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Aim :  How does Byzantine Art express the values of Byzantine culture and society? Do Now :  Evaluate the mosaic.  How did...
 
The " Icon of the Savior"  has all the elements of Byzantine art:  the conventionalized appearance of Jesus, the...
Figures of Jesus and the saints become  conventionalized   (that is, there is a set formula for the appearance of the imag...
The Orthodox Church <ul><li>Often referred to as the Eastern Church. </li></ul><ul><li>Official language is Greek, but oth...
The Orthodox Church
Byzantine art flourished from about 300 A.D to the 1400s. It grew out of the early Christian world.  Byzantine art was ver...
&quot;The Virgin and Child&quot;  is another popular Byzantine subject for painted wood panel icons and mosaics.  Like the...
Mosaics and paintings covered the domes of many churches. They were often made of precious materials such as lapis lazuli,...
Justinian  (527-565AD) <ul><li>Re-conquered parts of the  Roman Empire  – North Africa, Italy, Southern Spain </li></ul><u...
Justinian’s Empire Justinian re-conquered large portions of the Western Empire at great expense.  It nearly bankrupted the...
The first church on the site was built by the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantius, son of Emperor Constantine, who had liber...
Architecturally the grand basilica represented a major revolution in church construction in that it featured a huge dome w...
In 1204 AD,  Roman Catholic  crusaders of the Fourth Crusade attacked and sacked Constantinople and the Great Church, leav...
It remained a mosque until 1935 when Turkey converted it into a museum. Years later the plaster which had been applied by ...
The Hippodrome Gladiator Fights and Chariot races were featured here.  Successful Charioteers were acclaimed as heroes and...
Byzantium’s Role in the World Economy
Strategic Location <ul><li>Was a weigh station to Western Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the center of Mediterranean trade ...
Art is the mirror of a culture and its world view. There is no case to which this statement more directly applies than to ...
Because of the strict injunctions against such depictions of humans or animals which might result in idol-worship, Islamic...
How does the artwork express the religious values of its creators?
Early Russia <ul><li>“ Two Rome’s have fallen, and a third Rome stands, and a fourth there shall not be.” </li></ul><ul><l...
 
River Network Slavs and Scandinavian Traders develop trading system throughout river network City of Kiev forms along the ...
Vladimir I  (980-1015) 855 – First Russian King was Rurik Monarchy forms with its center at the city of Kiev Russian King,...
<ul><li>Saints Cyril and Methodius  </li></ul><ul><li>The two brothers were sent to Russia as missionaries. </li></ul><ul>...
Cyril and Methodius Early Cyrillic Alphabet
 
Reasons For Decline <ul><li>The  Bureaucracy  became too complex and inefficient.  Why complicated meaningless paperwork t...
 
 
 
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Byzantine Art

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Byzantine Art

  1. 1. Aim : How does Byzantine Art express the values of Byzantine culture and society? Do Now : Evaluate the mosaic. How did the Byzantines express their devotion to Jesus? How did their artistic methods differ from Roman society?
  2. 3. The &quot; Icon of the Savior&quot; has all the elements of Byzantine art:  the conventionalized appearance of Jesus, the gold relief set with pearls, rubies, garnet, turquoise, amethyst and bone.
  3. 4. Figures of Jesus and the saints become conventionalized  (that is, there is a set formula for the appearance of the image) in Byzantine art.  Jesus is shown holding the scriptures with one hand and the other hand is raised in blessing;  his hair, beard and moustache are in the &quot; Greek style &quot; rather than the &quot;Roman style&quot; short hair and clean-shaven.
  4. 5. The Orthodox Church <ul><li>Often referred to as the Eastern Church. </li></ul><ul><li>Official language is Greek, but other languages are used as well including Ancient Syrian. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not recognize the Pope as the ultimate authority for the Church on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four main patriarchs (bishops considered to be more important because the of the cities they are connected to): Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>In some ways more mystical than the Roman Catholics. </li></ul>
  5. 6. The Orthodox Church
  6. 7. Byzantine art flourished from about 300 A.D to the 1400s. It grew out of the early Christian world. Byzantine art was very religious. Most Byzantine art was created for the Eastern Orthodox Church , made by servants of the courts or members of religious orders. Most of these artists remained anonymous. Byzantine Art
  7. 8. &quot;The Virgin and Child&quot; is another popular Byzantine subject for painted wood panel icons and mosaics.  Like the image of Jesus, Mary and the Infant Jesus are also shown in an agreed-upon conventional way.  Note the similarities of the pose and facial features of Mary as well as the appearance of the infant.
  8. 9. Mosaics and paintings covered the domes of many churches. They were often made of precious materials such as lapis lazuli, gold and silver. Byzantine artists had to follow many rules about subject matter, content, and form. Symbolic representation was very important in Byzantine art. The subjects appear flat and fairly abstract compared to the liveliness and individualism of Western art because Byzantine artists used little shading or other techniques that would have made their subjects more lifelike.
  9. 10. Justinian (527-565AD) <ul><li>Re-conquered parts of the Roman Empire – North Africa, Italy, Southern Spain </li></ul><ul><li>United Empire – Justinian Code, new law code, Corpus Iuris Civilis, based on Roman Law and individual rights, Greek official language </li></ul><ul><li>Beautified Constantinople – Built Hagia Sophia, government buildings, roads, walls, public baths, law courts, underground reservoirs, supported art, sculptures, mosaics, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Autocratic Rule – Became the sole ruler of the government and the Church – had absolute power and selected the Patriarch </li></ul><ul><li>Theodora – Justinian’s wife – worked for peace with Persia, fought for women’s rights, built hospitals and schools for the poor </li></ul>
  10. 11. Justinian’s Empire Justinian re-conquered large portions of the Western Empire at great expense. It nearly bankrupted the empire and eventually had to be let go.
  11. 12. The first church on the site was built by the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantius, son of Emperor Constantine, who had liberated the Christian faith from centuries of persecution. At first it was known as the Great Church because it was the largest at the time. Later it became known as Holy Wisdom, a name attributed to Christ by theologians of the 4th century. Hagia Sophia or Holy Wisdom is the mother church of all Eastern Christians of the Byzantine liturgical tradition both Orthodox and Greek Catholic. The Hagia Sophia
  12. 13. Architecturally the grand basilica represented a major revolution in church construction in that it featured a huge dome which necessitated the implementation of new ideas in order to support the weight of this dome, a feat which had not been attempted before. The dome which became universal in Byzantine church construction represented the vault of heaven thus constituting a feature quasi-liturgical in function. In the days when there was no steel used in construction, large roofs and domes had to be supported by massive pillars and walls. The Hagia Sophia
  13. 14. In 1204 AD, Roman Catholic crusaders of the Fourth Crusade attacked and sacked Constantinople and the Great Church, leaving behind a legacy of bitterness among Eastern Christians which continues to this day. For more that 1000 years, Holy Wisdom served as the cathedral church of the Patriarch of Constantinople as well as the church of the Byzantine court but that function came to an end in 1453 when the Ottoman Turkish Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror seized the Imperial City and converted the Great Church into his mosque. The Hagia Sophia Initially, the Turks preserved the frescoes and mosaic figures of Christian saints which decorated the walls. However, in the 16th century, these were completely covered by plaster, since the Islamic code forbids figural representation.
  14. 15. It remained a mosque until 1935 when Turkey converted it into a museum. Years later the plaster which had been applied by the Muslims to cover the icons was removed revealing for the first time to modern eyes the artwork covered by the Muslims in their effort to render the structure appropriate for their own purposes. After it became a mosque, an altar (mihrap) in the east was added, since the apse should be in the direction of Mecca and the minarets were added in keeping with traditional Islamic architecture The Hagia Sophia
  15. 16. The Hippodrome Gladiator Fights and Chariot races were featured here. Successful Charioteers were acclaimed as heroes and honored with public statues. The Hippodrome was the heart of Constantinople's political life, as two groups, the Greens and Blues, jousted for power. Emperors had to be aware of their demands and attitudes as many riots occurred.
  16. 17. Byzantium’s Role in the World Economy
  17. 18. Strategic Location <ul><li>Was a weigh station to Western Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the center of Mediterranean trade and controlled most of the big trading cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually stole silkworms from China and began their own silk production. </li></ul>Byzantine coins were found in Venice, 1338
  18. 19. Art is the mirror of a culture and its world view. There is no case to which this statement more directly applies than to the art of the Islamic world. Not only does its art reflect its cultural values, but even more importantly, the way in which its adherents, the Muslims, view the spiritual realm, the universe, life, and the relationship of the parts to the whole. Islamic Art
  19. 20. Because of the strict injunctions against such depictions of humans or animals which might result in idol-worship, Islamic art developed a unique character, utilizing a number of primary forms: geometric, arabesque, floral, and calligraphic, which are often interwoven. From early times, Muslim art has reflected this balanced, harmonious world-view. Islamic Art
  20. 21. How does the artwork express the religious values of its creators?
  21. 22. Early Russia <ul><li>“ Two Rome’s have fallen, and a third Rome stands, and a fourth there shall not be.” </li></ul><ul><li>What were the first two Rome’s that have fallen? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does this civilization want to be compared to Rome? </li></ul>
  22. 24. River Network Slavs and Scandinavian Traders develop trading system throughout river network City of Kiev forms along the Dnieper River – Leads to Black Sea and trade with Byzantine Empire
  23. 25. Vladimir I (980-1015) 855 – First Russian King was Rurik Monarchy forms with its center at the city of Kiev Russian King, Vladimir I, converts to Christianity but did not want to be under the control of the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope Kievan Russia declined in the 12 th century due to internal problems and Mongol invasions Why did Valdimir I convert to Christianity?
  24. 26. <ul><li>Saints Cyril and Methodius </li></ul><ul><li>The two brothers were sent to Russia as missionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced the Russians to Orthodox Christianity – thereby cementing Russia’s relationship with the Byzantine Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Created the Cyrillic Alphabet for the Russians – unifying them linguistically. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of its proximity to the Black Sea, Russia always leaned more towards Byzantium than the Islamic world. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Cyril and Methodius Early Cyrillic Alphabet
  26. 29. Reasons For Decline <ul><li>The Bureaucracy became too complex and inefficient. Why complicated meaningless paperwork today is called “Byzantine”. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of defending borders became too expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing power and popularity of Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Invasions from Arabs, Persians and eventually the Turks (Seljuk and Ottoman) were too much. </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman gunpowder weapons destroyed Constantinople’s legendary walls and the empire came to an end. </li></ul>

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