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Research Method Unit 2.ppt

  1. Unit Two Types of Research
  2. Types of research based on purpose • Research could be undertaken to solve:  Theoretical problems – Basic research  Practical problems - Applied research
  3. Basic Research • Also known as pure or fundamental research • Objective  Advancement of knowledge(formulating or expanding theory)  Understanding of theoretical relationship b/n variables  Exploratory in nature (discovery of knowledge)  Done without any particular end in mind
  4. Basic researches answer research questions like: • How did the Universe begin? • What is Plasma composed of? • What is the specific genetic code of the fruit fly? • How do we predict weather conditions? • At what point in human history did logical thought arise? • What is the mind-body connection? • Search for alternative energy sources from soil Basic Research
  5. Applied Research • Solve specific, practical questions • Can be exploratory and/or descriptive • Involves precise measurement of the characteristics and describes relationships between variables of a studied phenomenon  Applied research employs methodology that is not as rigorous as that of basic research.  It yields findings that can be evaluated in terms of local applicability and not of universal validity.
  6. • Investigation directed to discovering new scientific knowledge that has specific commercial objectives with respect to products, processes or services. Applied Research
  7. Applied researches answer the research problems such as  How to improve agricultural crop production and measure the improvement  Treatment of a specific disease  How can Akaki river be protected against contamination by industrial effluents?  How can communication among workers in large companies be improved? Applied Research
  8. Note: Most research questions originate from theories • Theories normally are a set of related statements that explain a set of facts • Researchers of all disciplines use theories to help them describe facts. • Theories are strengthened by test results E.g. 1. Discovery of electromagnetic induction by Michael Faraday leads to the invention of electric devices such as motors and generators 2. The discovery of radio active isotopes are now vital for medical treatment of various diseases, also used by archeologists.
  9. Basic and applied research are not mutually exclusive. • There are researches that have both theoretical and practical implications. • The distinction is a matter of emphasis rather than a true dichotomy.
  10. Basic Research Applied Research •Expands existing knowledge •Solves practical problem •Theoretical in nature •Practical in Nature •Less associated with technologies •Associated with advancement of Technology •Predicts future problems •Creates solutions for future problems •Usually does not have direct commercial objectives •Has direct commercial objectives •Curiosity driven •Client or demand driven
  11. Research Types … • Exploratory research - commonly unstructured research that is undertaken to gain background information • The researcher does not know much about the problem and needs additional information. • Used in a number of situations: • To gain background information • To define terms • To clarify problems and hypotheses • To establish research priorities
  12.  Provides significant insight into a given situation but not usually useful for decision making by itself.  Often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature.  Helps to determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. E.g Why our sales are declining? Therefore, exploratory research: Research Types …
  13. A variety of methods are available to conduct exploratory research:  Secondary Data Analysis  Experience Surveys  Case Analysis  Focus Groups Research Types …
  14.  It is based on observation and experience (more than upon theory and abstraction)  It can be qualitative & quantitative. Empirical research – research that bases its findings on direct or indirect observation as it is test of reality. • Statistical formulas are fundamental to forming logical, valid conclusions. Empirical Research Empirical & theoretical researchs complement each other in understanding of the phenomena and in predicting future. Research Types …
  15. Experimental Research • Explores cause and effect relationships. • Proposes scientific alternative and examine results under various scenario • Consideration of realistic variables value establishes results’ robustness Research Types …
  16. Experimental Research • Helps to see the effects on dependent variable and to explore a particular event • Manipulates one or more variables and controls and measures any change in other variables • Laboratory based experiment is very helpful procedure before developing or scale up the given technology
  17.  Primary/field research – the collection of data that does not already exist. Primary Data: data collected from participants through telephone, mail, online, and face-to-face, and observation studies and focus groups (quantitative and/or qualitative)  Secondary/desk research – the summary, collection and/or synthesis of existing research/reports Secondary Data: accessing data through sources such as the internet and library Primary and secondary research
  18. • Quantitative research - based on the measurement of quantity or amount • Demands collection of numerical data, analysis of those data and the drawing of conclusions from the qualitative data Examples of quantitative research data findings: • The result show that the efficiency of the system has increased by 2 % • Based on the research the increase in number of customer using this brand is 5 % Qualitative and Quantitative research
  19. • Qualitative research - concerned with qualitative phenomenon • Based on feelings, emotions, sounds and other nonnumeric and unquantifiable elements • Information is considered qualitative in nature if it can’t be analyzed by means of mathematical techniques • Provides theme for the problem researched from subjective data analyzed and how the variables influence one another Qualitative and Quantitative research
  20. Other types of researches? Reading assignment
  21. Group Discussion • Form a group of three members Research topics 1. Production system simulation and analysis to improve bottleneck operation with line balancing 2. Understanding technology transfer impact on Ethiopian professionals in Industry parks 3. Improving the energy efficiency of condominium homes Task 1. Craft an objective for these issues and discuss what type of research you would recommend? 2. What type of data would you need for these researches? • Provide your assumption and justification