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The Ba'al Theory of Christianity

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The Ba'al Theory of Christianity

  1. 1. The Ba’al Theory of Christianity by Glenn Young, Enthusiastic Amateur Religious Historian
  2. 2. A Blending of Political and Cultural History with Religious History <ul><li>How The Rivalry Between The Cult Of Yahweh and The Worshipers of Ba’al Helped To Create Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>And …. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Intolerance In The Western World. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is This PowerPoint About? <ul><li>This document is an attempt to reduce the findings of two long and complex books of into a relatively short review of thousands of years. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a very difficult task and much of the details of the arguments are not included in this presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the basic concepts are presented –I encourage you to look to the books for the fuller arguments and documentations in support of these findings. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rivals Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>This is not a religious presentation but a presentation on the history of religious development – the mundane and not the sacred. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a story not much told or much understood in the modern world. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the story of the rivalry of Ba,al and Yahweh, (brothers actually) and </li></ul><ul><li>How in fact Ba’al really won out over Yahweh .. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not Ba’al as the Devil but Ba’al as the beloved god </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Rivals – Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>We in the Christian dominated West know little about this rivalry except what we read in the Bible … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which is obviously very pro Yahweh. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the Bible … worship of Ba’al is portrayed as the greatest of evils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the other ancient sources praising Ba’al have been destroyed – a great deal by the Christians. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rivals – Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>Unfortunately -- to understand the real nature of the rivalry - we need to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover thousands of years of history in bullet point approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present a history very different than what is popularly understood; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight the current beliefs of entrenched religions who demand that their beliefs are based in “history” (that mostly really didn’t happen) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>None of which is easy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rivals – Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>We also need to understand how and why cultures change. </li></ul><ul><li>Societies and the religions of cultures don’t change much without internal crisis; … Caused by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External factors - invasions … lost wars, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Changes – droughts, change in rivers courses, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Crisis – plagues, crop failures, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population balance – over and under “appropriate levels” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or combination of all of the above </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Again showing all of this not an easy task in this format </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Rivals Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>To understand how: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hebrews became the Israelites and Judeans and then became Jews, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Roman Empire rose and fell, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the Ba’alist religion became a major element of Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need to understand the crises that led to these changes in the societies </li></ul>
  9. 9. Facts Based on Facts <ul><li>All the statements in this presentation that deal with history and wars and events and – everything else except Christian dogma </li></ul><ul><li>Are facts supported by a wide range of verifiable sources -- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the statements on the rise and fall of empires and mass slaughters by the Christians are not disputed history </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Rivals – Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>This confirmable history is not well known because it often conflicts with the “Christian view” of themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>What the Christian West wants everyone to think is that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the Bible and the Bible stories are important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything that went before was false and evil … and of little consequence – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They alone were persecuted for their beliefs, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is in the Bible is TRUTH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And for a seventeen hundred years the Christian churches threatened torture and death to any who challenged “Biblical Truth” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rivals – Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>To get beyond “Christian truth” -To begin with – We need to real know about Ba’al. What we now know from sources other than the Bible … is </li></ul><ul><li>That for thousands of years of history, in most developed areas of the West … </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>despite what the Christians would have us believe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was Ba’al that was the well known and loved god and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahweh was of little importance if not unknown </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Ba’al Again And Again <ul><li>And if it was not Ba’al himself who was loved – it was Ba’al in other forms …. In other names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including the Greek Zeus and Roman Jupiter … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Ba’al-like gods dominated religious life in much of the Mediterranean basin, and continued to do so for thousands of years … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And in a time crisis … the most popular of gods --- Ba’al, was remade as Christ </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Bel to Ba’al <ul><li>But the Phoenician Pantheon was not new </li></ul><ul><li>Ba’al was a remake of far more ancient god </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bel of the Babylonians and Bel came from far more ancient stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Akkadians and before them Sumerians - and before the that … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All these stories moved from the “East to the West” and morphed over time. - at least 6,000, perhaps 12,00 years before the time of Christ </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Babylonian Bel Killing Dragons <ul><li>The Bel stories </li></ul><ul><li>5000 years later </li></ul><ul><li>pass on to </li></ul><ul><li>Christian myth as </li></ul><ul><li>St George … </li></ul><ul><li>so the English </li></ul><ul><li>still venerate Bel </li></ul><ul><li>… as St George </li></ul><ul><li>.. To re-frame Shakespeare “for Harry, England and Bel? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Rivals – Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>Despite what the Christians would have us believe - </li></ul><ul><li>For most of two thousand years from Abraham to Christ there was not much of a rivalry between Ba’al and Yahweh, except for the preaching of a few “prophets” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For most of history … real history … Ba’al was the dominate god of the area, if not much of the West. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The followers of Yahweh were simple bit players in history </li></ul>
  16. 16. Rivals – Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>Despite what the Christians would have us believe, for thousand of years </li></ul><ul><li>It was Ba’al who was the god of many prosperous and successful cities and whole regions of the Ancient world </li></ul><ul><li>It was the followers of Ba’al who created the first great “empire” in the West stretching from the mountains of Lebanon to the Atlantic Ocean, and </li></ul><ul><li>It was the Ba’alist who created the foundation of all the great ancient cultures that followed. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Rivalry Between Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>Despite what the Christians would have us believe: </li></ul><ul><li>It was Ba’alism that was the foundation of all the Greek and Roman Gods </li></ul><ul><li>And as we will see … it was another remake of Ba’al that was the foundation of Christianity </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rivals – Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>And what the Christians don’t want us to know is - </li></ul><ul><li>In fact it was Ba’al, in that name, who was the first choice of the Roman emperors to be the one and true god of the Empire … some 150 years before Yahweh and Christ gained that status </li></ul><ul><li>The fight for a “One God – One Emperor” system was started long before Constantine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There were at least three alternatives tried before Yahweh and Jesus </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Rivals - Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>And while this glory was happening to the followers of Ba’al, the followers of Yahweh were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confined to two small, weak and unimportant little kingdoms (if in fact the kingdoms were really followers of Yahweh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who were all but erased from history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And seemed at the time to have added very little new to culture of the time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotheism seemed very odd at the time and also was not even considered as an original concept of the Yahweh cult. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Rivals – Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>But with the triumph of Christianity in the West and its adoption of the Old Testament, in more recent times Yahweh seems to have won out and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We (through Christian intimidation and brainwashing) have accepted the Bible stories as being true. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And we have mostly forgotten the success of the followers of Ba’al … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Ba’al – “the Evil that one does lives after them …” etc. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Many Faces of Ba’al <ul><li>With the triumph of Christianity, as expected – Ba’al , the old arch rival of Yahweh </li></ul><ul><li>Became the prototype representation of the Devil </li></ul><ul><li>The rituals associated with Ba’al became the model of Hell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning in Hell fire was based in large part on Ba’alist ritual of human sacrifice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or as stated in the Bible - The passing of children through the fire </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Ba’al The Popular <ul><li>What the Christians don’t want us to know is that </li></ul><ul><li>In his time … Ba’al was the most popular of the gods </li></ul><ul><li>And he was such for thousands of years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was the dominate god far longer then Christianity has been dominate </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Old Time Religion <ul><li>To understand this evolution – this morphing … of Ba’al to both the Devil and Christ we need to understand that </li></ul><ul><li>Popular religions don’t really fade away but just change names and stories a little bit. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Jesus story is clearly part of an ancient tradition associated with Ba’al and Ba’alism … and Osiris, Mithra and a dozen other gods and goddesses </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Learning Our True History <ul><li>Therefore -To understand this concept of Jesus as Ba’al </li></ul><ul><li>We need to know what the Christians have tried to keep us from knowing – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to unlearn what we commonly hold as true </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to learn what is now known to be fact … outside of “Biblical Truth” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to look beyond the Christian telling of the story and control of the “facts.” </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. I Am By Far Not The First <ul><li>The effort to end the gripe of Christian control on history is not new </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of famous persons, over many centuries have made efforts to debunk the Bible and also the rituals of Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of our founding fathers were “deist” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionary France even outlawed the religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity was greatly ridiculed in Pre World War One England </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thomas Paine – went from being one of the top three “founding fathers” to being written out of American history for his book The Age of Reason which showed the “contradictions” of Biblical writings </li></ul>
  26. 26. I Am B y Far Not The First <ul><li>Today most of Europe is only “technically Christian” – with less then 10% church attendance in many countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fastest growing “religious group” in the world today is non-believers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But over time the efforts fade in face of religious counter-revolutions </li></ul>
  27. 27. I Am B y Far Not The First <ul><li>I am also by far not the first to link the Christian rituals and beliefs to those of the traditional religions of the Ancient world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See the Golden Bough and many other works in this area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, I am not even the first to link Christ with human sacrifice … </li></ul><ul><li>But I seem to be the first to put much more emphasis on the role of Ba’al in this process. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Rivals Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>So after centuries of Christian controlled of history -- And constant effort to defeat the “rationalist” and their challenges to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>The Christian view of history still holds --- at least in the West -- </li></ul><ul><li>This view of history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>this denial of other peoples history that goes back so much father then the West’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>so limits our abilities in the world today --- but that is a totally different presentation </li></ul>
  29. 29. Looking at History Free of the Bible <ul><li>Much of what we think is fact is not - and many facts we have no knowledge of --- for example today we mainly </li></ul><ul><li>Accept the kingdom of David despite of the lack of supporting documentation outside of the Bible, and </li></ul><ul><li>Deny the extent and success of the great rival of Yahweh - followers of Ba’al, despite extensive evidence undisputed documentary showing the success of the followers of Ba’al </li></ul>
  30. 30. A Kingdom That May Never Have Existed David’s Kingdom – almost no proof of its existence
  31. 31. An Empire Supported By Fact Verses a Well Documented Empire
  32. 32. Clarification Of Ba’al <ul><li>We know that the term Ba’al refers to many things, including </li></ul><ul><li>a particular God with a particular tradition – mainly the chief storm god of the Phoenician/Canaanite culture, or </li></ul><ul><li>The collective beliefs of the Phoenician (or Ba’alism … such as the term Hinduism or </li></ul><ul><li>Ba’al as the term simply means god or more precisely “Lord” (as a human noble or divine entity) </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid details about the particular gods and goddess --- I will use the term mainly as the “collective” religious beliefs of the Phoenicians, except when referring to Ba’al the Storm God </li></ul>
  33. 33. Clarification Of Ba’al <ul><li>Therefore, the title of Jesus as “lord” is literally translated in the language of the area as “Jesus is Ba’al” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or “my lord and savior” … is the same as “my Ba’al and savior” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And saying Ba’al as the lord (both human lord and divine lord) – was used for thousands of years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But there is much more involved then this simple coloration to the idea that Jesus is Ba’al .. Far more then the similarity in titles </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Rivals Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>To understand how Jesus is Ba’al we need to know a lot of history – and the crises that changes the world --- from outside of the Bible … In fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to understand that little in Bible about the development Israelites is “historically correct” and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Chronicles and Kings, while more supported by facts … were written to support a minority religious sect … Yahwehist </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Political History Created Sacred History <ul><li>We also need to know how - </li></ul><ul><li>Through political and social crises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One god could become another … and another and another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And this was something quite traditional in the religions of the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We need to understand that it was often the Profane that created the Sacred and not the Sacred that shaped the profane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacred writings often were trying to explain the “politics on the ground …” of the moment </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Be Careful What You Ask For -Archeology Changed So Much <ul><li>To start with we need to know how the findings of Archeology has changed so much of our understanding </li></ul><ul><li>The hopes of the founders of the school of Biblical Archeology (in the 1870’s) was to use the “new” science to prove the truth of the Bible. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, Archeology has shown almost all the particulars of the Bible are in fact untrue. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial findings that tended to confirm Bible stories have all proven false hopes as science proved the timelines wrong. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Rivals- Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>The examples are so many but to just name a few (beside the kingdom of David) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While there is proof of Jericho and AI as great “Canaanite” cities, however the Bible time frame for their destruction is 300 years after what the research shows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There has never been any physical of literary evidence of the Hebrew Exodus or great plague on Egypt, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the day went dark when Jesus was crucified, no one in the rest of the world recorded seeing that manifestation. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Rivals – Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>But Archeology has given us great new insight into real history and especially the success of the followers of Ba’al </li></ul><ul><li>The ancient cities of Lebanon and many other places have been unearthed and the writings found and translated … With much new information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That has helps us to move away from relying only on the one sided stories of the Bible for our understanding of the Ancient world. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Key Findings <ul><li>One of the most important findings in all of history is that of - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ugarit --- in Syria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 18 th BC major city of great design and beauty </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. New Discoveries Change Part of the Answer is in New Findings
  41. 41. Contributions – Foundation of Writing Only One of the Many Things <ul><li>The new findings show </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Ugarit were the Canaanites – what we in the West came to call Phoenicians. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were smart and advanced people who added many things to culture and development of culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They were perhaps the first to recognize that human speech consists of only a finite number of atomic sounds and all that was really needed was a symbol for each. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Contributions – Foundation of Writing Only One of the Many Things <ul><li>They devised 30 symbols from which the alphabets of all phonetic languages are derived (yes all: Hebrew, Latin, Sanskrit, Aramaic, Arabic, Greek, etc.). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The names of most letters in the Greek/Phoenician alphabets are clearly related – alpha/aleph (ox), beta/bet (house), gamma/gimel (camel), delta/dalet (door), etc. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Roots of our Culture <ul><li>The Phoenicians, a Greek term referring to the purple clothe trade good, are usually described to us today as the people from only the areas of present day Lebanon. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact – all of what is considered Canaan, - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and so much more of the “Near East” from the time of Abraham to David, and its famed cities of Jericho, and Sodom and Gomorrah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Were in fact “Phoenician” in language, culture and religion. </li></ul>
  44. 45. One in the Same <ul><li>The Phoenicians were the Canaanites and the Canaanites the Phoenicians, </li></ul><ul><li>We know this from their own writings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the part of the writings we have recovered (the Amarna tablets from the 14th Century BC,) the people we call the Phoenicians called themselves Kenaani or Kinaani (Canaanites). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenicia </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Source on Culture Other Than the Bible <ul><li>As found through the libraries of Ugarit - These people were the source of many of the things found in the Bible, copied from this far more ancient culture. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many psalms of the Bible where found almost precisely in earlier writings at Ugarit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Festivals similar to Passover and related holidays were celebrated in Canaanite cities as a harvest festival long before the “exodus” </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Source on Culture Other Then the Bible <ul><li>In addition in the libraries of Ugarit were found the religious text of the Canaanites </li></ul><ul><li>The Ba’al cycle was found almost complete by the archeologist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- and many stories of the bible including stories similar to stories about Jesus – </li></ul></ul><ul><li>are found in this epic poem – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in different form and with different names – but the stories are similar </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. A Very Important People <ul><li>The Canaanites, contrary to the Bible’s view of them – were a very important people of the Ancient world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even as the Bible shows – they had major cities through out the “land of Abraham” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The became the greatest naval power of the perhaps the world and knew many key principles of navigation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They traded with the cities of the Mediterranean, Mesopotamia, Aegean Sea, Egypt and Asia Minor. http://www.shunya.net/Pictures/Syria/ugarit/Ugarit.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Naval Power and Money <ul><li>Phoenician gold </li></ul><ul><li>coin showing </li></ul><ul><li>their ships </li></ul><ul><li>taking to sea </li></ul>
  49. 50. The World Was Not as We Thought <ul><li>What we see the from actual historic findings in archeological digs throughout the Mediterranean world is that – about 1200 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canaanites where the urban elites and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hebrews one of many groups of “Pagans”- or simple rural peoples as the term was originally used -- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if in fact there were a group of Hebrews at all at this time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Compared to Today <ul><li>We can think of the Canaanites of then much like the modern Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of trade and “capitalism” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance of extensive diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanist who took great pleasure in urban life. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We can see the followers of “Yahweh” if at this time they did in fact follow “Yahweh” much like the fundamental Christians of today, … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Far less engaged in “modern life” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intolerant of other beliefs, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing the modern pleasures as evil, punishable by God </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. It Was the Phoenicians Who Were The Roots of Our Culture <ul><li>While the Bible’s writers and later Christians tried to wipe out the importance of Yahweh’s rival … the ancients knew of it well. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon the Tsurian sea the people live Who style themselves Phoenicians...These were the first great founders of the world --Founders of cities and of mighty states -- Who showed a path through seas before unknown. . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyonysius of Susiana, 3 AD </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Roots of Our Culture <ul><li>Therefore … it is more true, based on real history, that the Canaanites, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and not the Hebrews, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with at least 2000 years of actual verifiable history, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the foundations upon which Western Culture was developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This can be clearly seem in every area, including religion … </li></ul><ul><li>Again all this history was repressed by Christians </li></ul>
  53. 54. Foundations of Our Culture <ul><li>What can truly be said is that the West is more based on a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ba’alist/Christian Tradition Than </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Jewish/Christian Tradition (a late 19 th century term) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As we will see … what is one of the founding principles of Christianity was in fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A theme in complete conformity to Ba’alism; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a complete anathema to the Jews. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. We Have Almost No Understanding of The Real History of Religion <ul><li>Why do we know so little of this history ? - </li></ul><ul><li>We in the West … after centuries of forced conformity and indoctrination into the Christian world view have almost no understanding of the origins of what we hold sacred. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Christians tried to repress all knowledge that came before them … and tried to destroy any options for source of knowledge other then the Bible - See Closing of the Western Mind – for more background on this process </li></ul></ul>
  55. 56. What Is Old Is New Again <ul><li>What we think was new and unique about the dominate religion of our region is in fact neither new nor unique </li></ul><ul><li>Archeologist found the ancient writings to show the old traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Jung did much to show the archetypes </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Campbell did much to show us the shared symbols of all our ancient and modern religions </li></ul>
  56. 57. We Have Almost No Understanding of The Real History of Religion <ul><li>For centuries … to question the dogma of the Church was to open one self up to torture and death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today to question fundamental Christian and Muslim beliefs is to open one self up to ridicule and isolation … and still far to often to attacks and murder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are living at a time when the freedom of the enlightenment is going out. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 58. We Have Almost No Understanding of The Real History of Religion <ul><li>Key Fact to Understand </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity is such a late comer to religious history with less then 1800 years of importance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(But they took many things from the past and changed it to say it was theirs alone) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judaism is also a late comer with no more than 4000 years of history, and even based on Biblical stories only 3000 years of it being more then a cult of the family of Abraham. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For much of its history – there was little to distinguish the practice of worship of Yahweh from that of Ba’al </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What we know as modern Judaism is less than 400 year older then Christianity </li></ul>
  58. 59. Yahweh of Samaria & His Asherah
  59. 60. Yahweh of Samaria & His Asherah <ul><li>&quot; Kuntillet`Ajrud, Sinai Caravansarai, ca. first half of 8th centry BC. Drawing of Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah on a pottery shard (Pithos A). Inscription in Hebrew reads: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Thus says...Say to Yehalle[lel], Yo`asa and...I bless you (herewith- or: have blessed you) to/before Yahweh of Samaria and his asherah.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note the portion of bridled horse to the left of the figures (pp.225-6, &quot;Baal, El, Yahweh, and 'His Asherah',&quot; Othmar Keel and Christoph Uehlinger. Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel. Minneapolis. Fortress Press. 1998. ISBN 0-8006-2789-X ). </li></ul>
  60. 61. Asherah – the Consort of Yahweh or of El <ul><li> Yahweh’s </li></ul><ul><li>wife </li></ul><ul><li>Website for this image </li></ul><ul><li>universalheretic.wordpress.com </li></ul>
  61. 62. We Have Almost No Understanding of The Real History of Religion <ul><li>Greek and Roman religions are not much older then the Hebrew religion but was more wide spread earlier. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even the Greeks and Romans admitted that their religion was bases the Gods of the Phoenician and Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Greek tradition - the very name Europe comes from a Phoenician princess – Europa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Even the Gods of the Middle East and Egypt which are twice as old as the Greeks and Romans are only some six or seven thousand years old – and are built on far more ancient stories </li></ul>
  62. 63. No Understanding of The Real History of Religion <ul><li>Therefore what we have found in all of the Jewish and Christian Sacred writings are just </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copies of the older stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the stories come from the Ancient religions of the Near East, Egypt and Canaan – and older. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With names and times changed but little else. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 64. New Findings Change Our Understanding of Religious Origins <ul><li>Discovered in 2006 - Gobekli Tepe in Turkey near the Syrian boarder. Is being called the oldest temple in the world – dating back to roughly 9800 BCE … or some 12,000 years ago. Some 4000-5000 years older then any previously found temples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The finding is forcing a reconsideration on the theories on the development of civilization …. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One of the finds shows what could be the oldest known “Crucifix” --- with a cross and a lion on it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lion was the sign of the “astrological age of the time of Gobekli Tepe – the Age of Leo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See http:// www.smithsonianmag.com/multimedia/photos/?c = y&articleID =30706129&page=6 </li></ul>
  64. 66. No Understanding of The Real History of Religion <ul><li>The examples are so many … but just for a few </li></ul><ul><li>The flood story is found in Gilgamesh, 3000 years before the Bible is written. </li></ul><ul><li>The first “great king” Sargon was placed in a boat as an infant and found in the reeds and raised by a princess, a 1000 years before Moses </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi received the laws directly from God 700 years before Moses </li></ul><ul><li>Hercules was the son of god who died and rose to heaven to sit at the right hand of his father (along with so many others gods and heroes). </li></ul>
  65. 67. Model for Moses <ul><li>Hammurabi </li></ul><ul><li>receiving </li></ul><ul><li>the laws from God </li></ul><ul><li>They were in great </li></ul><ul><li>detail … as was the </li></ul><ul><li>actual amount of </li></ul><ul><li>law given to Moses </li></ul><ul><li>by God </li></ul><ul><li>according to Jewish </li></ul><ul><li>tradition and the </li></ul><ul><li>Old Testament … </li></ul><ul><li>not just 10 commandments </li></ul><ul><li>But a whole code of </li></ul><ul><li>worship and living </li></ul><ul><li>Just like Hammurabi’s code </li></ul>
  66. 68. No Understanding of The Real History of Religion <ul><li>The early Christians were ridiculed by Greek, Roman and Jewish sources on the similarities of their story to so many other religions </li></ul><ul><li>They had to acknowledge how similar their teachings about Jesus were to so many other god stories .. Their explanation … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All previous religions were a trick of the Devil hoping to confuse people when the real Christ came … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is still officially the “line” of most Christian Churches … </li></ul>
  67. 69. No Understanding of The Real History of Religion <ul><li>The real historical “truth” is </li></ul><ul><li>For millennia, religions have not changed … they have “morphed” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New groups modifying the old stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give new names and places to traditional events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And many proclaim the beginning of new eras (for based on gods and kings, revolutions revelations and astrological signs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Year one of the new era has come so many times </li></ul></ul>
  68. 70. Symbols Morph Too <ul><li>Not a Christian symbol </li></ul><ul><li>but an Carthaginian </li></ul><ul><li>representation of the </li></ul><ul><li>Queen of Heaven Tanit </li></ul><ul><li>based on Egyptian symbols </li></ul><ul><li>and so on back in time </li></ul>… see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanit
  69. 71. We Have Almost No Understanding of The Real History of Religion <ul><li>All groups proclaiming a new contract with god, or a new god or gods - bring a new good news are wrong. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their stories have all been retelling of very ancient tales. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There was little new about the “good news” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>And as we will see – the same is true of the Christ story </li></ul>
  70. 72. Stories Retold <ul><li>Gilgamesh </li></ul><ul><li>killing the Bull </li></ul><ul><li>Of Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>from stories </li></ul><ul><li>popular in </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerian culture </li></ul><ul><li>6000 years ago </li></ul>
  71. 73. Stories transformed <ul><li>Theseus </li></ul><ul><li>killing the </li></ul><ul><li>Minotaur </li></ul><ul><li>popular in the </li></ul><ul><li>Greek world </li></ul><ul><li>from about </li></ul><ul><li>3500 years </li></ul><ul><li>ago –till </li></ul><ul><li>repressed by </li></ul><ul><li>Christians </li></ul>
  72. 74. Stories Made Sacred <ul><li>Mithras killing </li></ul><ul><li>the sacred </li></ul><ul><li>bull - from </li></ul><ul><li>Persian </li></ul><ul><li>world about </li></ul><ul><li>1700 </li></ul><ul><li>years ago </li></ul><ul><li>One of the chief </li></ul><ul><li>rivals of </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>From about 150 AD </li></ul><ul><li>till 400 AD </li></ul>
  73. 75. Major Influences on Christianity <ul><li>In fact the three major influences on early Christianity were not the Jewish religion at all … they were </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian dualism </li></ul><ul><li>The Greek Mystery cults, and </li></ul><ul><li>Ba’al </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See addendum for a little background on Persian and Classical concepts </li></ul></ul>
  74. 76. We Need to Know Real History Not Tales of the Bible <ul><li>Again … as we move forward … we need to remember </li></ul><ul><li>The Christians focus on the absolute truth of the Bible has created in our culture a false set of historical facts … often these “facts” are only stated in the Bible and supported by no other historical means. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore. most of what we think we know about history is false, and much of what we think we know about religious history is completely unsupported. </li></ul>
  75. 77. Real Timeline Of Politics and Religion <ul><li>To begin with -- How old is Religion? </li></ul><ul><li>We find evidence in a belief in an after life from grave sites some 50,000 years old. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We see worship of the spirit of all living things from around that time (thanking a deer for letting itself be killed) </li></ul></ul>
  76. 78. Real Timeline Of Politics and Religion <ul><li>And to the amazement of most historians </li></ul><ul><li>We can now see with the findings at Gobekli Tepe that there was a well organized religious facility in place and functioning … with extensive use of images from the “natural world” at least 12,000 years ago </li></ul>
  77. 79. Real Timeline Of Politics and Religion
  78. 80. Real Timeline Of Politics and Religion <ul><li>We know that what appears to be the first “organized religion” based on a concept of a higher god … comes at least 20,000 years ago and some argue much older. But its not the god of today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… she’s female </li></ul></ul>
  79. 81. 16,000 year old Mother Goddess
  80. 82. Worshiped From a Very Early Time <ul><li>Mother Goddess from oldest cities – around 10,000 years old </li></ul>
  81. 83. We Need to Know Real History Not Tales of the Bible <ul><li>At least from 15,000 BC and lasting in many places till about 1500 BC organized religions is based in worship of the great Earth Mother – alone (or almost alone) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In these places there is little evidence, of the concept of a Sky God, or in fact any many male deity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The dominance of the Mother Goddess began to erode as early as 6,000 BC, and almost ended in the West by 1,200 - </li></ul><ul><li>However - nothing in religion really goes away </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, Mary veneration in the West keeps the mother goddess traditions alive. </li></ul></ul>
  82. 84. Real Timeline Of Politics and Religion – <ul><li>6000 BC to 2500 BC … Phoenician religion, among others, evolves out of the Mother Goddess religion to incorporate the general religious views of Mesopotamia and Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their religion becomes greatly influenced by the Sky God concepts of the Indo Europeans and Semites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It was the Phoenicians who took the Sky God to most of Europe </li></ul>
  83. 85. Real Timeline Of Politics and Religion – <ul><ul><li>The Sky God religion has - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Male dominated pantheon of gods with specialized deities – god of war, god of love … etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with the great mother still worshiped by in a secondary role. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The key deities are the Sun and the weather (storm gods – Ba’al). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much of the religious stories are based on astrological (movement of the sun moon and stars) and weather observations (the cycle need for crop growth) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  84. 86. Religious Conflicts During Time Frame <ul><li>Sky God View – Multiple Gods – The Gods are responsible for all acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Gods at first looked like animals – then became like men) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sacrifices needed for many occasions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To gain support of Gods (for war or new ventures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To placate an angry or disinterested God – (bring back the rains, stop our enemies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To seal a deal between the state and the god or between individuals. (A covenant) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All forms accepted, including human sacrifice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At times the first born sacrifice seems standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other human sacrifice used in time of crisis or major contracts </li></ul></ul>
  85. 87. Real Timeline Of Politics and Religion – <ul><li>3000 BC -250 BC … the religion of Phoenicia is a major influence in the Southern Mediterranean Basin, dominating North Africa, the major islands of the Western Mediterranean, and half of what is now Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The influence spreads to mainland Europe and to what is now England, and even possibly the Americas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Druids of Britain as well as other Celtic religions are all based on Ba’al </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human sacrifice is common – often by burning – “wicker man” tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These areas were Ba’alist far longer then they have been Christian </li></ul>
  86. 88. First of Many Crises - Phoenicia Survived What Others Didn’t <ul><li>The Eastern Mediterranean world faced many political crises. </li></ul><ul><li>1600 -1200 BC The invasion of the “Hyksos” and then later the “Sea People” and other nomadic peoples devastated the Eastern Mediterranean areas. </li></ul><ul><li>While the Hittites and Mycenae Greece and Minoan cultures fell - And parts of Egypt was ruled by the Hyksos for 400 years – </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenicia was able to defend themselves against the invaders - and actually became stronger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps they lost control of a small area of Canaan to the “Hebrews.” – history is not clear on that point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>, </li></ul>
  87. 89. Ba’alism Dominates <ul><li>Phoenicia survives the Sea People and becomes more independent and more dominant in the Mediterranean area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credited with the success in the crisis, and great expansion of the culture was the gods of the Phoenicia - Ba’alism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therefore, in real history – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From about 2000 BC to 700 BC the dominate “world religion of all the Mediterranean is in fact the Religion of the Phoenicians, or Canaanites – that of Pantheon with Ba’al as the “storm god.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or adopted and modified by the Greeks - Zeus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  88. 90. Egyptian Relief Showing Sea People Invasion
  89. 91. Yahweh in Right Perspective <ul><li>Historic Fact … those who where to became Jews at this time of Ba’alist expansion were an unimportant isolated group </li></ul><ul><li>Fact – Around 1100 -1000 BC, -- and perhaps only around 900 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the highlands of what is now the “Holy Lands”, a small and unimportant area of Phoenician influence, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the cult of Yahweh, modeled greatly on Phoenician religion, developed </li></ul>
  90. 92. A Minor People <ul><li>Even the Bible says that Abraham – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In his time (estimated at roughly anywhere from 1900 BC – 1600 BC … but no evidence of this at all) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>worshiped his god as EL … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which as shown in the Ugarit writings - was the chief god of the Canaanites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>according to tradition Yahweh gains his name only with Moses at Mount Sinai …(or about 12- 1400 BC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Yahweh cult in this time is seen as a minor religion variation of a minor people. </li></ul>
  91. 93. Yahweh in Right Perspective <ul><li>We now know from the translations of the Phoenician texts that --- before the time of the Bible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahweh was a brother of Ba’al – a lesser god of the Phoenician pantheon. – one of 70 brothers of Ba’al. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Somehow over time, this more isolated group of people adopted Yahweh as the chief god over another brother … known as Ba’al </li></ul>
  92. 94. “ Jewish” States in Perspective <ul><li>What modern archeological has shown is that the Yahweh followers </li></ul><ul><li>Late in the 9 th Century BC, created two small very disunited states split over religion issues. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Again - there was in fact never a great united David and Solomon State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Little of the stories told in the Bible of the conquests of the holy land by the followers of Yahweh can be validated by research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In fact most findings are in strong contradiction to the stories of the Bible. </li></ul></ul>
  93. 95. What we can prove? <ul><li>Far more evidence </li></ul><ul><li>to support the </li></ul><ul><li>stories of Achilles </li></ul><ul><li>than David or </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon </li></ul><ul><li>Ruins of Mycenae </li></ul><ul><li>and Troy found - </li></ul><ul><li>No evidence of </li></ul><ul><li>The first temple or </li></ul><ul><li>David’s </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom ever found </li></ul>
  94. 96. “ Jewish” States in Perspective <ul><li>And again despite what the Christians (and in this case Jews) would have us believe </li></ul><ul><li>A false folk history (the first five books of the Bible) was developed to justify Yahweh followers’ their claim to power and domination of a land that was for centuries Canaanite and Ba’alist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As with most religions - Most of the foundation stories (Bible stories of Abraham – Joshua) were taken from other peoples with a few name changes – and based on many religious and political traditions – already very ancient. </li></ul></ul>
  95. 97. “ Jewish” States in Perspective <ul><li>The focus of the stories - the critical story – once the story line brought them into the Canaanite lands was </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rivalry between – Yahweh and Ba’al and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On how evil the followers of Ba’al were and how wrong they were in the worship and beliefs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  96. 98. “ Jewish” States in Perspective <ul><li>Throughout the stories – (the Old Testament) “the jealous god” - Yahweh demands the killing all the followers of Ba’al </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joshua is commanded to do so over and over again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophets assail the Ba’alist mostly to no avail … except once … where Elijah defeats the priest of Ba’al and the priest are slaughtered (but he is driven into exile for doing so) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much later – the Christians use this directive for murder against “the others” on a world wide scale - </li></ul>
  97. 99. God Vs Ba’al <ul><li>Elijah defeat </li></ul><ul><li>of the Ba’alist Priest </li></ul><ul><li>… modern </li></ul><ul><li>fantasy of what </li></ul><ul><li>it looked like </li></ul><ul><li>Elijah victory </li></ul><ul><li>forced him to </li></ul><ul><li>flee for his life </li></ul>
  98. 100. Creation of the Hebrew States <ul><li>Between 900 and 650 BC, in the region of the “Holy Land,” struggles develop between followers of the Yahweh cultist and broader Ba’alist religion. (Both within and between the small states established in the area.) </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, there are internal fights within the Yahweh cult over the real role of Yahweh; was he </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their god, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief of all the gods, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sole and only sole god, </li></ul></ul>
  99. 101. Creation of the Hebrew States <ul><li>The disputes also involved internal fights within the cult over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The proper ways to offer prays and sacrifice to Yahweh and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if and how to offer sacrifice to other gods. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A clear reading of the Bible shows (as stated in Kings and Chronicles – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that many of the kings worshiped Ba’al and other “foreign Gods” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>that proponents of Yahweh are almost always in an inferior political position throughout this period. </li></ul>
  100. 102. The Main Conflict Between Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>Within the disputes between Ba’alist and Yahwehist, for a long time – </li></ul><ul><li>The key questions do not seem to be in ritual, but who to worship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The religions were very similar in type of worship including sacrifice to god(s) through burnt offering. </li></ul></ul>
  101. 103. The Main Conflict Between Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>However, late in the “two Yahweh kingdom period” there developed a real controversy on the rituals of religion as well … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While there seems to be conflict over “temple prostitution” and a few other issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The main conflict seems to be the issue of human sacrifice – </li></ul><ul><li>At that time – in the kingdoms period right up to their destruction --- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ba’alist seem to practice it regularly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the Yahwehist kings and most people seem to practice it as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only (mostly out of power) Yahwehist prophets denounce the practice. </li></ul></ul>
  102. 104. The Main Conflict Between Ba’al and Yahweh <ul><li>The prophet dominated writings of the Bible – show </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the “Jewish” kings did evil unto the lord --- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worshiping foreign gods and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passing their children “through the fire” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passing children through the fire – was the ritual of human sacrifice </li></ul>
  103. 105. Modern Fantasy of Ba’al Rituals
  104. 106. Origins of Jewish and Christian Conflict – Human Sacrifice <ul><li>We have been told for so long that the root conflict between Jews and Christians was non-acceptance of Jesus as the messiah – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a partly true premise – And very pro Christian in its view. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A key conflict between Christian and Jews – at the time of the development of Christianity grows out of this conflict between the Yahwehist and Ba’alist over the issue of human sacrifice. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This story is not told much since it appears to put the Christians in the Ba’alist camp of accepting the need for human sacrifice to please God. - which they are. </li></ul></ul>
  105. 107. Human Sacrifice as Part of the Culture <ul><li>To understand this conflict over human sacrifice we need to understand </li></ul><ul><li>For the long and vast history of religion human sacrifice was common and wide spread … And continued in non-Christian Europe well past 1000 AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And was widely practiced in the New World until the European conquest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And for thousands of years - It was considered the highest and most important sacrifice to gods and used for the most important of events. </li></ul>
  106. 108. Human Sacrifice Masked <ul><li>Many cultures, as they developed and ended the practice created “cover stories” for the ancient practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romulus and Remus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dido of Carthage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham and Isaac </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others continued the practice under “morphed” forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman gladiator games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China’s terra cotta warriors </li></ul></ul>
  107. 109. Human Sacrifice <ul><li>The key uses of human sacrifice were for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founding a city or culture (new covenant with a god) – Like Abraham did … and Isaac – was required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Securing an agreement between nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assuring the continuation of the natural rotation of life (sun coming up, rains falling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeasing god or gods to gain results in war or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeasing god or gods in a time of crisis </li></ul></ul>
  108. 110. Human Sacrifice <ul><li>We see human sacrifice in several writings of the ancient world … as normal and needed including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homer - with a sacrifice of a young girl to allow the Greek fleet to sail off to Troy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And several times in the Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>where a “judge” pledges to sacrifice a human for victory (turns out to be his daughter) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>David sacrifices men to end a draught </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moabite king sacrificing his son in front of Israelite army </li></ul></ul></ul>
  109. 111. The Daughter of Agamemnon being led to her sacrifice
  110. 112. Few Moderns Approach the Subject <ul><li>From Flaubert’s Salammbô - 1862 novel on the results of the first Punic war. </li></ul><ul><li>Describing the sacrifice of children in the time of crisis – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Every time that a child was placed in them the priests of Moloch spread out their hands upon him to burden him with the crimes of the people …” </li></ul></ul>
  111. 113. David and Bathsheba Reconsidered <ul><li>We can read in the Bible the story of David and Bathsheba and how </li></ul><ul><li>The first son of the union --- after eight days died </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And David (much to the confusion of the “prophets” held a feast … then </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second child (Solomon) became the king </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taken from very ancient view point - this was normal procedure – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first royal child is sacrificed to the gods … and so it appears that this interpretation fits the “facts” presented in the Bible </li></ul></ul>
  112. 114. Human Sacrifice <ul><li>Human Sacrifice was central to the Ba’alist religious practices - this world wide religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is debates about how often and the process … but few deny it was a core practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This core practice was used through the Phoenician world … for thousands of years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And from the writings in the Bible … when the kings did evil in the sight of God … the evil that was done was … human sacrifice </li></ul>
  113. 115. We Really Don’t Know How <ul><li>Modern fantasy </li></ul><ul><li>depicting human </li></ul><ul><li>sacrifice in </li></ul><ul><li>Carthage </li></ul>
  114. 116. One of Few Actual Depictions <ul><li>Etruscan mural showing human sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>from 7 th </li></ul><ul><li>Century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Notice </li></ul><ul><li>the angel </li></ul><ul><li>type </li></ul><ul><li>person </li></ul>
  115. 117. Human Sacrifice <ul><li>And for a long time – in the religion of the Yahwahist … Human Sacrifice seemed to be acceptable and often required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God demands all the first fruits – including from people – later verse modifies this to allow for redemption of human children – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The term used in the Bible for the highest from of sacrifice is Olah … which was translated into Greek as Holocaust … and was seen in its time as referring to a human sacrifice … for god … and god alone (so completely burnt. ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And we see it as the source of Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice Isaac </li></ul>
  116. 118. Was Isaac Sacrificed? <ul><li>The sacrifice of Isaac has been one of the more confusing issues in the Bible based on modern thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Why would a man willingly sacrifice his child ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(although according to the time line of the Bible Isaac would have been about thirty – the same age as Jesus? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of god would demand such a thing? </li></ul></ul>
  117. 119. An Old Tradition Transformed <ul><li>One of many artistic rendition of the Sacrifice of Isaac see http://judaica-art.com/art-prints-on-canvas/-6-biblical-themes/isaac-39-s-sacrifice-2/prod_72.html </li></ul><ul><li>« Back to results </li></ul>
  118. 120. Human Sacrifice <ul><li>To the minds of the ancients, seen from their point of view, based on thousands of years of tradition and religion God’s request of Abraham to sacrifice his son --- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>would have been standard and not just acceptable- but a predictable event </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abraham and God were sealing the deal for the new covenant made with his god (for all the lands promised him) with the sacrifice of his first born son </li></ul>
  119. 121. Was Isaac Sacrificed? <ul><li>To the minds of the Ancients this would standard operating procedure for Abraham’s time and for thousands of years before and thousand more to come. </li></ul><ul><li>In all likelihood in the original stories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isaac was sacrificed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And --- as a good god – to replace Isaac - Abraham had five more sons --- (still in the Bible but not talked about much) </li></ul>
  120. 122. On-going Practice <ul><li>And it is clear that it was not only standard practice in the time of Abraham, but right up to the time of Jesus and beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Some 1500 years and more after the time of Abraham </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rome offer human sacrifices when Hannibal was at the gate, and(212 BC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The defenders of Carthage were offering human sacrifices as Roman besieged them (150 BC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Roman Emperor conducted human sacrifices to Ba’al 150 years after the death of Jesus. </li></ul></ul>
  121. 123. Nothing New <ul><li>Therefore … at the time of Jesus …the idea of sacrificing children to God was not knew or different … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if the idea of god having his own son sacrificed was not new or different </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It was ancient and standard practice for the time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What was different was the Jews … and how they got to be important </li></ul></ul>
  122. 124. History as Shaper of Religion <ul><li>To understand how the conflict over sacrifice of humans is perhaps the core conflict between Christians and Jews, we need to know the real social and political history of the time … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>something not taught in a Christian dominated culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once again, we need to know the real history… and how that history helped to “morph” existing religions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to understand how the many crises of the time impacted both the followers of Ba’al and Yahweh </li></ul></ul>
  123. 125. Back to the Real Provable Timeline The New Wave of Invaders <ul><li>Three hundred years after the Sea People, came a new wave of invaders to the Eastern Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>900 – 650 BC – Assyrian and Neo- Babylonian domination of Eastern Mediterranean. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This was a great political, but not so much religious, shock to the whole area </li></ul>
  124. 126. The Response to Crisis <ul><li>Phoenicia is attacked often, with major defeats, but manages to stave off completed domination of new powers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survives 13 year siege of cities by Babylonians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phoenicia response – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She creates more support for it’s Western Mediterranean colonies (such as Carthage) as a means for preserving their culture and maintaining support for the “mother land.” </li></ul></ul>
  125. 127. Israelites and Judean Response to Crisis <ul><li>The landlocked Yahwehist have no means of resistance nor escape … Over time and several wars --- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The minor and relatively unimportant semi-Yahwehist kingdoms (Israel and Judah) are both destroyed with relatively minimal effort of the super powers, and the rich and powerful of people exiled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The poor are mostly left on the land, and as in the fashion of the day … alien settlers are brought in to occupy the land </li></ul></ul>
  126. 128. New Style of War <ul><li>Assyrian war </li></ul><ul><li>machine </li></ul><ul><li>creates </li></ul><ul><li>crisis in the </li></ul><ul><li>land of the </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenician </li></ul><ul><li>and Israelites </li></ul>
  127. 129. The Yahwehist Response to Crisis <ul><li>620-550 BC Yahwehist are in exile in Babylon Free from kings and competitors the minority “prophet sect” gains upper hand and creates a relatively new religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With Yahweh as sole god </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The wrath of Yahweh destroyed the kingdoms --- invaders unwilling tools of God </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And a host of daily living and worship activities that if not followed precisely were punishable by death. </li></ul><ul><li>The belief was if not all people conformed all the people were at risk for a new wrath of god </li></ul>
  128. 130. The Yahwehist Response to Crisis <ul><li>Most importantly </li></ul><ul><li>The prophet faction gives an answer to “Why Yahweh let his nations be destroyed his temple flattened </li></ul><ul><li>The prophet faction declared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was all Yahweh’s doing as punishment for failure to comply with Yahweh’s laws and mandates. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The chief violation that most angered God was following Ba’al and practicing human sacrifice. </li></ul>
  129. 131. From Yahweh Cult to Jews <ul><li>It was here in exile in Babylon, that the followers of Yahweh became “Jews” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The holy books (the Old Testament) were rewritten with a clear anti-human sacrifice vent and codified. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It was here where the “Jews” saw human sacrifice as the source of the past and potentially future wrath of God. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all the text was cleaned up (God saying all that first came out the matrix was his) … but the Abraham story was changed to keep Isaac from being sacrificed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human sacrifice or anything akin to it became anathema of the “new Jews.” </li></ul>
  130. 132. The Most Evil of Kings <ul><li>The signet ring </li></ul><ul><li>of king Manasseh </li></ul><ul><li>who’s 50 year </li></ul><ul><li>reign was </li></ul><ul><li>“ cause” of the </li></ul><ul><li>destruction of </li></ul><ul><li>Judea for his </li></ul><ul><li>use of human </li></ul><ul><li>sacrifice </li></ul>
  131. 133. No Such Crisis for Ba’al - Yet <ul><li>While the new invaders did obtain control over Phoenicia, unlike the followers of Yahweh, most of the major cities of Ba’al survived the wars. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And as the East was invaded, the followers of Ba’al expanded their influence in the Central and Western parts of the Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So for the followers of Ba’al, unlike those of Yahweh, there were problems but no major crisis of faith. </li></ul>
  132. 134. Jews “Return” <ul><ul><li>550 – 325 BC Persia dominate Eastern Mediterranean, with Phoenicia as a major ally, and the Phoenician navies playing a major role in the wars with Greeks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus the Great (called the Messiah in the Hebrew Bible) allows all peoples to return and rebuild their temples – including the Judeans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  133. 135. Major Persian Influence <ul><ul><li>What can’t be told in detail here is the great influence on religion that came from the Persian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The whole concepts of dualism, of heaven and hell (existence of the Devil), of resurrection of all the dead, and many other new ideas which influence all the religions of the area, including the Jews are mainly Persian in origin or redesign. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As “just and mild” rulers, the views of the Persians were widely accepted by many peoples. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once again … Christian history blocks us from knowing real facts. </li></ul></ul>
  134. 136. So Much Imported From Persia – So Much Forgotten <ul><li>Persian </li></ul><ul><li>imagery that </li></ul><ul><li>seems a </li></ul><ul><li>precursor of </li></ul><ul><li>the Christian </li></ul><ul><li>trinity </li></ul><ul><li>The human </li></ul><ul><li>teacher </li></ul><ul><li>and the god </li></ul><ul><li>of all that is good </li></ul><ul><li>At least 600 year </li></ul><ul><li>Before Christ </li></ul>
  135. 137. “ Jews” Return <ul><li>Persians allow Yahwehist cult to return to “Judea” to rebuild their temple and to establish a colony of believers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less then 10% of Jews” return to Judea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life in Babylon was considered safe and free and – the center of the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During its history the colony is mostly small and a failure with harsh enforcement of the new rules. (The rules of Ezra) </li></ul></ul>
  136. 138. Division within the “Jews” <ul><li>Four major division of “Jews” at this time … (about 450 BC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Returnees, with the new religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who stayed in Babylon, with the new religion, but far more wealthy and cosmopolitan then the returnees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who had fled to Egypt at the time of conquest, mostly keeping the old religion, but influenced by the new religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who had remained in Judea at the time of conquest mostly keeping the old religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This fourth group gave the “New Jews” a lot of trouble when they showed up in the old land of Canaan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  137. 139. Ba’al Still Growing <ul><li>During this time (600- 450 BC) the followers of Ba’al continue to be relatively successful in the world of super powers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phoenicia becomes a valued vassal of Persia Empire and greatly prospers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage reaches its height of power – defeating the Greeks in Sicily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After some 1500 years the Mediterranean was still is mostly a Ba’alist lake – with rising Greek competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But in what must have seemed like a flash the Ba’alist world finally collapsed before an invader. </li></ul></ul>
  138. 140. The Ba’alist Crisis <ul><li>325- 150 BC - Hellenistic (Greek, Roman) conquers the Eastern Mediterranean and starts cultural domination of area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phoenicia suffers great defeats and loses trading control to Greeks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Her “homeland” cities destroyed and repopulated with Greeks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phoenician remnants (including Carthage) put far greater efforts in Western Mediterranean, including Spain, but </li></ul></ul>
  139. 141. The Ba’alist Crisis <ul><li>Phoenicia/Carthage loses Punic Wars with Rome, - end of an era </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phoenicia is “Hellenized,” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage destroyed, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain and other areas of Phoenician influence occupied by Rome. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2-3000 plus years of domination by Phoenician/Canaanites end in almost total destruction. </li></ul>
  140. 142. Yet Another New Kind of War <ul><li>Alexander’s </li></ul><ul><li>army did in </li></ul><ul><li>8 months what </li></ul><ul><li>the Babylonians </li></ul><ul><li>could not do </li></ul><ul><li>in 13 years - </li></ul><ul><li>Take and sack </li></ul><ul><li>Tyre </li></ul>
  141. 143. The Ba’alist Crisis <ul><li>Now too the Ba’alist believers face a crisis of faith. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why have after so long had their homeland and colonies been destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was it that they had failed to do to please their gods, why were they now slaves in this new world order? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had they sacrificed too little or too much … or the wrong thing? </li></ul></ul>
  142. 144. Finding Friends in the Destruction <ul><li>In the region of the Sea of Galilee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ba’alist survivors and the remnant of the poor “Jews” not taken into exile and not really part of the Jewish reforms of Babylon live together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is from this area that the first concepts of Christianity came … </li></ul></ul>
  143. 145. Finding Friends in the Destruction <ul><li>Both groups – The Ba’alist and the “Old Jews” – in a state of flux and religious confusion were influenced by other groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Greeks and later the Romans, and the Persians and the “New Jews” returning for exile. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But both groups looked for means of maintaining their core beliefs </li></ul>
  144. 146. Finding Friends in the Destruction <ul><li>This area was the “melting pot” of the “new” and “old” religions of the East and West </li></ul><ul><li>To these people – the “new Jews” were new oppressors … only being conquered and then forced converted to Judaism about 100 years before Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Out Galilee came yet another retelling of the old stories - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking elements from all of the old and new religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With a major focus on a key rite of Ba’alism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And the retelling became what is known as </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul>
  145. 147. Sacrifice and Non-Sacrifice <ul><li>The Ba’alist concept of religion required sacrificing of the first born in time of crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The old “Hebrew” accepted that concept to some degree … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now the New Jews completely rejected that view as the cause for god’s wrath –(leading to the destruction of the first temple) </li></ul>
  146. 148. Sacrifice and Non-Sacrifice <ul><li>The religion that grew out of the Galilee based on the survivors of the Ba’alist crisis and the old Hebrews … was focused on the Messiah based in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God sacrificing his only son in to save human kind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This was clearly the Ba’alist tradition going back 4000 years at this time. and not a “new Jewish” concepts </li></ul>
  147. 149. See the Traditions In their Writings <ul><li>As the new religion is formed - it took many elements from Ancients, Greek and Persian traditions and melded them into a single concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It proclaimed the son of God came and died for all sins … for the protection of all … as a new concept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In fact was very ancient and very Phoenician </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The death and rising god was standard in almost all of the religions of the Ancient world - but few had the Phoenician literal practice of killing of the first born son for the needs of the gods </li></ul></ul>
  148. 150. From Wikipedia site on the Archetype of this type of God <ul><li>A life-death-rebirth deity, also known as a dying-and-rising or resurrection deity, is a god </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who is born, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suffers death or a death-like experience, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>passes through a phase in the underworld among the dead, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is subsequently reborn, in either a literal or symbolic sense. </li></ul></ul>
  149. 151. From Wikipedia site on the Archetype of this type of God <ul><li>Male examples include Asclepius, Orphesus, Mithras, Osiris, Tammuz, Zalmoxi Dionysus, Odin and … Jesus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can see the sky god example morphing out of the far more ancient goddess traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Female examples are Inanna, also known as Ishtar whose cult dates to 4000 BCE, and Persephone, the central figure of the Eleusinian Mysteries, whose cult may date to 1700 BCE as the unnamed goddess worshiped in Crete. </li></ul><ul><li>See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Life-death-rebirth_deity </li></ul>
  150. 152. The Christian Version <ul><li>We see the ancient story retold in often called the core of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>John 3:16-18 – we see the concept laid out </li></ul><ul><li>For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son (ton huion ton monogenee) , that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him. Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God (tou monogenous tou huio tou theou) .” </li></ul>
  151. 153. Phoenician Story <ul><li>From the 12 Century BC reporting about events in 4000 BC – we read almost the whole Christ story - very old and very Ba’alist </li></ul><ul><li>Euseb. Præp. Evan. lib. I. c. 10.—lib. IV. </li></ul><ul><li>For Cronus, whom the Phœnicians call Il, and who after his death was deified and instated in the planet which bears his name, when king, had by a nymph of the country called Anobret an only son, who on that account is styled Ieoud, for so the Phœnicians still call an only son: and when great dangers from war beset the land he adorned the altar, and invested this son with the emblems of royalty, and sacrificed him. </li></ul>
  152. 154. Phoenician Story <ul><li>Or in other words – </li></ul><ul><li>God – (For Cronus, whom the Phœnicians call Il, and who after his death was deified_ </li></ul><ul><li>Impregnated a young girl -, had by a nymph of the country called Anobret </li></ul><ul><li>Had one son - (who on that account is styled Ieoud, for so the Phœnicians still call an only son: </li></ul><ul><li>And in in time of danger, declared the son the king, (and when great dangers from war beset the land he adorned the altar, and invested this son with the emblems of royalty) </li></ul><ul><li>And then he for salvation was killed - and sacrificed him. </li></ul>
  153. 155. The Christian Version <ul><li>The concept of the sacrifice of God, or the son of God, is core to Christianity, but was in fact, anathema to Judaism (or at least the Judaism of the dominate Returnee Jews.) </li></ul><ul><li>To the Jews of the time, the idea of human sacrifice, was the root cause of God’s anger at the Jewish people (and the destruction of their Kingdoms and their exile to Babylon. ) </li></ul>
  154. 156. Influences on Early Christianity <ul><li>Missing influence – Phoenician – Key Factor – </li></ul><ul><li>In time of crisis, God sacrificed his only begotten son” … Where did the idea come from? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was contrary to Jewish concepts (post exile) – cause of God’s Wrath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was not found in Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was not found in death and dying cults (they may have died and reborn - but the gods were not sacrificed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was not found in Persian concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is only seen in Phoenician cultural beliefs - the rites of Ba’alism </li></ul>
  155. 157. Jesus as Ba’al <ul><li>Indeed the story the Christians rolled out was ancient and the details well known to the people of Phoenicia and all the lands the influenced .. </li></ul><ul><li>As found in the newly found and translated writing of the Phoenicians … the details of the Christ story were part of the Ba’al epic </li></ul>
  156. 158. Jesus as Ba’al <ul><li>In a 1921 edition of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, a scholar named H. Zimmern … described …&quot;stage-directions for a sort of miracle-play&quot; performed at the temple of Bel-Marduk (i.e., Ba’al) annually. In this play, </li></ul><ul><li>Ba’al was … &quot;bound and brought before the tribunal which awaits mankind on the bank of the river of death.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>He was scourged, condemned to death, and then led away to a prison-house. </li></ul>
  157. 159. Jesus As Ba’al <ul><li>Another &quot;malefactor was led also away to execution,&quot; while a second one was released. </li></ul><ul><li>Once Ba’al was put in prison, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;the city was plunged in confusion&quot; and his clothes were stripped from his dead body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A goddess then washed away blood that had flowed from a &quot;wound in the side&quot; of Ba’al; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and eventually he rose from the dead after his followers lamented. </li></ul><ul><li>See w ww.tektonics.org/copycat/baal01.html </li></ul>
  158. 160. Ba’al Recreated <ul><li>The ancient story of the Phoenicians was simple retold in a new setting with a new name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lord is Ba’al and Ba’al is Lord and Jesus is Ba’al, Ba’al is Jesus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It was a familiar story to all peoples in the area and familiar enough to all the religions of the Western World at the time … </li></ul><ul><li>But the story was too close to human sacrifice for the New Jews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sacrifice of the “son of man” was the cause of Yahweh God’s wrath in the past. </li></ul></ul>
  159. 161. Jews in Power <ul><li>As we have seen </li></ul><ul><li>325 – 150 BC Hellenistic (Greek) conquests Eastern – bring the Greek culture - that challenged the view of both Ba’alist and Yahwahist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While the Phoenicians had faired far better than the Yahwahist in the previous 1,000 years of invasions - this time the got the worst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander destroyed Phoenicia --- Phoenicia had been a major ally in the Persian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander wanted revenge for the burning of Athens by the Persians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However – the Jewish “colony” offered no resistance to Alexander and he had no get distaste for them </li></ul></ul>
  160. 162. Jews in Power <ul><li>For the next 150 years or so … </li></ul><ul><li>The Jewish colony is passed between rival successors of Alexander </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly left alone – the colony prospers and the populations grows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Jews like the new lifestyle and start to “become Greek” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But soon a new challenge is created </li></ul>
  161. 163. Jews in Power <ul><li>The Syrian based Greek king tries to make everyone “Hellenized” - </li></ul><ul><li>Requiring Jews to abandon rituals and engage in sacrifices to Greek Gods and the living King </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Jews seem willing to accept (or feel they have not choice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others start a revolt - and much to the surprise of all - They win. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a long hard series of wars of the Maccabean revolt, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… the Jews establish a truly independent kingdom (some 350 years after the fall of the first state) </li></ul></ul>
  162. 164. Jews in Power <ul><li>Critical fact we need to know - Between 140 BC – 140 AD there were a least four major rebellions , and perhaps dozens of other revolts against Greek and Roman rule and culture by the Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>Being a “new Jew” was an important rallying point that sustained the first revolt – and all the other future revolts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These Jewish wars of resistance against Classical domination (Greek then Roman) changed both the nature of Judaism and how the new rulers of the “world” viewed the people and the religion </li></ul></ul>
  163. 165. First Success <ul><li>“ The Second Jewish Commonwealth” under strong new Jewish “orthodox religious” control … </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded to include most of what is now Israel, Jordan, and parts of Syria and Lebanon </li></ul><ul><li>as the new nation expanded – </li></ul><ul><li>It force converted peoples of the new areas (including Galilee and Southern Phoenicia to the New Jewish Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These areas were only “new Jewish” for about 100 years at the time of Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The repression was brutal and focused on all out of favor practices – including the “old” Jewish” and Ba’alist concept of the need for human sacrifice </li></ul></ul>
  164. 166. New Jewish Rule Fails <ul><li>Starting about 65 BC –the second Commonwealth falls apart in dynastic infighting </li></ul><ul><li>Roman slowly absorbs the state -From ally – to client - to colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Jews are once again faced with a crisis as Romans Hellenistic culture competes and then fights against the “new Jews” religion </li></ul></ul>
  165. 167. Loss of Power <ul><li>The areas that were forced converted and held as Jewish for 100 years slip away from central control … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The land becomes one of both political and religious revolt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The old faiths are revised under new acceptable formats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrapped in new Jewish traditions – the Ba’alist traditions of the need for human sacrifice is revived </li></ul>
  166. 168. Rejection of Christians <ul><li>The traditional answer for the Jewish rejection of Jesus is that he failed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as a physical messiah to liberate the country from the Romans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But the cornerstone to the issue of the rejection was the story line developed by the Christians for the need for human sacrifice to god --- </li></ul>
  167. 169. Rejection of Christians <ul><li>Early Christians even saw Christ as the continuation of the Isaac story – only this time the sacrifice was completed </li></ul><ul><li>Christians have stated over the centuries that the failure of Abraham to sacrifice Isaac was the root cause of God’s displeasure with the Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Christ “sacrifice” competed the deal for a new covenant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Something right out the Ba’alist concepts </li></ul></ul>
  168. 170. Jewish Rejection <ul><li>In that time … with the history of the Jews and the explanation for the destruction of the first temple being the practice of human sacrifice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No wonder the Jews could not accept the new Christian story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was to them a revival of the practice of passing the children through the fire … in a new story line. </li></ul></ul>
  169. 171. Response to Political and Religious Crises <ul><li>In response to crises such as culture conflicts as the Classical/Jewish wars we find some universal responses .. </li></ul><ul><li>1) Accepters – those who went “Greek” </li></ul><ul><li>2) Resisters (active and passive) – Maccabees, the Essences </li></ul><ul><li>3) Mergers, Philo of Alexandria </li></ul><ul><li>4) Morphers – those who attempted to maintain the old ways, by masking them with “the new terms.” </li></ul>
  170. 172. Response to Crises <ul><li>What happened to each of the groups among the Jews --- </li></ul><ul><li>1) Accepters – Merged into new world order - became part of the new Classical culture - and later the Christian world </li></ul><ul><li>2) Resisters – destroyed in series of wars (mainly ending in the Bar Kochba revolt – 2/3 of Jews in the empire killed) </li></ul><ul><li>3) Mergers, - concept failed and was mainly rejected by both sides </li></ul><ul><li>4) Morphers – That is the question … was Christianity the “morphed” version of the Ancients world view </li></ul>
  171. 173. Jewish Destruction <ul><li>And as history played out … </li></ul><ul><li>With the return of the concept of human sacrifice needed to appease god into the area (through the Christians) in fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From about 60 AD to 145 AD - As Christianity became more wide spread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Jewish State, the second temple and almost all the Jews were destroyed </li></ul>
  172. 174. Judaism Almost Eliminate <ul><li>The end of the resisters – </li></ul><ul><li>From 66AD – 135 AD Rome crushed a series of three major and a number of minor Jewish revolts and destroyed Judea, the Second Temple,) and nearly exterminates the Jews in much of the Eastern Mediterranean world </li></ul><ul><li>In 135 AD Jews were barred from the “holy land” and the city Jerusalem was renamed after a Roman god. </li></ul>
  173. 175. Proof of Initial Success of Revolts <ul><li>Coins of the First </li></ul><ul><li>Revolt (apx 66 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Coins from the </li></ul><ul><li>Third Great Revolt </li></ul><ul><li>apx 135 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Notice temple in first </li></ul><ul><li>No temple in second </li></ul>
  174. 176. Judaism Almost Eliminated <ul><li>Through the centuries of revolts … in the Roman world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews went from being a curious accepted group (which soon gain followers that were as much as 10% of the whole Empire’s population) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To the most hated group in the Empire (at least by the rulers of the Empire.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The great coliseum in Rome was actually paid for by the spoils of the conquest of the Jews, and built primarily by Jews slaves who survived the wars (after the crushing of the 66-70 revolt) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  175. 177. From the Arch of Titus in Rome <ul><li>The wealth of Jerusalem is displayed </li></ul>
  176. 178. Christians Sit Out Revolts <ul><li>The early Christian movement (although not called such yet) “sat out” the great revolt of 66-70 – one of the few Jewish Groups to do so </li></ul><ul><li>In part the early rejection of the “Christians” by the Jews can be found in those politics … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When all were needed to fight the Romans – the followers of Jesus refused to help. </li></ul></ul>
  177. 179. Why the Anti-Jewish Vent in Gospels <ul><li>And as the first revolt failed and more revolts developed – </li></ul><ul><li>The defeat of the Jews, the non-participation of the Christians and the anti-Jewish policies of the Empire can be seen reflected in the Gospels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The earliest written (before the great revolt (66-70 AD – or just after) was less clear on the “guilt of the Jews” in the death of Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The later Gospels … written after the wars … blamed the Jews and held the Romans harmless. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Gospels reflected the political realities of the times. </li></ul>
  178. 180. New Religions Arises in the Roman World <ul><li>As Rome expanded, many religions (old and new) become popular with the Roman people. – Christianity had many competitors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Egypt - Isis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Persia - Mythra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And before the revolts - the Jewish god </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And also in many forms – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the old Phoenicia and Syria - Ba’al </li></ul></ul>
  179. 181. Three Thousand Years Before Jesus <ul><li>Isis and Horus </li></ul><ul><li>as the model </li></ul><ul><li>for Jesus and </li></ul><ul><li>Mary </li></ul>
  180. 182. New Religions Arises in the Roman World <ul><li>These were the really popular gods for --- hundreds of years of the Roman Empire – after the beginning of Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And once again contrary to the Christian history of the world - Christianity was at first very slow to prosper and was not widely embraced by the Roman world for centuries (if at all) </li></ul></ul>
  181. 183. Roman Crisis <ul><li>To try and compete to be more popular – the Christians morphed by taking elements from other popular religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Isis - Mary worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Mithra – the Christmas Holiday (Birthday of Mithra – 25 th of December) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Hercules (and Ba’al) – the suffering of Christ –defeating death and much more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From many gods of history – death and rising </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And from Ba’al – the concept of sacrificing of one’s son for the needs of the world </li></ul>
  182. 184. Conflict Within Christianity <ul><li>Despite some strong objections on part of some “fathers,” the Church eventually incorporated the “Old Testament” as part of the Christian Religion </li></ul><ul><li>But – There are extensive denouncing in the New Jew’s “Old Testament” of the use of Human Sacrifice – and worship of Ba’al (the Lord). </li></ul>
  183. 185. Answering Conflicts <ul><li>When the Church was developing – human sacrifice was still used – it was not a rite of the deep past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Roman Emperor Elegabalus was sacrificing the children of senators in 220 AD (as part of his worship of Ba’al as the one true god) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both Jews and others saw the Christ story as one of a human sacrifice to a demanding God </li></ul>
  184. 186. Answering Conflicts <ul><li>To defend the new Church from the linking to the rite of human sacrifice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite multiple references in the New Testament to Christ being a sacrifice (and completing the non-sacrifice of Isaac, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The early Church fathers solved this apparent problem by saying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christ could not be a human sacrifice because … He was not human. </li></ul></ul>
  185. 187. Answering Conflicts <ul><li>To defend the new Church for being so similar to so many of the older religions (a charge frequently set on the new religion) </li></ul><ul><li>The early Church did not deny the similarities they simple said – </li></ul><ul><li>it was the Devil’s work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Church claimed all similarities were based on the trick of the Devil. The Devil had planted these religions among men from earliest time to trick people from accepting Jesus when he did come. </li></ul></ul>
  186. 188. Answering Conflicts <ul><li>To try and avoid completely alienating the “pagans” the Church did not deny the existence of the traditional gods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They claimed they were in fact not gods but demons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These three explanations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No human sacrifice cause Jesus was not human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarities to other religions was the trick of the devil and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old gods were really demons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is still the official doctrine of the Catholic Church today … </li></ul>
  187. 189. Precursor for the Western Model of what Jesus looked like <ul><li>The Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Hadrian so loved </li></ul><ul><li>his male companion </li></ul><ul><li>Antinous </li></ul><ul><li>that when he died(130 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>he had him deified </li></ul><ul><li>and his image was </li></ul><ul><li>placed through the </li></ul><ul><li>Empire … some </li></ul><ul><li>speculate that the </li></ul><ul><li>image was popular </li></ul><ul><li>that the Christians </li></ul><ul><li>took it as the Westernized </li></ul><ul><li>version of the new </li></ul><ul><li>man/god </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus </li></ul>
  188. 190. Roman Crisis <ul><li>Christianity only grew as the Empire fell apart – with one crisis after another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As “this” world failed, people became far more interested in the “next world.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slow death of Roman Empire (200-476 AD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis of the Third Century – military dictatorships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later emperors made efforts at stability by becoming absolute monarchs - based on the Persian style. </li></ul>
  189. 191. Roman Crisis <ul><li>As the Emperors move towards absolutism </li></ul><ul><li>They needed a theoretic justification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotheism - seemed the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth should reflect Heaven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One God in Heaven – one Emperor on Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This movement towards Roman monotheism was started by the Emperors around 200 – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It at first had nothing to do with Christianity </li></ul></ul>
  190. 192. Same on Earth as it is in Heaven <ul><li>Justinian’s </li></ul><ul><li>court </li></ul><ul><li>imitating </li></ul><ul><li>their image </li></ul><ul><li>of Heaven </li></ul>
  191. 193. Roman Response to Crisis <ul><li>But Which God? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First effort Ba’al (220’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then Mithras and later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sol and also Sol Invictus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was Sol Invictus that was the god of Constantine – Not Jesus. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Finally about 350-400 Christianity won out </li></ul>
  192. 194. They All Started to Look Alike <ul><li>Sol </li></ul><ul><li>Invictus </li></ul><ul><li>Not </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>From the time </li></ul><ul><li>Of Constantine </li></ul>
  193. 195. They All Started to Look Alike <ul><li>Jesus as </li></ul><ul><li>the good </li></ul><ul><li>Shepherd – </li></ul><ul><li>Directly copied </li></ul><ul><li>From the Greek </li></ul><ul><li>Hermes </li></ul><ul><li>And Persian </li></ul><ul><li>Mithras art of </li></ul><ul><li>centuries </li></ul><ul><li>before </li></ul>
  194. 196. How Christians Won <ul><li>The Christians say they won the internal religions war because of the truth of their story </li></ul><ul><li>However they won because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a very dangerous world – where violent death became common – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They put far more emphasis on afterlife, and fate of souls then any other previous religion, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They also opened the “joys” of the afterworld to everyone … not just heroes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And they willing supported the Emperor’s claim to absolutism on earth .. To match God’s absolutism in heaven. – they did so after extensive bribes </li></ul></ul>
  195. 197. Answering Conflicts <ul><li>Church attacked challenger by calling all who do not accept teachings as “heretics” </li></ul><ul><li>Eventual the religion becomes the “cult religion” of the Emperors (fourth effort at One Emperor, One God) </li></ul><ul><li>The Emperors start to demand conformity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Belief (in the power of the Emperor on earth and God in heaven) becomes a capital crime </li></ul></ul>
  196. 198. Christians in Power <ul><li>Once power is obtained, Christians strongly repress “Classicalist” with extensive killings, “burning of books” and other overt acts to repress the concepts of the Classical world </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps 100 times more people were killed in Christian efforts to repress the remaining believers in other religions then Christians killed by Rome during the efforts to repress Christianity . (300,000 vs. 3,000) </li></ul>
  197. 199. Roman Crisis <ul><li>Solution didn’t work in the West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After great resistance to the imposition of Christianity in the West … it did little to help the Empire survive (Last of a long line of weak emperors in 476 CE) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christian in fighting created chaos and much loss in the East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religions conflicts in the East over the nature of Christ and much more … lost the Empire all of the Middle East and Africa --- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The people accepted Persian and Muslim rule rather then the tyranny of the central church in Constantinople </li></ul></ul></ul>
  198. 200. Success of Christianity Leads to End of Classical Learning in the West <ul><li>Extensive internally fighting among Christians continued concerning the rites and rituals of the new religion, leading to extensive division </li></ul><ul><li>Arian Christianity and many other “heresies” repressed with increasing violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East and West church final split about 1000 AD </li></ul></ul>
  199. 201. West in Shambles – Thought Repressed <ul><li>500 – 1492 Reduced Western Christian world is mostly devoid of importance and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>For hundreds of years, they focus on fending off Muslims, Vikings, Mongols and a host of other peoples, and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing each of these invaders as the “Wrath of God” the Christians create efforts at conformity and not allowing for any thought not represented as good in the Bible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When on the offensive against Muslim world and Eastern Church and heretics Western Christians destroy all that does not conform – and murder millions – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on God Wills it </li></ul></ul>
  200. 202. Outcomes of Christianity in the West <ul><li>From the Old Testament - the Church adopts Jewish fears concerning wrath of God </li></ul><ul><li>Each new invasion, plague or earthquake – became “evidence” of God’s wrath for failure to live by “his rules” </li></ul><ul><li>They took the requirements of the Second Jewish Commonwealth of the responsibility of every single one to conform of God with punish all </li></ul><ul><li>To protect the whole Christian world from God’s Wrath --- The Church supported </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious terror (Inquisition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wholesale killings of “non-believers” </li></ul></ul>
  201. 203. Outcomes <ul><li>In Europe </li></ul><ul><li>All thought not in the Bible is condemned as being heretical </li></ul><ul><li>The traditional image of Ba’al evolves into the model for the Devil </li></ul><ul><li>And all reference to the Phoenician contribution to the world is suppressed and </li></ul><ul><li>Jews become “the untouchables” </li></ul>
  202. 204. Religious Terror to State Terror <ul><li>The rational and techniques to enforce religious conformity were eventually adopted by “States” of 20th Century to enforce national conformity </li></ul><ul><li>The justification of mass killings of “citizens” of states by their own rulers is found in the concepts of the small Jewish colony and then expanded by the Christians – toward of God’s Wrath or in modern terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect the Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To secure the nation from minorities, radicals … “the other” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To keep racial or religious purity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The great mega deaths of the 20 th century are all based in the justification of the Church to kill non-believers --- to protect the “good” </li></ul>
  203. 205. Morphing Recognized <ul><li>Modern religious historians and researchers all recognized the “evolution” of religions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They see the transitions from spirit worship to goddess worship to sky gods worship to modern versions of all the old stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They see the influence of Persian religions taken into the West and retold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They see how rites basically stay the same with variations in story line and meanings </li></ul></ul>
  204. 206. Same as Before <ul><li>If an ancient person from Egypt or Phoenicia came back today and went to a Roman Catholic Mass – </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps 80% or more would seem recognizable from their religious rite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some acts would be symbolic rather then actual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They would clearly see the Christ figure as a telling of a human sacrifice – right out of their traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But the stories would be the same – with names changed </li></ul>
  205. 207. Morphing Not Explored - in SPAIN <ul><li>While the “morphing of religion is generally accepted – few historians include the issues of human sacrifice…. But it clearly there … for example </li></ul><ul><li>In 1500 BC till at lease 150 BC or so … in what is now Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every so often there be a big public holiday – which ended with the burning of people in the name of their gods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1500 AD till about 1870 AD or so --- in what is now Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every so often there be a big public holiday – which ended with the burning of people in the name of their god (actually Three gods in one) </li></ul></ul>
  206. 208. In Spain <ul><li>The first burning of people was done in the name of Ba’al or equivalent Gods (and lasted in Spain from perhaps as early as 2000 BC to about 150 BC – (When Rome took over) </li></ul><ul><li>The second burning of people was done in the name of Jesus (and lasted until about 1870’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The estimates of the actual numbers of persons burned in “the Auto de Fe” of the Spanish Inquisition range from a few thousand to hundreds of thousands – but there is no dispute that ceremonies took place </li></ul></ul>
  207. 209. Art Shows the Auto De Fe <ul><li>A painting </li></ul><ul><li>of a 1476 </li></ul><ul><li>Auto De Fe </li></ul><ul><li>See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Auto _de_fé </li></ul>
  208. 210. Ba’al Rituals Continued - Morphed <ul><li>The rituals of Ba’al were morphed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rational and justification of the rituals were changed to meet “Christian concepts” but … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The burnings of the Inquisition are the same rites and purposes of the burnings of the children of the Phoenicians/Carthaginians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only was Jesus Ba’al – but the rites of Ba’al became the rites of Jesus. </li></ul></ul>
  209. 211. In Europe Under the Christians <ul><li>In 800 years of Christian domination in Europe – (1000 AD to 1800 AD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between the Inquisitions and witch hunts and Pogroms against Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A conservative figure of 500,000 people were publicly burned to death in ceremonies similar to only one other religious group - that of Ba’alism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These burnings took place in the areas where the Ba’alist and their allies/off shoots - the Celts were dominant for centuries … therefore the burning of people had been common for centuries -- these were </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious rites continued in a morphed form </li></ul></ul></ul>
  210. 212. Burning of People Became “Common” <ul><li>In the late middle </li></ul><ul><li>Ages witch burnings </li></ul><ul><li>became “common” </li></ul><ul><li>in Europe with </li></ul><ul><li>estimates ranging </li></ul><ul><li>from a some 30,000 </li></ul><ul><li>to 5 million burned </li></ul>
  211. 213. Jesus Is Ba’al’s Rituals Morphed <ul><li>We have shown --- </li></ul><ul><li>That to the Jews, (the new Jews) the idea of human sacrifice was what caused the most wrath of God – </li></ul><ul><li>That to the Phoenicians - and many other ancient religions …(including the old Jews) human sacrifice was the highest form of all rituals - an act loved by the Gods </li></ul>
  212. 214. Jesus Is Ba’al Rituals Morphed <ul><li>We have shown </li></ul><ul><li>The efforts to repress the rituals of the Old Jews and the Phoenicians resulted in the religions –morphing the stories and rituals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The destruction of the Jews and the openness of the Romans allowed for this morphing to take shape in which the central part of the “ancient” religions are made symbolic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Christ Sacrifice is the final human sacrifice needed </li></ul>
  213. 215. Jesus Is Ba’al Rituals Morphed <ul><li>We have shown </li></ul><ul><li>The symbolic ritual was changes into the actual revival of the Ba’alist ritual of burning people to appease the gods or god. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the name of Christ hundreds of thousands of people, if not millions of people were killed in public burnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And please not this is not counting the millions of others killed in religious based wars … this number is only those publicly burned for being “the other” … to appease or protect us from the Wrath of God. </li></ul></ul>
  214. 216. Jesus Is B