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INTRODUCTION , RESTORATION ECOLOGY
DEGRADATION AND ITS CAUSES
It is the process of
assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that
has been degraded, damaged, or
destroyed. It is an intentional activity that
initiates or accelerates an ecological
pathway—or trajectory through time—
towards a reference state.
• An ecosystem
consists of all the
organisms living in a
community, as well as
the abiotic factors with
which they interact.
• Ecosystems range
from a microcosm,
such as an aquarium,
to a large area such as
a lake or forest
When any ecosystem is under attack as a
result of natural or man-made disaster , it is
termed as “degraded ecosystem ‘
Causes Of Degradation
• Unsustainable land use is a major cause of land
• Biodiversity loss and thus demanding concerted
efforts for systematic land use planning.
• Sewage runoff has caused eutrophication of
lakes (water degradation), which can lead to
loss of most fish species
• In lakes, phosphorus limits cyanobacterial growth
more often than nitrogen
• This has led to the use of phosphate-free
Natural Calamities have also major
contribution In degradation Of Ecosystems,,
Disease outbreak & Famine
Human Impacts On Ecosystem
Rapid population growth
Deforestation and degradation
Fragmentation and loss of habitat
Low crop genetic diversity
Use of Nuclear power also degrade
Ecological Restoration: the process of
repairing damage caused by humans to the
biodiversity & natural dynamics of natural
ecosystems, accomplished through;
1. Restoration to natural state
2. Rehabilitation to functional ecosystem
3. Replacement with another ecosystem
4. Creating artificial ecosystems
•Ecological restoration refers to the
rehabilitation, reclamation, re-creation
and recovery of degraded lands.
•These efforts may be conducted on
either a small-scale (e.g. tree planting) or
• May involve major human and technical
efforts (e.g. re-creation of wetlands, acid
If no action is taken, the ecosystem might
moderately improve or might get somewhat worse.
If only a few ecosystem processes or species are
‘restored’, but the system remains far from its
pristine state, the effect is called enhancement.
If the ecosystem is significantly improved but
remains quite distinct from its pre-degradation
condition, the effect is called rehabilitation.
This is frequently the objective in areas that
have been strip mined
e.g. oil sands in Alberta.
Reclamation stabilizes land and restores
sufficient soil to revegetate the land, without
attempting to restore the condition before
Replacement builds a new community that
meets some set of conservation objectives,
but is unlike the one degraded.
Constructed wetlands around the Great
Lakes fit into this category.
Restoration rebuilds an ecosystem little
different than the pristine ecosystem that
It is done to the physical environment and to
plants in restoration.
For animals there are:
Reintroduction (using captive-bred animals)
i.e. Gray wolf , Aldraba tortoise
Identify cause of degradation
Stop abuse by reducing factors
Reintroduce species if necessary
Protect area from further degradation
HISTORY ,MYTHS , EXAMPLES
Manahil Khanam Durrani
Restoration ecology emerged as a separate
field in the late 20th century
The term coined by john Aber, William
Jorden in university of Wisconsin
However, Laypeople have been practicing
ecological restoration or Management for
thousand of years.
Restoration Myth Core Issues
1- Carbon Copy Community Assembly Predictable
:Single end point Exists
2-Field Of Dreams Sole focus on Physio – Chemical
Conditions; System Self -Organize
3-Fast Forward Succession and ecosystem
Development can be Accelerated
4-CockBook Methodology of Overused and not
5-Command & Control
Nature is controllable ;Treating
Symptoms will fix the problem
Around the word many restoration
Have made remarkable progress in rolling
back the clock and restoring the natural
world to some of its original splendor.
Some projects are still working, and some
were failed due to lack of planning
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
In 1945 During world war 2 US detonated
two nuclear weapons over Japanese cities.
It is best example of degradation and almost
60-65%-of land is restored
1935 Quetta Earthquake is considered as
Deadliest Earthquake ever
Chappar rift , Bruce street and Many nearby
areas were ruined
It cant be properly restored
Tsunami 2011 in Japan is most serious
calamity , it was almost of 9-9.8 feet
City of Rikuzentakata Suffered extreme
damage and somehow restored now by
Cyclone Nargis 2008
It was the worst natural disaster in the
recorded history of Mayanmar
It made Landfall in Mayanmar on 2 may
2008 causing catastrophic destruction and
at least more than one million Fatalities.
Ecosystem cant be restored Properly
1970 s Bhola cyclone was a devasting
tropical cyclone that stuck East Pakistan.
It is One of the deadliest natural disaster ever
In which 0.5 million fatalities but now most of
its degradation are over come
In 1976 it was a greatest ever earth quake in
About 3 lac people died it is the second
deadliest earthquake in history
Almost 90% of its degradations are over
Earth quake 2005
A worst Earthquake occurred in October
2005 in Balakot Pakistan
It is considered the deadliest earthquake to
hit South Asia After Quetta Earthquake
About 1 Lac peoples Died 3.5 million
rendered homeless and it gave 5.4 billion
economical loss to Pakistan
Good Rehabilitation has been occurred in
Rehabilitation after 2010
floods in Pakistan
These floods were one of the most devasting
natural disaster-described as Slow motion
& these areas are rehabilitated but not
Restoration Of Mangrove
ecosystem along Coast of
Restoration and Rehabilitation of
Mangrove ecosystem along Coast of
This project was completed in almost 1 year
in Port Qasim Area
Indus river delta is present here , where
95% of mangroves stands.
Some Projects of Restoration like
Translocation and reintroduction is also
working in Changa Manga Forest.
Billion Tree Tsunami Vision
The gov. of KPK’ s initiative to restore the
degraded lands and forest
Across 348,400 hectares by the end of 2017
restored confirmed by IUCN
Nature Center at Shaker lakes
In America, it was built
to educate future
generation with balance
work in eradication of
invasive species and
reintroduce native plants
linking it up
as a major
When an Acacia country
club went on this location,
they found a special buyer
who planned to remove
golf course and convert
into nature preserve and
takeover it to Caveland
It is an effort to keep storm water from doing
damage & to create a more natural edge
between Manmade and Natural areas in city
Morley Road stream restoration
Stream banks were
vegetation Such as
Dam was built in
1938 in Concord
3-mile corridor where the redline runs
between west 65th and Flats
It is Pretty wild, but still ripe for a
conversation from invasive to natives
Form train access only to a recreation
“Action to re-instate
recovery of forest
structure , ecological
towards those typical
of climax forest”.
Types of Fires Affecting
Surface fires: natures
1. Burn undergrowth only
(not tree tops)
2. Cool fire (comparatively)
3. Ecological benefits (frees
seeds & minerals, controls
disease & insects)
Crown fires: destroys
1. Burns the entire tree
2. Much hotter fire
3. Occurs in forests with lack
of surface fires
Loss of Original Forests
removal of large
expanses of forests
1. done for agriculture or
2. 46% loss in 8,000
years (60% since 1950)
3. Most deforestation
has occurred in tropical
areas & developing
4. If this rate continues,
there will be an
estimated additional loss
of 40% intact forests
within next 20 years
Causes of Tropical Forest Deforestation and
Fires lead to
Ways to Reduce Tropical
1. A country will protect its rainforests in
exchange for financial aid or debt relief from a
Conservation concessions: similar to above
Gentler logging methods:
1. Strip cutting, selective cutting
Encourage use of wood substitutes: use of
bamboo, recycled wood products, plastic, etc.
How Should We Manage and Sustain
We can sustain forests by
emphasizing the economic
value of their ecological
services, removing government
subsidies that hasten their
destruction, protecting old-
growth forests, harvesting
trees no faster than they are
replenished, and planting trees.
Management of Forest Fires
Ecologists are now
1. Prescribed fires to get
rid of underbrush
2. Allowing some fires to
3. Thinning vegetation
4. Thinning forests around
5. Decreasing the
flammability of homes
“The process of
of a site to a natural
landscape and habitat
,safe for humans
,wildlife , and plant
Dry-lands of the World(Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005)
PAKISTAN – RICH IN DRYLANDS, SCARCE IN
RESOURCES FOR CONSERVATION
AN UNEXPECTEDWEALTH IN DRY
By and large, Pakistan is a dry-land country dominated by semiarid
and arid climate zones. Spanning more than 1,500 km – from the peaks of over
8,600 m of K2 in the Karakorum range to the shores of the Arabian Sea – this huge
spread also accounts for a progressive decrease in mean annual rainfall from the
northern to the southernmost parts of the country. About 60 per cent of the total
land cover receives less than 250 mm rainfall and some 25 per cent between 250-500
mm per year .
Just five per cent of Pakistan’s total land area of nearly 88 million ha is
covered by natural forests . Their biodiversity, however, is remarkably varied,
featuring alpine and subalpine scrub forest, temperate and subtropical coniferous
and broadleaved forest, subtropical and tropical dry forest, as well as riverine and
littoral forest. Most of Pakistan’s forest cover is found in the northern parts of the
country (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, NorthernAreas, Azad Jammu and Kashmir) with
temperate coniferous and broadleaved forests representing the main share.
HOW CAN YOU SUPPORT THIS WORK?
Our efforts to promote, conserve and restore
Pakistan’s dry forests need to continue and
expand.The awareness campaigns, capacity
building and practical restoration trials
undertaken to date, though limited in
magnitude, present very promising steps. We
rely on sustained financial and technical aid to
scale up this work by:
• enhancing species recovery and habitat
restoration expertise of local communities
• increasing the size and number of
• strengthening ex situ conservation efforts
by Pakistan’s botanic gardens through
• collections; and exploring the development
of value chains for improved livelihoods of
RESTORATION OF DEGRADED
• Natural rivers and their floodplains are among the
most complex and diverse ecosystems in the world.
• Rivers have been used for hundred of years for food,
water, irrigation, electric generation, transport,
discharge of pollutants, tourism and recreation,
these activities have been accomplished without
properly considering ecosystem’s environmental
and conservation features.
Causes of Degradation
1. Climate change and seas changes.
3. Unsustainable Fishing.
4.Lack of protection from the government.
5. Shipping Impact.
7. Development of coastal places.
• 80% of plastic
in our oceans is
• A 2010 study
found that 4.8-
metric tons of
up in the ocean
Restoration of Aquatic Degradation
There are the following measures to restore the degraded Aquatic
1. Controlling Pollution.
2. Environmental and Conservation Policies.
3. Controlled Fishing.
4. Civic Education.
5. Restriction over Aggressive coastal Developments.
6. Limiting land Conversion drive.
7. Using designate routes only during Shipping.
• Separate drainage of
• Industrial effluents and
wastes must be
treated in order to
reduce their toxicity.
• No biodegradable
waste material such as
plastics should not be
dumped in water
• We need to reduce our
use of plastic globally,
• Human discipline would be quite necessary in ensuring that
the problem of aquatic destruction is solved.
HOW WOULDTHIS HAPPEN?
• Various environmental conservation bodies such as UNEP
can be liaison with the various governments so that laws
seeking to control industrialization and waste disposal are
• Eventually, global warming shall have been controlled and
the threat posed to the aquatic lives will have minimized.
There are other associated activities that can be
used constructively.This may entail the controlled
or moderated .
• Fishing which is sustainable.
• Overfishing tampers with
the aquatic ecology and
• It can be done in a way that
other plants and animas are
not rendered extinct in the
• Overfishing can render
certain animal species
extinct due to deprivation
• Civic education can be
important in the marine
areas as it would equip
the people with the
• To help them avoid the
destruction of aquatic
• This activity can be
conducted in small
Restricting over aggressive
• Governments can only use
the relevant coastal locations
to boost other activities such
• This move will be very helpful
in limiting the spread of
urbanization and coastal
developments which pose
serious threat to the aquatic
Limiting Land Conversion Drive
• When uncontrolled,
human settlements can
be a nuisance to the
• As the consequences,
plants and animals will
• Such human activities
can be moderated by
limiting land conversion
Using Designate Routes Only
• Countries that are using
water transport can go
ahead and control the
• This can be achieved
through the strict use to
designate routes in
order to limit the spread
of danger that can be
caused by the ships.
• It can reduce the oil spill
disasters and other heat
Management Of Wetlands:
wetland program working
on restoration projects and
significant biodiversity of
It has two main objectives;
1. To create and maintain
enabling environment for
sustainable and effective
conservation of natural
2. To implement
The program is
working in 4 areas:
1. Lakes of the
2. Lakes of salt
3. Coastal wetland.
Environmental planning is concerned with the society’s
collective stewardship of the earth resources.
The environment refers to the physical and biological
systems which provide our basic life support and which
contribute to our psychological well-being.
Environmental planners are always concerned with the
number of issues that needs to be addressed all the time
for better quality of life.
Environmental planners are constantly working with the
context of policy agenda framed at the various tiers in the
public and private sector.
Rationale for why restoration is needed.
Ecological description of sites to be restored.
Statement of goals and objectives.
Description of reference system.
How restoration sites will integrate with greater landscape.
Explicit plans, schedules, and budgets including mid-course
corrections (adaptive management).
Performance standards, monitoring and evaluation.
Strategies for long term maintenance.
Crown fires are at least in a
long series of symptoms of
declining ecosystem health:
Loss of herbaceous cover.
Irruption of tree populations.
Decline in water balance.
Loss of esthetic values.
Unnatural insect and disease epidemics.
Shift to catastrophic crown fires.
The principal “Environmental
Population & Health:
Accelerating population growth , wide
disparities in health standard , deterioration
of life quality.
Rapid urbanization, land use changes,
pollution problems, and various
Food & Agriculture
Growing level of hunger & malnutrient
Sustainability in yield, restoration of soil fertility.
Forest & Farmlands:
Decreased tropical forest, soil erosion, wasteland
creation, mono cultural practices in afforestation.
Concentration of carbon dioxide continue to
Climate continues to change, temperatures rise
and sea level continues to rise.
We are adapted to our current climate
increasingly, the climate of the past is not a
good guide to the future.
But that is why what is widely used for planning
and design: water use, buildings, energy,
Bioremediation refers to the process of using
micro organisms to remove the
environmental pollutants or prevent
Removal of organic wastes by microbes for
environmental clean up is the essence of
Other names used for bioremediation are bio
treatment, bio reclamation and bio
Xenobiotics broadly refer to the un natural,
foreign and synthetic chemicals
Herbicide and other organic compounds.
HAFIZA IQRA MALIK
Restoration Plans & Strategies
Restoration ecologists help return
degraded ecosystems to a more natural
Given enough time, biological communities
can recover from many types of disturbances
Restoration ecology seeks to initiate or speed
up the recovery of degraded ecosystems
Two key strategies are bioremediation and
augmentation of ecosystem processes
(a) In 1991, before restoration (b) In 2000, near the completion of restoration
organisms to add
to a degraded
– For example,
nitrogen in soil
– For example,
can help plants
MICROBES AND RESTORATION
Fast growing human civilization and
industrialization have resulted in increased amounts
of pollutants such as pesticides, electronic wastes,
etc. in the environment.
These pollutants have hazardous impacts on living
organisms including human health.
Remediation of these contaminants is a serious
environmental issue of current interest.
Recent research has shown that soil
microorganisms play an important role in
remediating and improving disturbed ecosystems.
This approach is eco-friendly and relatively less
The investigations carried out using microbes for
restoration of degraded eco-systems
Restoration Projects Worldwide
• The newness and
require that ecologists
solutions and adjust
approaches based on
Providing a case for PAs
Protected areas are central to global
efforts to conserve biodiversity and
Their benefits include;:
Provide a supply of clean drinking
Reduce risk from unpredictable events
and natural hazards
Maintain food security by increasing
resource productivity and sustainability
Contribute to climate change
mitigation and adaptation
Protect cultural and spiritual resources
Provide potential source of economic
Challenges for PAs
external pressures from distant sources
lack of financial resources
Inappropriate institutional structures
unclear or insecure land rights
Sr. PA Location Status
Margalla Hills NP Islamabad Not implemented
Machiara NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Under implementation
Ghamot NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan
Pir Lasorha NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan
Toli Pir NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan
Gurez Musk Deer
Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan
Deva Vatala NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan
Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan
Balochistan Not implemented
Hingol NP Balochistan Under implementation
Khunjerab NP Gilgit-Baltistan Under implementation
Deosai NP Gilgit-Baltistan Not implemented
Gilgit-Baltistan Under finalization
Gilgit-Baltistan Lacks management plan
Karmbhar NP Gilgit-Baltistan Lacks management plan
Ayubia NP Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Under implementation
Green Pakistan program
Pakistan had made significant
contribution to its commitment
to increase its forest cover from
4.8% to 6.0%
The Green Pakistan
Programmed is being launched
in 2017 by the federal
government with support from
all the provinces andAzad
Jammu and Kashmir, Gilgit-
Baltistan (GB), Federally
What are subsidies?
OECD “a government action
that confers an advantage on
consumers or producers in order
to supplement their income or
lower their cost”
WTO: “a financial
contribution by a government,
or agent of a government, that
confers a benefit on its
Different strategies by
Constitutional, Legal and Institutional
Pakistan’s National Conservation Strategy
(NCS) was formulated in 1992 as the first
policy framework to encompass biodiversity
Subsequently, in year 2000, a comprehensive
Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) was prepared
Biodiversity Action Plan(2000)
National Conservation Strategy (1992)
National Environment Policy (2005)
National Sustainable Development Strategy,
National Climate Change Policy (2012)
Pakistan Environmental ProtectionAct
PakistanTrade Control ofWild Fauna and
Flora Act, 2012 (CITES Act)
Pakistan Access to Genetic Resources and
Benefit-sharing Act, 2012 (Draft)
Climate Change Act 2017
Pakistan has enacted Pakistan Climate Change
Sustainable Development Goals
SDGs have specific targets to achieve over 15 years
period 2016 -2030.
The following two goals deal specifically with
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in
water and on land:
SDG 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and
marine resources for sustainable development
SDG 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of
terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat
desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and
halt biodiversity loss.