2. What is a Computer?
The computer is an automatic, high
speed, digital, electronic data processing
machine used for performing program
instructions to produce the desired output.
It can choose, copy arithmetic operations.
It is fast accurate manipulating system that
is designed and organized to accept and
store input data automatically, process and
produce output results under the direction
of a detailed step-by-step program of
3. What is the importance of
computer in education?
• Computers have become an integral part of our daily
lives. Since the advent of personal computers, they
have become an integral part of the education system.
Having computers as a part one’s education can prove
very helpful. Being good in studies and computers can
secure better job prospects, In this age and time
computer knowledge is a must.
• The computer networks these days have a powerful
impact on the ways which individuals, private
organizations can communicate with each other.
This age is known as the era of IT business, where
every application is linked with computer technologies.
The use of computers can make business transactions
very accurate, thus keeping a proper record of profit
and loss. Computers play a very vital role in education.
Elements of Computer
People – refers to the people involved in the data processing
operation such as the computer programmers, computer operators,
system analysis, computer technicians, staff, etc.
Software- refers to the program or set of instructions that enable the
computer system to operate effectively. These include the system
software, application software, programming languages, and logical
steps and procedures in the program.
Hardware- refers to physical electronic devices and tangible parts
that constitute the computer system. These include the keyboard,
monitor, disk drive, CPU, printer, etc..
Data-refers to data needed in the processing operations include texts,
numbers, sounds, images and video that we input into the computer
Connectivity – means that a computer must be connected to other
computers specially through internet. Using internet, people can share
and access data greatly expands ones capability and reach.
Procedure – are step by step instructions to follow when using
hardware, software and data. The procedures are normally written in
manuals of hardware and software manufacturers.
5. What is a computer system?
• The computer system is a group of
integrated parts that have the common
operations. It consists of a computer,
all the support equipment necessary
for its use, instructions that specify the
procedures that people must follow to
use the computer, and the people who
use the system. The purpose of a
computer is to accept data, processing
data, and procedure output as useful
6. What is Computer
used to describe
all the physical
components of a
It includes the
7. Does a typical computer owner need
to mess around inside the system
The hardware are the parts of computer
itself including the Central Processing Unit
(CPU) and related microchips and microcircuitry, keyboards, monitors, case and
drives (floppy, hard, CD, DVD, optical, tape,
etc...). Other extra parts called peripheral
components or devices include mouse,
printers, modems, scanners, digital cameras
and cards (sound, color, video) etc...
Together they are often referred to as a
personal computers or PCs.
9. What is a Personal
– A personal computer,
(usually called a “PC”)
is a computer made to
be used by one person.
Other kinds of
computers are often
designed to be used by
many people at the
– The Personal Computer
has Monitor, System
Unit, Keyboard and
10. What are the Components of
a Computer Hardware?
11. Components of Computer
• Input Unit
It is the component of computer system
designed for data entry operations. It allows direct
human or machine communication while others
requires data to be recorded on an input medium.
The input device reads and transmits data to the
main memory of the computer. Data are entered
into this device by pressing appropriate keys. One
example is a card reader.
• Output Unit
It is the component of computer system that
gives out the users the results of the processed
data. The information is transmitted from CPU to
this output device, where it is printed or recorded.
12. Component of Computer System
Central processing Unit (CPU)
It is the physical device that controls the computer
operations. It accepts and stores the program and the data in
the memory or primary storage. One of the program and data
are stored, the CPU executed and processes the data. It is
known as the “brain of the computer”. It is composed of three
parts, namely: Primary Storage, Arithmetic Logic Unit, and
Auxiliary Storage Unit
It is the component system that stores information
subsequently used by the CPU or a more permanent basis is
secondary or auxiliary storage. Examples of auxiliary storage
devices are disk drives, magnetic disk and magnetic tapes.
13. Computers can perform the following
data processing activities rapidly and
Input and Output Operations- A computer can
accepts and supply processed data to a wide
range of devices.
Calculation and Text Manipulation- A computer
can perform calculations on numbers, nonnumerical letters, and other symbols used in
words and sentences.
Logic and Comparison Operations- A computer
performs comparison for decision making.
Storage and Retrieval Operations- A computer
can internally accept data and program instruction
and they may be called up for use.
14. Input Devices
Consist of devices that take data and programs that people can read
or comprehend and convert them to a form that a computer can
– Text input devices
– Pointing devices
– Gaming devices
• Game controller
– Scanning, Video input devices
Mark and Character-recognition system
– Audio input devices
15. Text input devices
A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modeled after
the typewriter keyboard. Keyboards are designed for the input
of text and characters and also to control the operation of a
16. Pointing devices
• A pointing device is any computer
hardware component (specifically
human interface device) that allows a
user to input spatial (ie, continuous and
multi-dimensional) data to a computer.
CAD systems and graphical user
interfaces (GUI) allow the user to
control and provide data to the
computer using physical gestures point, click, and drag
17. An example of a
Pointing device is a
MOUSE . This is
used to select and
move items that are
displayed on your
Think of a mouse as an extension of your hand. It
controls a pointer that identifies a location on
your monitor screen. When you move your mouse
on your desk, the pointer moves as well.
18. light pen
• A light pen is a computer input device in the
form of a light-sensitive wand used in
conjunction with the computer's CRT
monitor. It allows the user to point to
displayed objects, or draw on the screen, in
a similar way to a touch screen but with
greater positional accuracy.
20. Gaming devices
• A joystick is a personal computer
peripheral or general control device
consisting of a handheld stick that
pivots about one end and transmits its
angle in two or three dimensions to a
21. Gaming devices
• A gamepad, also called joypad or
control pad, is a type of game
controller held in the hand, where the
digits (especially thumbs) are used to
22. Scanning devices
• Translates images of text, drawings,
photos into digital form
– Bar-code readers
– Mark and Character-recognition system
– Image scanners
23. Scanning devices
• A barcode reader, also called a price
scanner or point-of-sale (POS) scanner, is a
hand-held or stationary input device used to
capture and read information contained in a
bar code. A barcode reader consists of a
scanner, a decoder (either built-in or
external), and a cable used to connect the
reader with a computer.
24. Scanning devices
Mark and Character-recognition
system and Optical mark
recognition is the process of
capturing data by contrasting
reflectivity at predetermined
positions on a page. By shining a
beam of light onto the document the
scanner is able to detect a marked
area because it reflects less light
than an unmarked surface. or
25. Scanning devices
• a image scanner is a device that
analyzes an image (such as a
photograph, printed text, or
handwriting) or an object (such as an
ornament) and converts it to a digital
26. Video input devices
• A web camera (or webcam) is a realtime camera (usually, though not
always, a video camera) whose
images can be accessed using the
World Wide Web, instant messaging,
or a PC video calling application.
27. Audio input devices
• A microphone, sometimes
referred to as a mike or mic is
an acoustic to electric transducer
or sensor that converts sound
into an electrical signal.
30. Processing device
or CPU is the
CHIP in your
does all the
This is based upon Intel’s x86
architecture, which includes 386,
486, Pentium series I, II, III, and
31. What’s a computer chip?
• integrated circuits - thin slices of
silicon crystal packed with microscopic
– Logic gates
32. How does a microprocessor
• The CPU has two parts
• ALU (arithmetic logic unit)
– Performs arithmetic operations
– Performs logical operations
– Uses registers to hold data being
• The CPU’s control unit directs and
33. What do MHz and GHz have
to do with computer
• Microprocessor clock-a timing device
that sets the pace for executing
• Megaherz means a million cycles per
• Gigaherz means a billion cycles per
• Also called the system board, is the main
circuit board in the system unit. It consists of
a flat board that fills the bottom of the system
• This board contains the microprocessor, any
microprocessor chips, RAM chips, ROM
chips, some other types of memory, and
expansion slots, where additional circuit
boards, called expansion boards, may be
38. Memory Devices
Or RAM (Random Access
Memory) is the main type of
memory in your computer, it
allows your program to run.
The bigger Memory your
computer has, the faster
it works, the more
applications you can run
Memory is measured in bytes,
Kilobytes, and Megabytes
39. How much RAM does my
• RAM is primary storage (main memory)
– Measured in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB)
• Today’s computers have between 128 MB
and 2 GB of RAM
• You can purchase additional RAM
• A computer can use disk storage to simulate
RAM. This is called virtual memory
– Not as fast as RAM
40. Types of RAM
• SDRAM - synchronous dynamic
random access memory which is a
type of solid state computer memory.
• DDR - double-data-rate, is a class of
memory integrated circuit used in
• RDRAM – rambus dynamic random
42. Read-Only Memory: How is
ROM different from RAM?
• ROM (read-only memory) is one or more
chips containing instructions that help a
computer prepare to process tasks
• ROM is permanent and non-volatile
• Only way to change the instructions on a
ROM chip is to replace the chip
43. CMOS memory: Where does a
computer store its basic
• A computer needs a semi-permanent way of
keeping boot data, such as the number of
hard disk sectors and cylinders
• CMOS memory - holds data but requires
very little power to retain its contents
– Retains important computer settings after you
turn the power off
– Can run by a battery on the motherboard
– Housed within the same chip carrier as ROM
44. What is an expansion slot?
• Expansion slot - long, narrow socket on the
motherboard into which you can plug an
– Graphics card (for connecting monitor)
– Modem (for transmitting data over phone or cable
– Sound card (for connecting speakers)
• Expansion card - small circuit board that
provides computer with ability to control
storage, input or output device
• Most computers have 4 - 8 expansion slots
46. What are the major types of
• ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)
– Used today only for some modems and other
relatively slow devices
• PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
– Offers fast transfer speeds and a 32-bit or 64-bit
• AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)
– Provides a high-speed data pathway primarily
used for graphics cards
47. Do notebook computers also
contain expansion slots?
• Most notebook computers are
equipped with a special type of
external slot called a PCMCIA slot
(personal computer memory card
• Typically a notebook only has one slot,
but the slot can hold more than one PC
card (PCMCIA expansion cards)
48. Expansion Cards
• A video card, (also referred to as a
graphics accelerator card, display
adapter, graphics card, and numerous
other terms), is an item of personal
computer hardware whose function is to
generate and output images to a display.
49. Expansion Cards
• A network card, network adapter or
NIC (network interface controller) is a
piece of computer hardware designed
to allow computers to communicate
over a computer network.
51. Output Devices
-provides the user with the means to
view and use the information produced
by the computer system.
-- information is output in either
hardcopy or softcopy form.
-Examples are monitor, printer, speaker
or any audio output devices, LCD
projectors, plotters etc.
Is another component of
your computer. The text
and images generated by
your computer are
displayed on its screen.
erfo dent IDE
pen e of V
the D you
54. How does an ink jet printer
• Nozzle-like print head that sprays ink
onto paper to form characters and
55. How do laser printers
compare to ink jet printers?
• A laser printer uses the same
technology as a photocopier to paint
dots of light on a light-sensitive drum
– Higher quality than ink jet
– More expensive to buy than ink jet
– Less expensive to operate than ink jet
57. What is a dot matrix printer?
• Dot matrix printers produce
characters and graphics by using a
grid of fine wires
– Introduced in 1970s
– Low quality output
– Used for “back-office” applications that
demand low operating cost and
– Can print multipart carbon forms
• IS A SET OF INSTRUCTIONS THAT
TELLS THE COMPUTER WHAT TO
DO AND HOW TO ARRIVE AT A
PROCESSES THE DATA ENTERED
INTO THE COMPUTER.
67. TWO MAIN TYPES OF
1. SYSTEM SOFTWARE
-IS A COLLECTION OF PROGRAMS WHICH
A. OPERATING SYSTEM – is a program basically
responsible for the coordination, management and
sharing of hardware resources and tasks in the
B. UTILITY SYSTEM – is a program that performs
maintenance tasks for the computer’s resources,
such as clean up, and organizing files and
programs so they would load and work faster.
C. DEVICE DRIVER – is a program that allows a
particular hardware device to work and
communicate with the computer system.
68. TWO MAIN TYPES OF
2. APPLICATION SOFTWARE
-A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO
ASSIST IN THE PERFORMANCE OF
A SPECIFIC TASK SUCH AS WORD
GRAPHICS OR PRESENTATION
69. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
1. WEB BROWSER SOFTWARE
- is a program that allows you to browse the World
Wide Web and its resources. The most common
web browsers are as follows:
a. Microsoft Internet Explorer
b. Mozilla Firefox
c. Google Chrome
f. Altavista, aj, msn
70. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
2. WORD PROCESSOR
-is a program that allows the user top create and
change documents, letters, reports, memos and other
text documents. Examples are:
a. Microsoft Word – 2007, 2010, 2013
b. Corel Wordperfect
c. OpenOffice.org Writter
71. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
3. SPREADSHEETS PROGRAMS
- are rows and columns of data organized and
calculations are performed. Examples are:
a. Microsoft Excel
c. OpenOffice.org Calc
72. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
4. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER
- is a program that includes an address book,
calendar of appointments, notes and other
information you want to manage and access when
needed. Examples are:
a. Microsoft Outlook
b. Apple iCal
73. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
5. PRESENTATION SOFTWARE
-is a software that is used to convey information, ideas,
messages or products to a target group of persons.
a. Microsoft PowerPoint, 2007, 2010, 2013
b. OpenOffice.org Impress
c. Apple keynote
d. Adobe Persuasion
74. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
6. DATABASE PROGRAMS
-are programs created to organized data and
information in a manner desired by the user or in a
format for its convenient recovery and access.
a. Microsoft Access
b. FileMaker Pro
e. OpenOffice Base
75. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
7. GRAPHICS SOFTWARE
-are programs for drawing and coloring. They can
also edit pictures. Examples area:
a. Microsoft Paint
b. Adobe Illustrator
c. Adobe Photoshop
e. OpenOffice Draw
76. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
8. VIDEO SOFTWARE
-are programs to create, modify and enhance, add
and remove segments and other effects a user may
want to apply to video files. Examples are:
a. Adobe Premiere
b. Apple Final Cut
c. Microsoft Movie Maker
d. Sony Vegas
77. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
CAD - COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN
-are programs optimized for designing and drawing
of homes, buildings, cars, airplanes and other
machineries. Examples are:
a. Auto CAD
78. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
10. WEB PAGE AUTHORING PROGRAM
-is a software made to assist the users to create
their own Web pages. Examples are:
a. Adobe Dreamweaver
b. Microsoft Frontpage
79. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
11. REFERENCE SOFTWARE
-is a program that provides information for
people. The most common reference programs
includes encyclopedias, dictionaries, maps and
directories. Examples are:
a. Encarta Encyclopedia
b. Merriam-Webster’s Medical Desk Dictionary
80. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
12. ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE
-is a program designed for integrated accounting
applications for any business including schools.
a. Peachtree Accounting
b. MYOB Accounting
c. Quickbooks Accounting
81. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
13. ENTERTAINMENT SOFTWARE
-is a program made to play interactive games on
the personal computer. Programs in this category
also include programs to support a hobby.
a. Microsoft Flight Simulator
b. Microsoft Train Simulator
82. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
14. EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE
- is a program that teaches a certain skills. There
are many educational software for any subject
that you can think of. These include cooking,
making origami, typing tutor, how to play
basketball, how to play the guitar and many
others. In academic applications, there are
programs to assist students in learning math,
science and reading. Some examples are:
a. Math Success
b. Rapid typing
83. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION
15. COMMUNICATION SOFTWARE
-is a program that allows the computer user to get
in touch with other people. Most of the available
communication programs are now internet-based
and one good thing is that most of them are free
and the only thing to do is to register. Examples
a. E-mail Internet
b. Telephony (Skype)
c. Instant Messenger (Yahoo Messenger)
84. 16. Antivirus software
• Antivirus software is a computer
program that detects, prevents,
and takes action to disarm or
horse,viruses and worms. You can
help protect your computer against
viruses by using antivirus software.
• Computer viruses are software
programs that are deliberately
corrupt, or delete data, or spread
themselves to other computers
and throughout the Internet.
86. To prevent virus
• To help prevent the most current viruses,
you must update your antivirus software
regularly. You can set up most types of
antiviruses software to update automatically.
Here are two types of antivirus protection
• For continuous protection, try Windows Live
OneCare, which automatically scans your
computer for viruses. You can use it free for
• For continuous protection, try Windows Live
One Care safety scanner allows you to visit
a Web site and scan your computer for
viruses and other malicious software for free
using Windows Live OneCare safety
87. Microsoft Word
- is a word processing program used to
create, format, save, print letters,
reports, newsletter, manuscripts, signs,
certificates, flyers, letters, invitations and
88. Microsoft Excel
- is a computerized worksheet.
- A worksheet is an on-screen
spreadsheet that contains various cells
in columns and rows. By entering
information in the form of labels, values
and formulas into worksheet cell, you
create tables or spreadsheets, useful
for summarizing tabulating, and
89. Microsoft PowerPoint
- is a presentation graphics program that
allows you to create slide shows.
- Allows you to organize, summarize and
format your materials, illustrate your
presentation with images of ClipArt,
90. How should one take
care of your computer?
– Do not expose any computer to direct sunlight: put your
computer away from windows and doors as much as possible.
– The room temperature and humidity must be standard room
temperature ( the room does not necessarily be airconditioned).
– Do not strike the keyboard too hard or hit the computer.
– Your hands must be clean when using the keyboard or
touching any diskettes.
– The table or space where the computer sits must be stable
and free from vibrations.
– Do not use so much electrical connections with just one outlet.
Use a voltage regulator or surge protector; avoid using
octopus plugs; extension cords are allowed.
– Do not pull the plug to turn it off. Use the switch.
– Use dust covers for your computer to avoid dust to accumulate
inside the drives, CPU, or the keyboard; keep your computer
laboratory clean at all times.
– During trouble shooting, do not let anyone (teachers and
students) attempt to open the casing of the computer unless
he is a qualified computer technician.
91. What are the healthy
ways of using your
The distance between your body (or face) from the monitor
should be at least 2 feet (or arm’s length).
Do not stare at the monitor for a very long period; blink from
time to time or close your eyes for a few seconds after every
30 minutes of using the computer.
The computer keyboard should be at least at the same level
with your hands – not too high and not too low.
The seats should be comfortable with back rest – not too
high, not too low.
It is best to buy low radiation monitor or buy screen fibers for
each computer monitor.
Do not open te computer CPU for any reason at all; if
someone will do it the computer must be unplugged or
Do not wash your eyes after hours of using the computer.
Do not insert your fingers in the drives or any slots in the
CPU or monitor.