take > 15 mins to cook % transactions stuck # staff allowed to use system “Not my job” thinking Clarity of instructions Special Orders # of steps to prep Restocking requires walking # steps during rush Documentation Political Environment Servers Point-of-Sale Software Kitchen layout Food Types Why do food orders take so long for lunch customers? Multi-Voting
  41. 41. 41 •Fishbone is a structured brainstorming – not proof •Team decides where to focus •Must create hypothesis statements •Verification can take many forms •Depends on the process and issue Next Steps
  42. 42. 42 What’s your experience with Fishbones “gone wrong”? A.They are populated with solutions B.They are not paired with the 5 Whys C.They are not verified D.Some combination of above E. None of the above – all good! Poll #3:
  43. 43. 43 Observe • Watch the process and see the issue in action Compare • Where problem is/isn’t Use Data • Caution Use Stat Tools to Test Hypothesis • Try to “disprove” the Null Hypothesis Validating Methods
  44. 44. 44 Hypothesis & Data Example Hypothesis: As number of waitress “courtesy” food pick ups increase, lunch order cycle time increases OrderCycleTime # Courtesy Pick-ups Y X
  45. 45. 45 Build the Fishbone • Conduct in groups (not party of one) – more brains, more ownership • Brainstorm and clarify labels (physical or political environment?) • Populate the fishbone – bony is good – not limited to one page • Don’t worry about “where” a cause goes – as long as it’s included • Consider what causes process “variation” not just defective units • Turn causes in to measures - set up for verification Expand the Fishbone • Use 5 Whys to dig past symptoms • Watch for solutions masquerading as problems – use Solution Parking Lot • Keep and update Fishbone – organizational knowledge Verify the Fishbone • Multi-vote and prioritize potential root causes to research • Form hypothesis statements & and select verification method Fishbone Review
  46. 46. 46 Today We Covered • What is a Fishbone (aka Cause & Effect or Ishikawa) Diagram? • Why and when should we use a Fishbone Diagram? • What’s the right way to build a Fishbone Diagram? • Are there any ways not to use a Fishbone Diagram? • What do “proper” Fishbones look like?
  47. 47. 47 Q&A
  48. 48. 48 Getting Started Learn more by starting some more training! • Yellow Belt Training is FREE at GoLeanSixSigma.com • Green Belt Training & Certification • Black Belt Training & Certification • Lean Training & Certification
  49. 49. 49 Just-In-Time Podcast Tune in at GoLeanSixSigma.com/cafe for the latest Lean Six Sigma news, easy ways to apply Lean Six Sigma and interviews with process improvement leaders like you!
  50. 50. 50 Q&A
  51. 51. 51 More Questions? Ask us at contact@goleansixsigma.com! Click here to download free tools, templates, infographics and more! Thank you for joining us!

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