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2005, Shanghai, Beijing, Guang Zhou….2006, Nation’s 11th Five year Plan: Creative Industries has been recognized officially 2007, ‘Creativity’ + ‘Industries’ = ‘Creative Clusters’
Increasing dillusion of culture from these urban spaces. Is this culture-led urban regeneration becoming the final death penalty for culture? There’s already talks about that these urban spaces should not be reserved for culture/creative activities alone – they too need to justify their economic values against all. The term creative industries have fitted into that line very well. But can we find a way of convincing them the ‘other’ values: soft infrastructure, sustainability? The difficulties are how to explain these scenarios in post-industrial Shanghai within which cultural democracy is a problem (public-private relationship is hard to come up with), cultural consumption is still marginal to majority.
This second generation of cultural entrepreneur don’t see themselves take victims in China. For them it’s more about playing around it. With the opening up of international market and the help of internet, working in the field has never been easier. But they are also against the idea of ‘arts for arts sake’ – they don’t want to be exploited. They remain invisible in china’s cultural scene to the chinese government but retain a high profile oversea.
Creative Entrepreneurs and Creative Clusters in Shanghai<br />Prof. Justin O’Connor <br />Dr. XinGu<br />Queensland University of Technology<br />
About the Research<br />Australian Research Council (Linkage project) – Designing creative clusters in China and Australia (2009 – 2012)<br />Five areas:<br />Design (using urban informatics tools)<br />Theorization of cluster models in the west<br />Methdologies for ‘soft infrastructure’ in China and Australia<br />Mapping and Statistics<br />Management and business services<br />Intercultural policy exchange<br />
‘those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property ’ (Department of Culture, Media and Sports, 1998)<br />
The idea of ‘creative clusters’<br /> Initially used to identify why certain places persisted over time and adapted. <br /> Clusters come from a complex set of sources and interpreted in different ways<br /> Clusters about locality and embedded knowledge – not just agglomeration but ‘atmosphere’.<br /> 1980s: a way of pro-actively creating such areas. <br /> <br />
Creative cluster as policy in UK<br />It is about:<br />Urban Regeneration<br />City Branding, Re-imagine the city<br />It’s also about:<br />Cultural/ Creative Industries –SMEs in particular<br />Shifted from generic business support to social networks development services (eg. CIDS)<br />Local vs. Global<br />
Re-framing Creative Industries in China<br />China’s Creative Economy Era has arrived! <br />From ‘Made in China’ to ‘Created in China’<br />It’s about ‘catching up’ the west; the successful western model have been replicated uncritically – especially ‘creative clusters’<br />
Creative Cluster as policy in China<br />Post-industrial cities (such as Shanghai) – similar problems to the west, but different ‘language’<br />Creative Cluster Development Policy as Creative Industries Development Policy – recognize SMEs but gather them in clusters<br />Justify economic importance of creative clusters<br />
The Shanghai Model<br />Definition of Cis in Shanghai: <br />Research and Development; Architecture and Design; Media Communication; Design Consultancy; Fashion consumption <br /><ul><li>Industries re-structuring: it’s about value chain – to retain talent and profits
Creative Industries as liberating and progressive: an escape route for ‘cultural’ SMEs</li></li></ul><li>Cluster Fever<br />
Where are the profits in cluster development?<br /> <br />Tax deduction<br />Rent deduction<br />Government Fund (differentiated by districts)<br />Advertisement<br />Big events/exhibition<br />Investment in surrounding properties<br />Shares in businesses within clusters<br />
First Wave - From Artist to Entrepreneur<br />Artist : Han Yu Qi<br />Director of Image Tunnel<br />
The Image Tunnel Contradiction<br />‘Han is not a real artist; she is a capitalist’<br />‘Image Tunnel is no different to any other commercial practices’<br />‘Image tunnel ripped off my IP’<br />‘Han is naïve’ <br />Han: I am an artist first and cultural entrepreneur second!<br />
Place of production and Place of consumption combined<br />It’s good because:<br />Networking<br />First hand knowledge about the art market<br />Co-branding<br />But the problems are:<br />Noisy, increasing rent, disruption by visitors…<br />Hard to retain Cliché in an ‘open’ market<br />Being associated with ‘too commercial’<br />
Marketization is good but it’s a different kind of market</li></li></ul><li>Vitamin water Guy<br />
Separation of Place of production and consumption<br />It doesn’t matter whether it’s a cluster or not<br />It has to be cheap, very very cheap<br />I like quietness when I am working. So definitely no visitors<br />Convenient<br />Chen:cultural entrepreneur is about learning as you go, you have to find your own way. This has always been the situation in China.<br />
Don’t draw attention to yourself!<br />Hideaway space for artists in the city<br />Limited infrastructure & Resources within the cluster – it’s a strategy<br />Cluster has no recognition in the city, artists’ social activity happen elsewhere. It’s purely for production<br />Unstable future – owned by the state, prone to be sold to commercial developer<br />
Landscape of cultural economy in the city<br />It’s about economic discourse, but also social and cultural ones<br />Distinctiveness of local cultural economy<br />The ecology of ‘creative milieu’<br />Market embedded in local socio-cultural context<br />
Creative clusters is not just place of production nor should it be about cultural consumption.<br />The creative ecology demands substances that are able to connect creative entrepreneurs – their work and social life for the exchange of ideas.<br />This will then lead to urban issues not vice verse. <br />