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Introduction to IWRM

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Presentation made at GWP-C's first Regional Media Workshop on IWRM held in Barbados on December 2010.

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Introduction to IWRM

  1. 1. Presented by Floyd Homer [email_address] Integrated Water Resources Management: An Introduction
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To provide an introduction on key principles and themes of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). </li></ul><ul><li>To show IWRM’s key linkages to development and to addressing poverty reduction, water and health, and water and food (MDGs). </li></ul><ul><li>To enable application of IWRM principles for awareness raising and capacity building in advising decision makers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. About Water …. <ul><li>A “Single” Resource – has no substitute </li></ul><ul><li>A Limited Resource </li></ul><ul><li>A Scarce Resource (or is it?) </li></ul><ul><li>Has Social, Economic, and Environmental Value (social and environment are recent) </li></ul>
  4. 4. A Unique Resource <ul><li>Every organism, individual, and ecosystem on the planet depends on water for survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Water impacts all aspects of life on the planet </li></ul><ul><li>Poor water management and water shortages can lead to disease, malnutrition, reduced economic growth, social instability, conflict, and environmental disaster. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Global Water Budget Global Water 97% Seawater 3% Freshwater Global Freshwater 87% Not Accessible 13% Accessible (0.4% of global)
  6. 6. A Challenge to Water Management
  7. 8. Top 10 Largest Cities by 2015
  8. 9. The Water Scene <ul><li>Resources are scarce </li></ul><ul><li>Demands are outstripping supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental/Ecological issues are serious </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and institutional issues are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Current approach is sectoral and fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Financing is poor and options are expensive </li></ul>
  9. 10. Where Are We Headed? <ul><li>Decreasing per-capita availability </li></ul><ul><li>Degrading water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing competition/conflict within sectors and within society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban versus agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haves versus have nots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upstream versus downstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National versus international </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing competition/conflict with the environment </li></ul>
  10. 11. Demand Sectors <ul><li>Water for People – safe and reliable drinking water supply, as well as sanitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Water for Food Production – irrigation, wastewater reuse, and flood management </li></ul><ul><li>Water for Nature – rainwater infiltration, groundwater recharge, river flow and aquatic ecosystems maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Water for Industry – manufacturing, cooling systems and liquid waste disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Water for Emergencies – fire control and drought relief </li></ul>
  11. 12. Water as a Global Issue <ul><li>Water crisis has steadily moved up the global agenda </li></ul><ul><li>The process is driven by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water-related health impacts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rapid industrialization, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water security, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>awakening environmental consciousness </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. The Paradigm Shift <ul><li>The Dublin principles (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Water is a single, finite resource </li></ul><ul><li>Water management and development should include stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Water is an economic good </li></ul><ul><li>Women play a central role in management and conservation of water </li></ul><ul><li>The Dublin Principles have served as guide for the global water dialogue </li></ul>
  13. 14. Key Water Challenges and Needs <ul><li>Integrated management of water </li></ul><ul><li>Water resources economics </li></ul><ul><li>Political economy of water </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply and sanitation services </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation/drainage </li></ul><ul><li>NRM and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Water pricing and cost recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Water entitlement and rights </li></ul><ul><li>Water users empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of water and its benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation and conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul>
  14. 15. MDGs … a starting point <ul><li>Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 4. Reduce child mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 5. Improve maternal health </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 8. Develop a Global Partnership for Development </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Ad hoc </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Analysis -- Single Project or Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Objective Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Multi-Purpose River Basin Planning and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Planning and Implementation through IWRM </li></ul>Approaches to Water Management
  16. 17. The Water Balancing Act <ul><li>Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing in all sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficient use </li></ul><ul><li>Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity ( Natural Scarcity, </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater Depletion) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Options </li></ul>IWRM
  17. 18. Integrated Water Resources Management <ul><li>A systematic process for managing water, land and related resources in a way that meets society’s long-term need for water while ensuring that economic and social welfare are not compromised and that there is no harm to the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>A coordinating framework for integrating and implementing sectoral needs, water and water-related policy, resource allocation, and management of natural resources and environmental systems; within the context of social, economic, and environmental development objectives. </li></ul>
  18. 19. IWRM is about: <ul><li>Managing water resources at the lowest possible level. </li></ul><ul><li>Managing demand for water and optimising the supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing equitable access to water resources by a participatory approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing policies to help manage water resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging all sectors of the economy in the IWRM process. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Why IWRM? <ul><li>Globally accepted and makes good sense. </li></ul><ul><li>Key element in national water policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates social and environmental considerations directly into policy and decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Directly involves the stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Is a tool for optimizing investments under tight financing climate. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Key Water & Water-related Policies/Inst. Resources Assessment & Analysis Use Assessment & Analysis Resource Development & Management Plan Implementation & Monitoring Resource Allocation Strategy Review & Evaluation Country Development Objectives Schematic of the IWRM Process <ul><li>Stakeholder Input </li></ul><ul><li>Donor Input </li></ul><ul><li>Other Input </li></ul>
  21. 22. IWRM can be characterized as : <ul><li>A process, not a product </li></ul><ul><li>Scale independent - applies at all levels of development </li></ul><ul><li>A tool for self assessment and program evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>A tool for policy, planning, and management </li></ul><ul><li>A mechanism for evaluating competing demands, resource allocation, and tradeoffs </li></ul>
  22. 23. IWRM in Practice <ul><li>Enabling Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative Framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing and Incentive Structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional Mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional Framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional Capacity Building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Instruments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Resources Assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning for IWRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Change Instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information and Communications </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Dimensions of IWRM GWP
  24. 25. Water Governance <ul><li>The GWP defines Water Governance as the range of political, social, economic and administrative systems that are in place to develop and manage water resources and the delivery of water services at different levels of society. </li></ul><ul><li>It is really the traditions and institutions by which authority is exercised in a country. Governance deals with who is really in charge and how power is used to decide who gets what and when. </li></ul>
  25. 26. The Water Resources Development Process: Sectoral (or Use) Approach Governance Health Water Quality Water Supply Floods/Droughts Energy Agriculture Industry Pollution Prev Coastal Mgt. Ecosystem Mgt. Activity Sectors (water uses) Social Development Economic Development Env . Protection Objectives Policy/Inst. Framework Management Institutions Prosperity Feedback
  26. 27. Water Resources Development : The IWRM Process Governance Health Water Quality Water Supply Floods/Droughts Energy Agriculture Industry Pollution Prev Coastal Mgt. Ecosystem Mgt. Activity Sectors (water uses) Social Development Economic Development Env . Protection Objectives Policy/Inst. Framework Management Institutions Feedback Prosperity IWRM Water and water related policies review and revision IWRM Resource development, management, monitoring, and evaluation IWRM Resource availability/use analysis and allocation
  27. 28. Barriers to IWRM <ul><li>Willingness to change - Domestic water, sanitation, agricultural water, etc. Are divided over a several government departments, often with little collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of tools and systems for integration – The challenge is finding effective tools and processes to achieve greater coordination and cooperation without incurring such high transaction costs that the entire process becomes wasteful. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Further Barriers <ul><li>A lack of both policy and the personnel to implement it. Conflict between decentralisation and the desire to maintain central power and influence. </li></ul><ul><li>The difficulty of getting the different sectors to interact meaningfully for the common good. </li></ul><ul><li>An unwillingness to deal with the implications of the critical need for reliability in domestic supplies, and the implications this has on the availability of water for other sectors, such as agriculture and industry. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Influencing Change <ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidiarity </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional development </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory management </li></ul>
  30. 31. THANK YOU….. <ul><li>Questions or comments? </li></ul>