Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
Energy-Efficient Building Enclosure Design
Guidelines for Wood-Frame Buildings
Graham Finch, MASc, P.Eng
Principal, Buildi...
Copyright Materials
This presentation is protected by Canadian, US, and International
Copyright laws. Reproduction, distri...
Program Education Credit Information
Canadian Wood Council, Wood WORKS! and the Wood Solutions Fair is a Registered Provid...
Learning Objectives
1. Learn about the new wood-design resource for architects, builders, and
engineers: the Guide for Des...
Overview
Background
Overview of the new Guide for

Designing Energy Efficient
Building Enclosures for
Wood-frame Buildings...
Evolution Wood-frame Building Enclosure Design Guides
Original 1999/2011 Wood Frame
Envelopes in the Coastal Climate of
Br...
Why a New Building Enclosure Guide?
Energy Codes across North America have
incrementally raised the bar to the point where...
What Types of Buildings & Structures is the Guide For?
Multi-Unit Residential
Buildings are the
focus of the guide
(and on...
Where is the Guide Applicable
North American Guide
Marine, Cold and Very
Cold Climate Zones
Energy Code Climate
Zones 4 th...
Overview: What is in the Guide
Chapter 1: Introduction
Context of Guide

Chapter 2: Building and
Energy Codes across
North...
Overview: What is in the Guide
Chapter 3: Moisture, Air and Thermal Control
Building as a System
Climate Zones
Interior Cl...
Overview: What is in the Guide
Chapter 4: Energy Efficient Wall and Roof Assemblies
Above Grade Wall Assemblies
• Split In...
Chapter 2: Building and Energy Codes
Review of effective R-values &
Consideration for Thermal Bridging
Energy Use in Wood-...
Canadian Energy Codes –NECB 2011 vs ASHRAE 90.1
NECB 2011
Climate Zone and HDD(°C)
Zone 4: <3000 HDD
Zone 5: 3000 to 3999 ...
ASHRAE 90.1-2010 vs NECB 2011 – Effective Dec 20, 2014

NECB 2011

Climate
Zone

Wall – Above
Grade: Min.
R-value (IP)

Ro...
US Energy Codes – IECC vs ASHRAE 90.1
Adoption of IECC and
ASHRAE 90.1 varies
by State
Effective R-value
tables provided
A...
Performance Rating Programs & R-value Targets
Consideration for “above-code” enclosure
performance & green building progra...
Chapter 3: Climate Considerations
Exterior Climate
Temperature &
Humidity
Rainfall
Interior Climate
HVAC systems
Ventilati...
Chapter 3: Building Science Fundamentals
Deflection, Drainage,
Drying and Durability
Wetting and Drying
Mechanisms
Critica...
Chapter 3: Air Flow Control – Air Barrier Strategies
Air Barrier Systems
(Fundamentals, Materials,
Performance, testing)
S...
Chapter 3: Condensation Control
Relative Humidity control
Maintaining high interior
surface temperatures
Reducing thermal ...
Managing Construction Moisture & Wood Shrinkage
Keeping wood dry during
transportation and construction
and limiting built...
Chapter 3: Heat Flow Control & Insulation
Control of Heat Flow
Solar Control, Minimizing
Conductive Losses,
Minimizing Air...
Chapter 3: Effective R-values
All Energy Codes now consider
effective R-values
Nominal R-values = Rated R-values of
insula...
Chapter 3: Wood Framing Factor Impact

Framing factors for studs @ 16” o.c = 25%
Taller wood-frame structures framing fact...
Insulation Placement and Assembly Design Considerations

Interior
Insulation

Exterior
Insulation

Split
Insulation
Getting to Higher R-values – Placement of Insulation

Baseline
2x6 w/ R-22
batts = R-16
effective

Exterior Insulation – R...
Chapter 3: Insulation Placement – Above Grade Walls

2x6 stud wall

Double-stud wall

Interior-insulated wall assemblies

...
Cladding Attachment through Exterior Insulation

Longer cladding
Fasteners directly
through rigid
insulation (up to 2”
for...
Cladding Attachment through Exterior Insulation
Insulation Placement – Below Grade Walls

Interior-insulated wall

Exterior-insulated wall

Interior- and exteriorinsulate...
Insulation Placement - Roofs

Interior-insulated pitched roof

Low-slope roof: conventionally
insulated

Low-slope roof: i...
Chapter 3: Whole Building Energy Efficiency
Whole building energy
efficiency considerations
Impact of Wall, Window and
Roo...
Chapter 4: Energy Efficient Walls – Split Insulated
Material selection &
guidance
Control Functions
Critical Barriers
Effe...
Exterior & Split Insulated Wood Assemblies
Wood-frame and Heavy Timber
Building Wall R-value Targets
R-19.6 ASHRAE 90.1
R-...
Chapter 4: Energy Efficient Walls – Double Stud/Deep Stud
Material selection &
guidance
Control Functions
Critical Barrier...
Double/Deep Stud Insulated Walls
Double 2x4/2x6 stud, single deep 2x10, 2x12, I-Joist etc.
Common wood-frame wall assembly...
Chapter 4: Energy Efficient Walls – Exterior Insulated
Material selection &
guidance
Control Functions
Critical Barriers
E...
Cross Laminated Timber Construction - Considerations
Cross Laminated Timber Construction – Wall Assemblies
CLT Panel Construction - Unique Details for Consideration
CLT Panel Details Requiring Attention – Panel Joints

Sealants, tapes, & membranes applied on either side can't
address th...
CLT Panel Details Requiring Attention - Parapets

Airflow increased by stack
Roofing membrane applied,
effect and pressure...
CLT Panel Details Requiring Attention - Corners
Airflow path more
convoluted – lower
leakage rates, but still a
considerat...
Guidance for CLT Assembly Air Barriers
CLT panels air-tight as a material,
but not as a system
Recommend use of self-adher...
CLT Assembly Air Barrier Considerations
Structural connections can interfere with air-barrier
membrane installation/sequen...
Infill Walls – Post & Beam or Concrete Floor Slabs

Concrete frame with
wood-frame infill

Post and Beam with
wood-frame i...
Chapter 4: Below Grade Walls
Exterior Insulated

Interior Insulated

Control
Functions
Critical
Barriers
Effective Rvalues
Chapter 4: Pitched-Roof, Vented Attic Assembly
Materials & Control
Functions
Critical Barriers
Effective R-value
Tables (a...
Chapter 4: Pitched-Roof, Exterior Insulated Assembly
Materials & Control
Functions
Critical Barriers
Effective R-values
Chapter 4: Low-Slope Conventional Roof Assembly
Materials & Control
Functions
Critical Barriers
Effective R-values
(Accoun...
Chapter 4: Low-Slope Inverted Roof Assembly
Materials & Control
Functions
Critical Barriers
Effective R-values
Chapter 5: Detailing
2D CAD details (colored)
provided for typical details
for each wall assembly
type (split insulated,
d...
Detailing – Materials & Critical Barrier Discussion
Thermal Continuity
Air Barrier Continuity
Water Shedding Surface and W...
Detailing – From Roof to Grade
Details provided for
each main wall
assembly included
Split insulated
Double Stud
CLT

And ...
Detailing – Colored 2D Details
Detailing – Wall to Roof Interfaces
Detailing – Wall Penetrations
Detailing – 2D Window Details
Detailing – 3D Window Installation Sequences
Chapter 6: Further Reading, References & Glossary
Further reading
Builder & Design Guides
Building Science Resources
Energ...
Questions?

gfinch@rdhbe.com - 604-873-1181
Guide Available from FP Innovations:
http://www.fpinnovations.ca/ResearchProgr...
Questions / Comments?
This concludes the:

American Institute of Architects
Architectural Institute of British Columbia
En...
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

WoodWorks 2013 Vancouver - Energy-Efficient Building Enclosure Design Guidelines for Wood-Frame Buildings

3 291 vues

Publié le

Presentation from the 2013 Vancouver Woodworks Conference (October 29, 2013). Covers an overview of the considerations for energy-efficient wood frame building enclosures while outlining the content of a new guideline document published by FP Innovations "Guide for Designing Energy Efficiency Building Enclosures for Wood-Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings in Marine to Cold Climate Zones in North America"

Publié dans : Technologie, Business
  • Grab 16,000 woodworking plans here (Open Now) 》》》 https://t.cn/A62Ygslz
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • Loving the plans. Got lots of different ideas and inspiration. I'm sending you a photo of a bed frame I did for my daughter! ➢➢➢ https://t.cn/A62Ye5eM
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • Grab 5 Free Shed Plans Now! Download 5 Full-Blown Shed Plans with Step-By-Step Instructions &amp; Easy To Follow Blueprints! ●●● https://t.cn/A62YdXnY
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • DOWNLOAD THE BOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (New Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THE can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THE is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBOOK .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookBOOK, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, EBOOK, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THE Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy &amp; Proven Way to Build Good Habits &amp; Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THE the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THE Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • DOWNLOAD THE BOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (New Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THE can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THE is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBOOK .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookBOOK, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, EBOOK, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THE Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy &amp; Proven Way to Build Good Habits &amp; Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THE the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THE Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • Soyez le premier à aimer ceci

WoodWorks 2013 Vancouver - Energy-Efficient Building Enclosure Design Guidelines for Wood-Frame Buildings

  1. 1. Energy-Efficient Building Enclosure Design Guidelines for Wood-Frame Buildings Graham Finch, MASc, P.Eng Principal, Building Science Research Specialist RDH Building Engineering Ltd. October 29, 2013 – Wood WORKS! Vancouver
  2. 2. Copyright Materials This presentation is protected by Canadian, US, and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. © RDH Building Engineering Ltd.
  3. 3. Program Education Credit Information Canadian Wood Council, Wood WORKS! and the Wood Solutions Fair is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education System; the Architectural Institute of British Columbia and the Engineering Institute of Canada. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported on behalf of members of each CES provider for those who complete a participation form at the registration counter. Certificates of Completion for nonAIA, AIBC or EIC members are available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
  4. 4. Learning Objectives 1. Learn about the new wood-design resource for architects, builders, and engineers: the Guide for Designing Energy Efficiency Building Enclosures for Wood-Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings 2. Understand how upcoming building and energy code changes will impact typical wood-frame construction practices, and learn the best strategies to design, insulate, air-seal, and detail new wood frame wall and roof assemblies. 3. Learn about the building enclosure design considerations for heavy timber structures utilizing CLT and post-and-beam components. 4. Understand the importance of “critical barriers” in building enclosure detailing with examples of wall, roof and window details for highly insulated wood buildings.
  5. 5. Overview Background Overview of the new Guide for Designing Energy Efficient Building Enclosures for Wood-frame Buildings Available as free download from FP Innovations
  6. 6. Evolution Wood-frame Building Enclosure Design Guides Original 1999/2011 Wood Frame Envelopes in the Coastal Climate of British Columbia - Best Practice Guide (CMHC) Emphasis on moisture control on the west coast 2011 Building Enclosure Design Guide – Wood-frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings (HPO) Emphasis on best practices, moisture and new energy codes 2013 Guide (FP Innovations) Focus on highly insulated wood-frame assemblies to meet current and upcoming energy codes Passive design and green buildings
  7. 7. Why a New Building Enclosure Guide? Energy Codes across North America have incrementally raised the bar to the point where conventional wood-frame assemblies (i.e. 2x6 walls) no longer provide enough insulating value Increased awareness of passive design strategies and green building programs dictate even higher enclosure performance Little guidance on building durable and highly insulated enclosure assemblies and details Desire to build taller and taller more exposed woodframe buildings (4-6 stories and higher) Increased use of cross-laminated timber & other engineered wood products dictates alternate assemblies
  8. 8. What Types of Buildings & Structures is the Guide For? Multi-Unit Residential Buildings are the focus of the guide (and one of most challenging building types) Relevant for other building types as well utilizing platform framing, cross laminated timber, wood frame infill, & post and beam. Also applies to houses
  9. 9. Where is the Guide Applicable North American Guide Marine, Cold and Very Cold Climate Zones Energy Code Climate Zones 4 through 7 Details used as examples are west coast focused (i.e. rainscreen) Guidance can also be applied to other climate zones (i.e. Far-North or Southern US) with engineering judgement & local experience
  10. 10. Overview: What is in the Guide Chapter 1: Introduction Context of Guide Chapter 2: Building and Energy Codes across North America Canadian Building and Energy Codes US Building and Energy Codes Performance Rating Systems & Green Building Programs Differences between NECB & ASHRAE 90.1
  11. 11. Overview: What is in the Guide Chapter 3: Moisture, Air and Thermal Control Building as a System Climate Zones Interior Climate, HVAC Interaction Critical Barrier Concept Control of Rainwater Penetration Control of Air Flow Controlling Condensation Construction Moisture Controlling Heat Flow and Insulation Whole Building Energy Efficiency Computer Simulation Considerations for Wood-frame Enclosures
  12. 12. Overview: What is in the Guide Chapter 4: Energy Efficient Wall and Roof Assemblies Above Grade Wall Assemblies • Split Insulated, Double Stud/Deep Stud, Exterior Insulated • Infill Walls for Concrete Frame Below Grade Wall Assemblies • Interior and Exterior Insulated Roof Assemblies • Steep Slope & Low Slope Chapter 5: Detailing 2D CAD (colored) and 3D build-sequences for various typical enclosure details Chapter 6: Further Reading & References
  13. 13. Chapter 2: Building and Energy Codes Review of effective R-values & Consideration for Thermal Bridging Energy Use in Wood-frame MURBs Enclosure R-value Targets and Airtightness Requirements Canadian Building Codes • 2010 NBC • 2011 NECB • ASHRAE 90.1 (2001 through 2010 versions) US Buildings Codes Performance Rating and Green Building Programs
  14. 14. Canadian Energy Codes –NECB 2011 vs ASHRAE 90.1 NECB 2011 Climate Zone and HDD(°C) Zone 4: <3000 HDD Zone 5: 3000 to 3999 HDD Zone 6: 4000 to 4999 HDD Zone 7a: 5000 to 5999 HDD Zone 7b: 6000 to 6999 HDD Zone 8: >7000 HDD Wood-frame, above-grade wall [R-value (RSI)] 18.0 (3.17) 20.4 (3.60) 23.0 (4.05) 27.0 (4.76) 27.0 (4.76) 31.0 (5.46) Wood-frame roof, flat or sloped: [R-value (RSI)] 25.0 (4.41) 31.0 (5.46) 31.0 (5.46) 35.0 (6.17) 35.0 (6.17) 40.0 (7.04) NECB has higher effective R-value requirements ASHRAE 90.1 - 2010 Climate Zone Wood-frame, above-grade wall Effective Nominal [R-value (RSI)] [R-value (RSI)] Zone 1 11.2 13.0 (A & B) (2.0) (2.3) Zone 2 11.2 13.0 (A & B) (2.0) (2.3) Zone 3 11.2 13.0 (A, B, & C) (2.0) (2.3) Zone 4 15.6 13.0 + 3.8 ci (A, B, & C) (2.7) (2.3 + 0.7 ci) Zone 5 19.6 13.0 + 7.5 ci (A, B, & C) (3.5) (2.3 + 1.3 ci) Zone 6 19.6 13.0 + 7.5 ci (A & B) (3.5) (2.3 + 1.3 ci) Zone 7 19.6 13.0 + 7.5 ci (3.5) (2.3 + 1.3 ci) Zone 8 27.8 13.0 + 15.6 ci (4.9) (2.3 + 2.7 ci) ci = continuous insulation, where denoted Wood-frame roof—insulation entirely above deck Effective [R-value (RSI)] 20.8 (3.7) 20.8 (3.7) 20.8 (3.7) 20.8 (3.7) 20.8 (3.7) 20.8 (3.7) 20.8 (3.7) 20.8 (3.7) Nominal [R-value (RSI)] 20.0 ci (3.5 ci) 20.0 ci (3.5 ci) 20.0 ci (3.5 ci) 20.0 ci (3.5 ci) 20.0 ci (3.5 ci) 20.0 ci (3.5 ci) 20.0 ci (3.5 ci) 20.0 ci (3.5 ci) Wood-frame roof—attic and other Effective [R-value (RSI)] 37.0 (6.5) 37.0 (6.5) 37.0 (6.5) 37.0 (6.5) 37.0 (6.5) 37.0 (6.5) 37.0 (6.5) 47.6 (8.4) Nominal [R-value (RSI)] 38.0 (6.7) 38.0 (6.7) 38.0 (6.7) 38.0 (6.7) 38.0 (6.7) 38.0 (6.7) 38.0 (6.7) 49.0 (8.6)
  15. 15. ASHRAE 90.1-2010 vs NECB 2011 – Effective Dec 20, 2014 NECB 2011 Climate Zone Wall – Above Grade: Min. R-value (IP) Roof – Sloped or Flat: Min. R-value (IP) Window: Max. U-value (IP) ASHRAE 90.1-2010 – Residential Building 31.0 40.0 0.28 7A/7B 27.0 35.0 0.39 6 23.0 31.0 0.39 5 20.4 31.0 0.39 4 *7A/7B combined in ASHRAE 90.1 No Zone 4 in ASHRAE 90.1 8 18.6 25.0 0.42 Climate Zone Wall (Mass, Wood, Steel): Min. R-value (IP) Roof (Attic, Cathedral/Flat): Min. R-value (IP) Window (Alum, PVC/fiberglass): Max. U-value (IP) 8 19.2, 27.8, 27.0 47.6, 20.8 0.45, 0.35 7A/7B 14.1, 19.6, 23.8 37.0, 20.8 0.45, 0.35 6 12.5, 19.6, 15.6 37.0, 20.8 0.55, 0.35 5 12.5, 19.6, 15.6 37.0, 20.8 0.55, 0.35
  16. 16. US Energy Codes – IECC vs ASHRAE 90.1 Adoption of IECC and ASHRAE 90.1 varies by State Effective R-value tables provided Airtightness requirements covered Washington State and Seattle (<0.40 cfm/ft2 @75Pa) US Army Corps (<0.25 cfm/ft2 @75Pa)
  17. 17. Performance Rating Programs & R-value Targets Consideration for “above-code” enclosure performance & green building programs Performance rating and energy modeling considerations Target “high-performance” building enclosure R-values by climate Zone Wood-frame, above-grade wall Wood-frame roof—insulation entirely above deck: Wood-frame roof—attic and other: [R-value (RSI)] R-16 to R-22 (2.8 to 3.9) R-22 to R-28 (3.9 to 4.9) [R-value (RSI)] R-25 to R-30 (4.4 to 5.3) R-30 to R-40 (5.3 to 7.0) [R-value (RSI)] R-40 to R-50 (7.0 to 8.8) R-50 to R-60 (8.8 to 10.6) R-28 to R-40 (4.9 to 7.0) R-40 to R-50 (7.0 to 8.8) R-60 to R-80 (10.6 to 14.1) Climate Zones Zones 1 to 3: hot, cooling dominated Zones 4 to 5: mixed, heating and cooling Zones 6 to 8: cold, heating dominated
  18. 18. Chapter 3: Climate Considerations Exterior Climate Temperature & Humidity Rainfall Interior Climate HVAC systems Ventilation Architectural Form & Enclosure Design
  19. 19. Chapter 3: Building Science Fundamentals Deflection, Drainage, Drying and Durability Wetting and Drying Mechanisms Critical Barriers & Continuity Water Shedding Surface Water Resistive Barrier Air Barrier Thermal Insulation Rainwater Penetration control fundamentals
  20. 20. Chapter 3: Air Flow Control – Air Barrier Strategies Air Barrier Systems (Fundamentals, Materials, Performance, testing) Sealed Poly/Sheet Membranes Airtight drywall Sprayfoam Sealed-Sheathing Approaches • Unsupported sheet membranes • Supported sheet membranes with vertical strapping • Sandwiched membranes behind exterior insulation • Self-Adhered and liquid applied membranes Other Approaches
  21. 21. Chapter 3: Condensation Control Relative Humidity control Maintaining high interior surface temperatures Reducing thermal bridging Use of better windows Controlling air movement (air barrier systems) Controlling vapour diffusion (vapour retarders)
  22. 22. Managing Construction Moisture & Wood Shrinkage Keeping wood dry during transportation and construction and limiting built-in moisture Careful use of impermeable materials/membranes Controlling and accounting for wood-frame shrinkage Detailing for differential shrinkage
  23. 23. Chapter 3: Heat Flow Control & Insulation Control of Heat Flow Solar Control, Minimizing Conductive Losses, Minimizing Air Leakage Placement of Insulation within assemblies Wood framing factors Types of insulation, R-values and typical uses Thermal bridging and effective R-values
  24. 24. Chapter 3: Effective R-values All Energy Codes now consider effective R-values Nominal R-values = Rated R-values of insulation which do not include impacts of how they are installed For example R-20 batt insulation or R-10 foam insulation Effective R-values include impacts of insulation installation and thermal bridges For example nominal R-20 batts within steel studs becoming ~R-9 effective, or in wood studs ~R-15 effective
  25. 25. Chapter 3: Wood Framing Factor Impact Framing factors for studs @ 16” o.c = 25% Taller wood-frame structures framing factors >30-40% depending on structural destign
  26. 26. Insulation Placement and Assembly Design Considerations Interior Insulation Exterior Insulation Split Insulation
  27. 27. Getting to Higher R-values – Placement of Insulation Baseline 2x6 w/ R-22 batts = R-16 effective Exterior Insulation – R-20 to R-40+ effective • Constraints: cladding attachment, wall thickness Deep/Double Stud– R-20 to R-40+ effective • Constraints wall thickness Split Insulation– R-20 to R-40+ effective • Constraints: cladding attachment
  28. 28. Chapter 3: Insulation Placement – Above Grade Walls 2x6 stud wall Double-stud wall Interior-insulated wall assemblies 2x4 (or 2x6) stud wall CLT/mass timber Exterior-insulated wall assemblies 2x4 (or 2x6) stud wall Split-insulated wall assembly
  29. 29. Cladding Attachment through Exterior Insulation Longer cladding Fasteners directly through rigid insulation (up to 2” for light claddings) Long screws through vertical strapping and rigid insulation creates truss (8”+) – short cladding fasteners into vertical strapping Rigid shear block type connection through insulation, cladding to vertical strapping
  30. 30. Cladding Attachment through Exterior Insulation
  31. 31. Insulation Placement – Below Grade Walls Interior-insulated wall Exterior-insulated wall Interior- and exteriorinsulated wall (ICF)
  32. 32. Insulation Placement - Roofs Interior-insulated pitched roof Low-slope roof: conventionally insulated Low-slope roof: inverted
  33. 33. Chapter 3: Whole Building Energy Efficiency Whole building energy efficiency considerations Impact of Wall, Window and Roof R-values on overall heatloss and energy consumption Example calculations of whole building R-values Thermal mass impacts of Heavy timber structures Hygrothermal and Thermal simulation guidance
  34. 34. Chapter 4: Energy Efficient Walls – Split Insulated Material selection & guidance Control Functions Critical Barriers Effective R-value Tables Wood framing 2x4 2x6 Nominal studspace insulation [R-value (RSI)] R-12 (2.1) R-14 (2.5) R-19 (3.3) R-22 (3.9) Exterior insulation None [R-value (RSI)] 10.7 (1.9) 11.5 (2.0) 15.5 (2.7) 16.6 (2.9) R-4 (1 inch) [R-value (RSI)] 15.0 (2.6) 15.8 (2.8) 19.8 (3.5) 21.0 (3.7) R-8 (2 inches) [R-value (RSI)] 18.8 (3.3) 19.6 (3.4) 23.7 (4.2) 24.8 (4.4) R-12 (3 inches) [R-value (RSI)] 22.5 (4.0) 23.2 (4.1) 27.3 (4.8) 28.5 (5.0) R-16 (4 inches) [R-value (RSI)] 26.2 (4.6) 27.0 (4.8) 31.0 (5.5) 32.2 (5.7) R-20 (5 inches) [R-value (RSI)] 29.7 (5.2) 30.5 (5.4) 34.5 (6.1) 35.7 (6.3) R-24 (6 inches) [R-value (RSI)] 33.2 (5.8) 34.0 (6.0) 38.0 (6.7) 39.2 (6.9)
  35. 35. Exterior & Split Insulated Wood Assemblies Wood-frame and Heavy Timber Building Wall R-value Targets R-19.6 ASHRAE 90.1 R-18.6 to R-20.4 NECB Can only get ~R-16 effective within a 2x6 framed wall Industry shift towards split and exterior insulated wood-frame walls
  36. 36. Chapter 4: Energy Efficient Walls – Double Stud/Deep Stud Material selection & guidance Control Functions Critical Barriers Effective R-value Tables Wood framing Doublestud 2x4 Nominal fill insulation [R-value/inch (RSI/cm)] R-3.4/inch (0.24/cm) R-4.0/inch (0.28/cm) No gap [R-value (RSI)] 19.1 (3.4) 20.5 (3.6) 1-inch [R-value (RSI)] 22.9 (4.0) 25.1 (4.4) Gap width between stud walls 2-inches 3-inches 4-inches [R-value [R-value [R-value (RSI)] (RSI)] (RSI)] 26.5 30.0 33.4 (4.7) (5.3) (5.9) 29.4 33.4 37.4 (5.2) (5.9) (6.6) 5-inches [R-value (RSI)] 36.9 (6.5) 41.5 (7.3) 6-inches [R-value (RSI)] 40.3 (7.1) 45.4 (8.0)
  37. 37. Double/Deep Stud Insulated Walls Double 2x4/2x6 stud, single deep 2x10, 2x12, I-Joist etc. Common wood-frame wall assembly in many passive houses (and prefabricated highly insulated walls) Often add interior service wall – greater control over airtightness Inherently at a higher risk for damage if sheathing gets wet (rainwater, air leakage, vapor diffusion) – due to more interior insulation
  38. 38. Chapter 4: Energy Efficient Walls – Exterior Insulated Material selection & guidance Control Functions Critical Barriers Effective R-value Tables Wood framing 3½-inchthick CLT panels Exterior insulation [R-value/inch (RSI/cm)] R-4/inch (0.28/cm) R-5/inch (0.34/cm) 3 inches R-value (RSI)] 17.2 (3.0) 19.8 (3.5) 4 inches [R-value (RSI)] 20.9 (3.7) 24.4 (4.3) Exterior insulation thickness 5 inches 6 inches [R-value [R-value (RSI)] (RSI)] 24.4 27.9 (4.3) (4.9) 28.7 32.9 (5.1) (5.8) 7 inches [R-value (RSI)] 31.6 (5.6) 37.3 (6.6) 8 inches [R-value (RSI)] 35.0 (6.2) 41.5 (7.3)
  39. 39. Cross Laminated Timber Construction - Considerations
  40. 40. Cross Laminated Timber Construction – Wall Assemblies
  41. 41. CLT Panel Construction - Unique Details for Consideration
  42. 42. CLT Panel Details Requiring Attention – Panel Joints Sealants, tapes, & membranes applied on either side can't address this type of airflow path through the CLT lumber gaps
  43. 43. CLT Panel Details Requiring Attention - Parapets Airflow increased by stack Roofing membrane applied, effect and pressures at parapet path becomes longer – but corners doesn't go away – even if clamped, sealed etc.
  44. 44. CLT Panel Details Requiring Attention - Corners Airflow path more convoluted – lower leakage rates, but still a consideration
  45. 45. Guidance for CLT Assembly Air Barriers CLT panels air-tight as a material, but not as a system Recommend use of self-adhered sheet product air barrier membranes or thick liquid applied membrane on exterior of panels (exterior air-barrier approach) Use of loose-applied sheets (House-wraps) not generally recommended – more difficult to make airtight, perforating attachment, billowing, flanking airflow behind membrane
  46. 46. CLT Assembly Air Barrier Considerations Structural connections can interfere with air-barrier membrane installation/sequencing and sharp parts can damage materials (applied before or after)
  47. 47. Infill Walls – Post & Beam or Concrete Floor Slabs Concrete frame with wood-frame infill Post and Beam with wood-frame infill
  48. 48. Chapter 4: Below Grade Walls Exterior Insulated Interior Insulated Control Functions Critical Barriers Effective Rvalues
  49. 49. Chapter 4: Pitched-Roof, Vented Attic Assembly Materials & Control Functions Critical Barriers Effective R-value Tables (accounting for insulation reductions at eaves)
  50. 50. Chapter 4: Pitched-Roof, Exterior Insulated Assembly Materials & Control Functions Critical Barriers Effective R-values
  51. 51. Chapter 4: Low-Slope Conventional Roof Assembly Materials & Control Functions Critical Barriers Effective R-values (Accounting for tapered insulation packages)
  52. 52. Chapter 4: Low-Slope Inverted Roof Assembly Materials & Control Functions Critical Barriers Effective R-values
  53. 53. Chapter 5: Detailing 2D CAD details (colored) provided for typical details for each wall assembly type (split insulated, double stud, exterior insulated) plus some for infill walls 3D sequence details provided for window interfacing (split insulated, double stud, exterior insulated)
  54. 54. Detailing – Materials & Critical Barrier Discussion Thermal Continuity Air Barrier Continuity Water Shedding Surface and Water Resistive Barrier
  55. 55. Detailing – From Roof to Grade Details provided for each main wall assembly included Split insulated Double Stud CLT And roofs Sloped Low-slope
  56. 56. Detailing – Colored 2D Details
  57. 57. Detailing – Wall to Roof Interfaces
  58. 58. Detailing – Wall Penetrations
  59. 59. Detailing – 2D Window Details
  60. 60. Detailing – 3D Window Installation Sequences
  61. 61. Chapter 6: Further Reading, References & Glossary Further reading Builder & Design Guides Building Science Resources Energy Codes and Standards Other Research Organizations Design Software References Glossary of Building Enclosure, Energy Efficiency and Wood terms
  62. 62. Questions? gfinch@rdhbe.com - 604-873-1181 Guide Available from FP Innovations: http://www.fpinnovations.ca/ResearchProgram/AdvancedBuildingSy stem/designing-energy-efficient-building-enclosures.pdf Google: energy efficient building enclosure design guide
  63. 63. Questions / Comments? This concludes the: American Institute of Architects Architectural Institute of British Columbia Engineering Institute of Canada Continuing Education Systems Program Energy-Efficient Building Enclosure Design Guidelines for Wood-Frame Buildings

×