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Extra heavy oil and bitumen impact of technologies on the recovery factor - total

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Extra heavy oil and bitumen impact of technologies on the recovery factor - total

  1. 1. Extra Heavy Oil and Bitumen Impact of Technologies on the Recovery Factor « The Challenges of Enhanced Recovery » François CUPCIC Heavy Oil Research Leader
  2. 2. Heavy Oil : a mix of heterogeneous denominations Confusing heterogeneous denominations : § Heavy Oil, Extra Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, Tar Sands, Bitumen, …. è need for a simple classification 4 Classes based mainly on downhole viscosity : 0A Class : Medium Heavy Oil 25°> d°API > 18° 100 cPo >m > 10 cPo, mobile at reservoir conditions 0B Class : Extra Heavy Oil 20°> d°API > 7° 10 000 cPo >m > 100 cPo , mobile at reservoir conditions 0C Class : Tar Sands and Bitumen 12°> d°API > 7° m > 10 000 cPo, non mobile at reservoir conditions 0D Class : Oil Shales Reservoir = Source Rock, no permeability Mining Extraction only ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 2
  3. 3. Heavy Oil (excluding Oil Shales) : 3 Main Categories Heavy Oil Classification 10 000 000 1 000 000 C Class : Tar Sands & Bitumen Cpo) (100 000 Viscosity 10 000 Downhole Orinoco 1 000 100 API Density ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 3 B Class : Extra Heavy Oil Duri Wabasca Athabasca Peace rivCerold lake Fazenda belem Lloyminster Cat canyon Poso creek Kern river Midway Bechraji Mount poso Yorba linda Belridge Morichal Pilon Eljobo Boscan Qarn alam Bachaquero Tia juana Rospomare Mormora mare Sarago mare A Class : Medium Heavy Oil Shoonebeck Emeraude Lacq Grenade Varadero Balol Boca de Jaruco Upper & Lower Ugnu West sak Llancanelo Captain Estreito Alto do rodrigues 1 Mariner (M) Bressay Bati raman Mariner (H) Alto do rodrigues 2 10 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 uTempa Rosa (11-23°API) uDalia u u Sup. Canada
  4. 4. "Heavy Oils" : Resources of 4000 to 5000 Gb (OIP) Potential Reserves depends on recovery factors Considerable Potential Reserves : # 500 to 1000 Gb equivalent to 50-100% of worldwide conventional oil reserves 5 to 10 times (?) the ultra-deep offshore potential reserves mainly (80%) in extra heavy oil, tar sands and bitumens mainly (80%) in North and South America less than 1% produced or under active development Heavy Oil Reserves 270 310 260 ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 4 Light Oil Reserves Saudi Arabia Venezuela Canada
  5. 5. Huge Untapped Resources in Orinoco and Athabasca 45,000 km2 54,000 km2 ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 5 ALBERTA Fort Athabasca Mc Murray Edmonton Calgary Cretaceous Oil Sands Cretaceous Heavy Oils Peace River Cold Lake Lloydminster SINCOR OPCO Extra Heavy Oils (μ < 10,000 cPo) Oil in place: 1,200 Gb (PDVSA estimates) SURMONT SAGDPilot Tar Sands & Bitumen (μ > 10,000 cPo) Oil in place: 1,300 Gb (EUB estimates)
  6. 6. A decisive difference: the geothermal gradient 10 000 000 cPo 1 000 000 cPo 100 000 cPo 10 000 cPo 1 000 cPo 100 cPo 10 cPo Viscosity = f(tempure) ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 6 550m 1400m 200m Downh ole pump 1 cPo 0 °C 50 °C 100 °C 150 °C 200 °C 250 °C 300 °C Athabasca : • T res. # 11°C • μ ‡ 1,000, 000 cPo Thermal Production Compulsory Orinoco : • T res. # 53°C • μ # 1,500 to 3,000 cPo Cold Production Possible
  7. 7. Production Technologies 1 - Proven technologies … but with limited suitability or recovery efficiency • Mining Extraction • Cold Production • Huff & Puff ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 7
  8. 8. Mining Extraction ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 8 • Proven technology • High Recovery Factor • Decreasing operating costs : 3 1980's : > 25 US$/bbl 3 2002 : 8 - 12 US$/bbl • Limited GHG emissions BUT : • Overburden limited to 50-75 m è suitable to less than 10% of Oil in Place in Athabasca ALBERTA Fort Athabasca Mc Murray Cold Lake Edmonton Calgary
  9. 9. Cold Production • Proven technology • Fair productivities with horizontal wells (Venezuela) or with CHOPS (Canada) • Limited investments • Limited operating costs (2 to 4 US$/bbl) • Available artificial lift technologies: PCP, rod pumps • No GHG emissions BUT : • Poor recovery factors (# 5 to 10%) • Unsuitable for bitumens (too viscous) • Unsuitable for reservoirs with active aquifer ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 9 Sand + Oil CHOPS
  10. 10. Example of Cold Production : the Sincor Project JOSE 32° API 180 Kbls/d Distillation Hydrotreater Diluted crude 270 KBD ZUATA SWEET Coke 6000 t/d Sulfur 500 t/d Coker Hydrocracker ZUATA 8.5° API 200 Kbls/d 21+200 km Diluent 70 KBD 12”-20” 26”-36” ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 10 SOLIDS Investment : US$ 4.2 billion Plateau production : 200 kbd of crude oil 180 kbd of Zuata Sweet Oil gravity : 8.5° ð 32° API Technical cost : < 7 US$ / b Contract duration : 35 years THE PARTNERS 47 % 38 % 15 % Cold Production TOTAL
  11. 11. Huff & Puff • Proven technology : • Canada : Cold Lake, Wolf Lake & Primrose • Venezuela : Maracaïbo & Oriente Basins • California : Kern River • Limited operating costs : • 4 to 5 US$/bbl BUT : • Limited recovery factors (< 15-20%) : only stimulation around wellbore • Consumption of energy and increase of GHG emissions ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 11
  12. 12. Production Technologies 2 - More efficient technologies … but not yet field proven • In-Situ Combustion • Solvent Injection ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 12
  13. 13. Combustion Air & Water front In Situ Combustion Mobile oil zone (MOZ) Cold Heavy Oil Producer well ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 13 • Old technology (1960's) • High Recovery Factor : • up to 60% • Self-generation of energy (coke consumption) • In situ upgrading (thermal cracking) BUT : • Field tested nearly exclusively on light oils • Not so many successes (operational and safety problems) • Pattern adapted to extra-heavy oil & bitumen to be found and field tested ...
  14. 14. Solvent Injection Solvent flows to interface BUT : Capillary mixing Solubilization Swelling Molecular diffusion Convective dispersion Viissccoossiittyy rreedduuccttiion Asphalttenee prreecciipiittaattiioonn g Oil Soollvveentt ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 14 • High Recovery Factor : • up to 60% • Low energy consumption • In situ upgrading (asphaltene precipitation) • No boiler feedwater treatment • Limited GHG emissions • Slow process (molecular diffusivity much smaller than thermal diffusivity) • Start-up not so easy : need for warming with steam ? • Possible "killing factor" : solvent loss in reservoir ? • Not yet field tested : first pilots being launched in Alberta • Not mature enough for industrial application until some years
  15. 15. Production Technologies 3 - Available efficient technology … with proven results • Steam Injection and SAGD ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 15
  16. 16. Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) BUT : ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 16 • High Recovery Factor : • up to 60% • Quick process (high thermal diffusivity) • Proven technology : • several pilots since 1980's in Alberta and elsewhere • Mature enough for medium scale field tests • Huge need of energy : 1500 MW for 100,000 bopd !! • "Killing factor" : steam oil ratio (has to be < 3 vol./vol.) • Large GHG emissions : up to 15,000 Tons/day of CO2 for 100,000 bopd • Requires technics adapted to high temperatures (artificial lift, metering, surface pumping, …)
  17. 17. SAGD : already a reality in Alberta Phase 1 of Foster Creek (EnCana) ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 17 Construction of Christina Lake (EnCana) Construction of Mac Kay River (PetroCanada) Surmont Pilot (Conoco-Phillips / Total / Devon)
  18. 18. SAGD 1st Challenge : To Increase Oil Value 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% -20% -40% -60% -80% -100% BRENT ATHABASCA ORENOQUE Diluted Bitumen 19°API Gasoil (145-375°C) Gasoline (0-145°C) VGO (375-540°C) VR 540°C+ Syncrude LR-coking 23°API ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 1 Syncrude H-OIL with VR 23,5°API Syncrude SINCOR 32°API Syncrude H-OIL without VR 32,4°API Syncrude HDH + 36,3°API Mid Upgrading Deep Upgrading Mini Upgrading 8.5 $/bbl 17 $/bbl 15.6 $/bbl 17.6 $/bbl HEAVY FRACTION LIGHT FRACTION UPGRADING & VALUE OF THE PRODUCT
  19. 19. Upgrading : a Balanced Choice Thermal Cracking • Lower Investment Costs • Lower Cost of Steam : petcoke may be used as fuel BUT ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 19 Deep Hydrocracking • Higher SCO value • Lower SCO value BUT • Higher Investment Costs • High consumption of natural gas for H2 and steam production
  20. 20. SAGD 2nd Challenge : To Reduce Cost of Steam ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 20 Combustion of natural gas : • simple and cheap boiler technology (OTSG) • reduced treatment of boiler feedwater • minimized GHG emissions • limited investment costs : • # 160 MMUS$ (for 100,000 bopd) BUT High operating cost : 3 US$/Bbl (gas price ± 3 US$/MMbtu)
  21. 21. 1st Alternative Fuel : Combustion of Upgrading Residues ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 21 Combustion of residues : • cheaper fuel than natural gas : • reduced operating cost : 3 è 1 US$/bbl • avoids stockpiling of residues (petcoke, asphalts) BUT • Requests specific boilers • Heavier treatment of boiler feedwater • High sulphur % è FGD compulsory • Requires regenerative FGD process to avoid stockpiling of Ca2SO4 • Higher CO2 emissions • Higher investment costs : • 160 è 500 MMUS$ (100,000 bopd)
  22. 22. 2nd Alternative Fuel : Gasification of Upgrading Residues S C O ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 22 Gasification of residues : • cheaper fuel than natural gas • reduced operating cost : 3 è 1,3 US$/bbl • avoids stockpiling of residues (petcoke, asphalts) • allows production of H2 for hydrotreatment • easier capture of SO2 and CO2 • syngas can be burnt into simple OTSG boilers • reduced treatment of boiler feedwater BUT • Higher investments costs : • 160 è 360 MMUS$ (100,000 bopd) Crude unit Vacuum distillation Naphta/Gasoil HDT DAO/VGO T-Star Deasphalting unit Surmont 8°API 100 KBOPD Synthetic Crude Oil 30.2°API 85 KBOPD hydrogen Asphalt HP Steam Gas cleanup and Sulfur recovery Gasification syngas Clean syngas OTSG
  23. 23. SAGD 3rd Challenge : To Reduce CO2 Emisions Bitumen 100 000 BPOD Pads Oil Water separation Steam Generation Equivalent gas 71.9 MMSCFD 38.5 MMSCFD Steam : 43 200 tons/day ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 23 Upgrader Flexicoker case Natural gas Water make up C3 SCO Sulphur Electrical power external supply Diluent recycle Diluted Bitumen 19 °API Synthetic crude oil SCO 88 050 BOPD 8 - 12 wellpairs / Pad SOR : 2.5 Vol / Vol Artificial lift : Gas lift + ESP Total CO2 : 14 300 tons / day CO2 11 000 tons / day CO2 3 300 tons / day 82.8 MMSCFD 44.3 MMSCFD Nota : CO2 for bitumen production with only Natural gas : 6 500 tons / day
  24. 24. Athabasca SAGD 125 100 75 50 25 0 kg CO2 / barrel of bitumen 1 ton CO2/ton syncrude Athabasca Mine ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 24 Upstream Upgrader Refining SINCOR CO2 Emissions in SAGD Range of possible variation
  25. 25. Cost of CO2 Capture STEAM / ELECTRICITY ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 25 Tax ? 10 US$/T CO2 ? è + 2 US$/bbl 20 US$/T CO2 ? è + 4 US$/bbl 30 US$/T CO2 ? è + 6 US$/bbl Today solution : MEA process technical capture cost # 25 US$/T CO2 + 0,5 T CO2 emission / T CO2 captured è real capture cost # 50 US$/T CO2 è + 10 US$/bbl !! CO2 Off-gas vent Sequestered BOILER Flue gas Treatment CO2 Separation/ Inerts removal Oxygen Production HEAVY RESIDUE Steam BFW Possible solution : oxy-combustion (concentration of CO2) ?
  26. 26. Technical cost 20 15 10 5 0 Conclusion : Impact of Recovery Efficiency (US$/bbl) Upstream + Downstream ((( Upstream only (no upgrading) ( ( ( ( ( 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Recovery Efficiency ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 26 200 150 100 50 0 CO2 Emissions (kg/bbl) ( Cold ( 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Recovery Efficiency ( ( Upstream + Downstream + 20 $/T CO2 tax Cold Production ( SAGD ( Production ( SAGD
  27. 27. Conclusion Difficult choice between : current proven technologies : 4 limited costs and GHG emissions 4 limited recovery factor (10% max?) emerging “hot” technologies : 4 higher recovery factor (40%+?) 4 but : higher cost and higher GHG emissions A temptation: 4Nuclear Energy to produce steam? 4But not without drawbacks (especially beyond technology) ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 27
  28. 28. The End Thank you for your attention. ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003 28

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