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restoration ecology and restoration of degraded ecosystem

the presentation is about degradation of ecosystem, its effects and restoration of different ecosystem with examples

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restoration ecology and restoration of degraded ecosystem

  1. 1. A GROUP 4 PRESENTATION; Restoration Ecology & Restoration Of Degraded Ecosystems
  2. 2. Group Members 1-Ariba Nameen 3- Iqra Malik 2-Manahil Khanam 4- Aneeqa Sadiq 5-Afra Ejaz 6- Minahil Khalid
  3. 3.  Introduction of Restoration Ecology  Degraded Ecosystems & Causes  Examples , Myths & Case studies  Forest & Dry land Restoration  Aquatic Ecosystem –Restoration  RestorationTechniques &Ways  Planning ,Strategies ,Laws & Management
  5. 5. Definition  Ecological restoration It is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed. It is an intentional activity that initiates or accelerates an ecological pathway—or trajectory through time— towards a reference state.
  6. 6. Ecosystem • An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a community, as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact. • Ecosystems range from a microcosm, such as an aquarium, to a large area such as a lake or forest
  7. 7. Degraded Ecosystem  When any ecosystem is under attack as a result of natural or man-made disaster , it is termed as “degraded ecosystem ‘
  8. 8. Causes Of Degradation • Unsustainable land use is a major cause of land degradation • Biodiversity loss and thus demanding concerted efforts for systematic land use planning. • Sewage runoff has caused eutrophication of lakes (water degradation), which can lead to loss of most fish species • In lakes, phosphorus limits cyanobacterial growth more often than nitrogen • This has led to the use of phosphate-free detergents
  9. 9. Natural Calamities  Natural Calamities have also major contribution In degradation Of Ecosystems,, it includes.  Volcanic Eruptions  Earthquakes  Flooding  Strom  Disease outbreak & Famine
  10. 10. Human Impacts On Ecosystem  Rapid population growth  Deforestation and degradation  Fragmentation and loss of habitat  Low crop genetic diversity  Environmental pollution  Climate change  Use of Nuclear power also degrade ecosystems
  11. 11. Restoration Ecology  Ecological Restoration: the process of repairing damage caused by humans to the biodiversity & natural dynamics of natural ecosystems, accomplished through; 1. Restoration to natural state 2. Rehabilitation to functional ecosystem 3. Replacement with another ecosystem 4. Creating artificial ecosystems
  12. 12. •Ecological restoration refers to the rehabilitation, reclamation, re-creation and recovery of degraded lands. •These efforts may be conducted on either a small-scale (e.g. tree planting) or • May involve major human and technical efforts (e.g. re-creation of wetlands, acid lake neutralization).
  13. 13.  If no action is taken, the ecosystem might moderately improve or might get somewhat worse.
  14. 14. Enhancement  If only a few ecosystem processes or species are ‘restored’, but the system remains far from its pristine state, the effect is called enhancement.
  15. 15. Rehabilitation  If the ecosystem is significantly improved but remains quite distinct from its pre-degradation condition, the effect is called rehabilitation.  This is frequently the objective in areas that have been strip mined  e.g. oil sands in Alberta.
  16. 16. Reclamation  Reclamation stabilizes land and restores sufficient soil to revegetate the land, without attempting to restore the condition before mining.
  17. 17. Replacement  Replacement builds a new community that meets some set of conservation objectives, but is unlike the one degraded.  Constructed wetlands around the Great Lakes fit into this category.
  18. 18. Restoration  Restoration rebuilds an ecosystem little different than the pristine ecosystem that was degraded.
  19. 19.  It is done to the physical environment and to plants in restoration.  For animals there are:  Translocation and  Reintroduction (using captive-bred animals)  i.e. Gray wolf , Aldraba tortoise
  20. 20. Principles For Restoration  Identify cause of degradation  Stop abuse by reducing factors  Reintroduce species if necessary  Protect area from further degradation
  21. 21. HISTORY ,MYTHS , EXAMPLES & CASE STUDIES By;- Manahil Khanam Durrani
  22. 22. History  Restoration ecology emerged as a separate field in the late 20th century  The term coined by john Aber, William Jorden in university of Wisconsin  However, Laypeople have been practicing ecological restoration or Management for thousand of years.
  23. 23. Myths Restoration Myth Core Issues 1- Carbon Copy Community Assembly Predictable :Single end point Exists 2-Field Of Dreams Sole focus on Physio – Chemical Conditions; System Self -Organize 3-Fast Forward Succession and ecosystem Development can be Accelerated 4-CockBook Methodology of Overused and not sufficientlyValidated 5-Command & Control Sisyphus Complex Nature is controllable ;Treating Symptoms will fix the problem
  24. 24. Examples  Around the word many restoration projects, Have made remarkable progress in rolling back the clock and restoring the natural world to some of its original splendor.  Some projects are still working, and some were failed due to lack of planning
  25. 25. Hiroshima & Nagasaki  In 1945 During world war 2 US detonated two nuclear weapons over Japanese cities.  It is best example of degradation and almost 60-65%-of land is restored
  26. 26. Quetta Earthquake  1935 Quetta Earthquake is considered as Deadliest Earthquake ever  Chappar rift , Bruce street and Many nearby areas were ruined  It cant be properly restored
  27. 27. Tsunami 2011  Tsunami 2011 in Japan is most serious calamity , it was almost of 9-9.8 feet  City of Rikuzentakata Suffered extreme damage and somehow restored now by restoration techniques.
  28. 28. Cyclone Nargis 2008  It was the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Mayanmar  It made Landfall in Mayanmar on 2 may 2008 causing catastrophic destruction and at least more than one million Fatalities.  Ecosystem cant be restored Properly .
  29. 29. Bhola Cyclone  1970 s Bhola cyclone was a devasting tropical cyclone that stuck East Pakistan.  It is One of the deadliest natural disaster ever  In which 0.5 million fatalities but now most of its degradation are over come
  30. 30. Tangshan Earthquake  In 1976 it was a greatest ever earth quake in china  About 3 lac people died it is the second deadliest earthquake in history  Almost 90% of its degradations are over come
  31. 31. Earth quake 2005  A worst Earthquake occurred in October 2005 in Balakot Pakistan  It is considered the deadliest earthquake to hit South Asia After Quetta Earthquake  About 1 Lac peoples Died 3.5 million rendered homeless and it gave 5.4 billion economical loss to Pakistan  Good Rehabilitation has been occurred in this place
  32. 32. Rehabilitation after 2010 floods in Pakistan  These floods were one of the most devasting natural disaster-described as Slow motion Tsunami  & these areas are rehabilitated but not completely
  33. 33. Restoration Of Mangrove ecosystem along Coast of Pakistan  Restoration and Rehabilitation of Mangrove ecosystem along Coast of Pakistan  This project was completed in almost 1 year in Port Qasim Area  Indus river delta is present here , where 95% of mangroves stands.
  34. 34. Changa Manga  Some Projects of Restoration like Translocation and reintroduction is also working in Changa Manga Forest.
  35. 35. Billion Tree Tsunami Vision  The gov. of KPK’ s initiative to restore the degraded lands and forest  Across 348,400 hectares by the end of 2017 restored confirmed by IUCN 
  36. 36. topCaseStudies
  37. 37. Nature Center at Shaker lakes  In America, it was built to educate future generation with balance in nature.  Important restoration work in eradication of invasive species and reintroduce native plants
  38. 38. West Creek •It was conceived in Parma with idea of linking it up as a major network of recreational trails and green space.
  39. 39. Acacia  When an Acacia country club went on this location, they found a special buyer who planned to remove golf course and convert into nature preserve and takeover it to Caveland MetroParks.
  40. 40. Wildwood Park  It is an effort to keep storm water from doing damage & to create a more natural edge between Manmade and Natural areas in city park.  Caveland project
  41. 41. Morley Road stream restoration  Stream banks were stabilized with native shrub vegetation Such as Dogwoods  Dam was built in 1938 in Concord Township
  42. 42. Redline Greenway  3-mile corridor where the redline runs between west 65th and Flats  It is Pretty wild, but still ripe for a conversation from invasive to natives  Form train access only to a recreation Corridor
  44. 44. DEFINITION Forest restoration: “Action to re-instate ecological processes ,which accelerate recovery of forest structure , ecological functioning and biodiversity levels towards those typical of climax forest”.
  45. 45. Types of Fires Affecting Forests  Surface fires: natures “beneficial” fire 1. Burn undergrowth only (not tree tops) 2. Cool fire (comparatively) 3. Ecological benefits (frees seeds & minerals, controls disease & insects)  Crown fires: destroys almost everything! 1. Burns the entire tree 2. Much hotter fire 3. Occurs in forests with lack of surface fires
  46. 46. Loss of Original Forests  Deforestation: temporary/permanent removal of large expanses of forests 1. done for agriculture or expansion 2. 46% loss in 8,000 years (60% since 1950) 3. Most deforestation has occurred in tropical areas & developing countries 4. If this rate continues, there will be an estimated additional loss of 40% intact forests within next 20 years
  47. 47. Causes of Tropical Forest Deforestation and Degradation  Population growth and poverty  Economic reasons 1. Logging 2. Ranching 3. Farming  Government subsidies  Fires lead to raised temperatures and cause reduced rainfall.
  48. 48. Ways to Reduce Tropical Deforestation  Debt-for-nature swaps: 1. A country will protect its rainforests in exchange for financial aid or debt relief from a participating country.  Conservation concessions: similar to above  Gentler logging methods: 1. Strip cutting, selective cutting  Encourage use of wood substitutes: use of bamboo, recycled wood products, plastic, etc.
  49. 49. How Should We Manage and Sustain Forests? We can sustain forests by emphasizing the economic value of their ecological services, removing government subsidies that hasten their destruction, protecting old- growth forests, harvesting trees no faster than they are replenished, and planting trees.
  50. 50. Management of Forest Fires  Ecologists are now recommending: 1. Prescribed fires to get rid of underbrush 2. Allowing some fires to burn 3. Thinning vegetation from forests 4. Thinning forests around vulnerable homes 5. Decreasing the flammability of homes
  51. 51. Definition Dry-land restoration. “The process of ecological restoration of a site to a natural landscape and habitat ,safe for humans ,wildlife , and plant communities .
  52. 52. Dry-lands of the World(Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005)
  53. 53. PAKISTAN – RICH IN DRYLANDS, SCARCE IN RESOURCES FOR CONSERVATION AN UNEXPECTEDWEALTH IN DRY WOODLANDS By and large, Pakistan is a dry-land country dominated by semiarid and arid climate zones. Spanning more than 1,500 km – from the peaks of over 8,600 m of K2 in the Karakorum range to the shores of the Arabian Sea – this huge spread also accounts for a progressive decrease in mean annual rainfall from the northern to the southernmost parts of the country. About 60 per cent of the total land cover receives less than 250 mm rainfall and some 25 per cent between 250-500 mm per year . Just five per cent of Pakistan’s total land area of nearly 88 million ha is covered by natural forests . Their biodiversity, however, is remarkably varied, featuring alpine and subalpine scrub forest, temperate and subtropical coniferous and broadleaved forest, subtropical and tropical dry forest, as well as riverine and littoral forest. Most of Pakistan’s forest cover is found in the northern parts of the country (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, NorthernAreas, Azad Jammu and Kashmir) with temperate coniferous and broadleaved forests representing the main share.
  54. 54. HOW CAN YOU SUPPORT THIS WORK? Our efforts to promote, conserve and restore Pakistan’s dry forests need to continue and expand.The awareness campaigns, capacity building and practical restoration trials undertaken to date, though limited in magnitude, present very promising steps. We rely on sustained financial and technical aid to scale up this work by: • enhancing species recovery and habitat restoration expertise of local communities and authorities; • increasing the size and number of restoration sites; • strengthening ex situ conservation efforts by Pakistan’s botanic gardens through genetically representative • collections; and exploring the development of value chains for improved livelihoods of
  56. 56. Aquatic Ecosystem • Natural rivers and their floodplains are among the most complex and diverse ecosystems in the world. • Rivers have been used for hundred of years for food, water, irrigation, electric generation, transport, discharge of pollutants, tourism and recreation, these activities have been accomplished without properly considering ecosystem’s environmental and conservation features.
  57. 57. Causes of Degradation 1. Climate change and seas changes. 2. Pollution. 3. Unsustainable Fishing. 4.Lack of protection from the government. 5. Shipping Impact. 6.Eutrophication. 7. Development of coastal places.
  58. 58. • 80% of plastic in our oceans is from land sources. • A 2010 study found that 4.8- 12.7 million metric tons of plastic waste from coastal countries end up in the ocean every year.
  59. 59. Restoration of Aquatic Degradation There are the following measures to restore the degraded Aquatic Ecosystem: 1. Controlling Pollution. 2. Environmental and Conservation Policies. 3. Controlled Fishing. 4. Civic Education. 5. Restriction over Aggressive coastal Developments. 6. Limiting land Conversion drive. 7. Using designate routes only during Shipping.
  60. 60. Controlling Pollution • Separate drainage of sewage. • Industrial effluents and wastes must be treated in order to reduce their toxicity. • No biodegradable waste material such as plastics should not be dumped in water bodies. • We need to reduce our use of plastic globally,
  61. 61. Environmental Conservation Policies • Human discipline would be quite necessary in ensuring that the problem of aquatic destruction is solved. HOW WOULDTHIS HAPPEN? • Various environmental conservation bodies such as UNEP can be liaison with the various governments so that laws seeking to control industrialization and waste disposal are ratified. • Eventually, global warming shall have been controlled and the threat posed to the aquatic lives will have minimized.
  62. 62. Controlled Fishing There are other associated activities that can be used constructively.This may entail the controlled or moderated . • Fishing which is sustainable. • Overfishing tampers with the aquatic ecology and food chain. • It can be done in a way that other plants and animas are not rendered extinct in the process. • Overfishing can render certain animal species extinct due to deprivation of food.
  63. 63. • Civic education can be important in the marine areas as it would equip the people with the necessary skills. • To help them avoid the destruction of aquatic habitat. • This activity can be conducted in small Civic Education
  64. 64. Restricting over aggressive coastal developments • Governments can only use the relevant coastal locations to boost other activities such as trade. • This move will be very helpful in limiting the spread of urbanization and coastal developments which pose serious threat to the aquatic habitat.
  65. 65. Limiting Land Conversion Drive • When uncontrolled, human settlements can be a nuisance to the existing ecosystem. • As the consequences, plants and animals will be endangered. • Such human activities can be moderated by limiting land conversion drive.
  66. 66. Using Designate Routes Only During Shipping • Countries that are using water transport can go ahead and control the activities. • This can be achieved through the strict use to designate routes in order to limit the spread of danger that can be caused by the ships. • It can reduce the oil spill disasters and other heat related dangers.
  67. 67. Management Of Wetlands: Currently Pakistan’s wetland program working on restoration projects and promotes globally significant biodiversity of the country. It has two main objectives; 1. To create and maintain enabling environment for sustainable and effective conservation of natural wetlands 2. To implement sustainable wetland conservation strategies
  68. 68. The program is working in 4 areas: 1. Lakes of the alpine region. 2. Lakes of salt range. 3. Coastal wetland. 4.Riverine wetlands.
  69. 69. SAVE US
  71. 71. INTRODUCTION:- Environmental planning is concerned with the society’s collective stewardship of the earth resources. The environment refers to the physical and biological systems which provide our basic life support and which contribute to our psychological well-being. Environmental planners are always concerned with the number of issues that needs to be addressed all the time for better quality of life. Environmental planners are constantly working with the context of policy agenda framed at the various tiers in the public and private sector.
  72. 72. Restoration planning: Rationale for why restoration is needed. Ecological description of sites to be restored. Statement of goals and objectives. Description of reference system. How restoration sites will integrate with greater landscape. Explicit plans, schedules, and budgets including mid-course corrections (adaptive management). Performance standards, monitoring and evaluation. Strategies for long term maintenance.
  73. 73. Crown fires are at least in a long series of symptoms of declining ecosystem health:  Loss of herbaceous cover.  Increased erosion.  Irruption of tree populations.  Decline in water balance.  Loss of esthetic values.  Unnatural insect and disease epidemics.  Shift to catastrophic crown fires.
  74. 74. The principal “Environmental Agenda”  Population & Health:  Accelerating population growth , wide disparities in health standard , deterioration of life quality.  Human settlements:  Rapid urbanization, land use changes, pollution problems, and various anthropogenic pressures.
  75. 75. Food & Agriculture  Growing level of hunger & malnutrient Sustainability in yield, restoration of soil fertility.
  76. 76.  Forest & Farmlands:  Decreased tropical forest, soil erosion, wasteland creation, mono cultural practices in afforestation.
  78. 78. Wildlife & Habitats  Species losses, illegal trade of endangered and rare species. Species & their Habitats (ENDANGERED SPECIES)
  79. 79. Endangeredspecie
  80. 80. Energy Economic dependence on forest fuels and nuclear power, shortage of fuel woods, non conventional energy resources. Nuclear energy power plant
  81. 81. Freshwater: Water scarcity, Stalinization, pollution river, lake, reservoir, destruction of wetland, ground water pollution.
  82. 82. FRESHWATER
  83. 83. Oceans & Coasts Over exploitation of fishes, marine pollution, coastal habitat destruction, sea levels rises & its impact. 
  84. 84. Atmosphere & Climate: Air pollution, global warming, ozone depletion, tropical cyclone.
  85. 85. Global Warming  Concentration of carbon dioxide continue to increase.  Climate continues to change, temperatures rise and sea level continues to rise.  We are adapted to our current climate increasingly, the climate of the past is not a good guide to the future.  But that is why what is widely used for planning and design: water use, buildings, energy, agriculture …..
  86. 86. Ozone assessments:  1985:ozone hole discovered.  1986:first ozone assessment. Others followed:1988, 1989, 1991, 1994, 1998, 2002,(2006 underway).  1986-89:Scientific explanation.  1987:montreal protocol signed.  1990:london amendments.  1992:Copenhagen amendments.  1999:Beijing amendments.
  87. 87. Bioremediation:  Bioremediation refers to the process of using micro organisms to remove the environmental pollutants or prevent pollution.  Removal of organic wastes by microbes for environmental clean up is the essence of bioremediation.  Other names used for bioremediation are bio treatment, bio reclamation and bio restoration.
  88. 88.  Xenobiotics broadly refer to the un natural, foreign and synthetic chemicals  Such as  Pesticides  Herbicide and other organic compounds.
  89. 89. SAVE EARTH
  90. 90. BY;- HAFIZA IQRA MALIK Restoration Plans & Strategies
  91. 91. Restoration ecologists help return degraded ecosystems to a more natural state  Given enough time, biological communities can recover from many types of disturbances  Restoration ecology seeks to initiate or speed up the recovery of degraded ecosystems  Two key strategies are bioremediation and augmentation of ecosystem processes
  92. 92. (a) In 1991, before restoration (b) In 2000, near the completion of restoration
  93. 93. Biological Augmentation • Biological augmentation uses organisms to add essential materials to a degraded ecosystem – For example, nitrogen-fixing plants can increase the available nitrogen in soil – For example, adding mycorrhizal fungi can help plants to access nutrients from soil
  94. 94. MICROBES AND RESTORATION  Fast growing human civilization and industrialization have resulted in increased amounts of pollutants such as pesticides, electronic wastes, etc. in the environment.  These pollutants have hazardous impacts on living organisms including human health.  Remediation of these contaminants is a serious environmental issue of current interest.  Recent research has shown that soil microorganisms play an important role in remediating and improving disturbed ecosystems.  This approach is eco-friendly and relatively less expensive.  The investigations carried out using microbes for restoration of degraded eco-systems
  95. 95. Restoration Projects Worldwide • The newness and complexity of restoration ecology require that ecologists consider alternative solutions and adjust approaches based on experience.
  96. 96. Recognizing the value of Protected Areas
  97. 97. Providing a case for PAs Protected areas are central to global efforts to conserve biodiversity and safeguard biodiversity Their benefits include;: Provide a supply of clean drinking water Reduce risk from unpredictable events and natural hazards Maintain food security by increasing resource productivity and sustainability Contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation Protect cultural and spiritual resources Provide potential source of economic development
  98. 98. Challenges for PAs external pressures from distant sources direct pressures local conflicts lack of financial resources poor capacity Inappropriate institutional structures unclear or insecure land rights
  99. 99. Sr. PA Location Status 1. Margalla Hills NP Islamabad Not implemented 2. Machiara NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Under implementation 3. Ghamot NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan 4. Pir Lasorha NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan 5. Toli Pir NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan 6. Gurez Musk Deer NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan 7. Deva Vatala NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan 8. Poonch River Mahsheer NP Azad Jammu and Kashmir Lacks management plan 9. Chiltan-Hazargangi NP Balochistan Not implemented 10. Hingol NP Balochistan Under implementation 11. Khunjerab NP Gilgit-Baltistan Under implementation 12. Deosai NP Gilgit-Baltistan Not implemented 13. Central Karakorum NP Gilgit-Baltistan Under finalization 14. Hunderab-Shandoor NP Gilgit-Baltistan Lacks management plan 15. Karmbhar NP Gilgit-Baltistan Lacks management plan Ayubia NP Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Under implementation
  100. 100. Green Pakistan program  Pakistan had made significant contribution to its commitment to increase its forest cover from 4.8% to 6.0%  The Green Pakistan Programmed is being launched in 2017 by the federal government with support from all the provinces andAzad Jammu and Kashmir, Gilgit- Baltistan (GB), Federally AdministeredTribal Areas (FATA).
  101. 101. Reformingsubsidies What are subsidies? OECD “a government action that confers an advantage on consumers or producers in order to supplement their income or lower their cost” WTO: “a financial contribution by a government, or agent of a government, that confers a benefit on its recipients”.
  102. 102. Different strategies by Pakistan  Constitutional, Legal and Institutional Framework  Pakistan’s National Conservation Strategy (NCS) was formulated in 1992 as the first policy framework to encompass biodiversity and conservation.  Subsequently, in year 2000, a comprehensive Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) was prepared
  103. 103. Different plans  Biodiversity Action Plan(2000)  National Conservation Strategy (1992)  National Environment Policy (2005)  National Sustainable Development Strategy, 2012 (NSDS)  National Climate Change Policy (2012)
  104. 104. Legal Framework  Pakistan Environmental ProtectionAct (PEPA), 1997  PakistanTrade Control ofWild Fauna and Flora Act, 2012 (CITES Act)  Pakistan Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-sharing Act, 2012 (Draft)  Climate Change Act 2017  Pakistan has enacted Pakistan Climate Change Act 2017.
  105. 105. Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)  SDGs have specific targets to achieve over 15 years period 2016 -2030.  The following two goals deal specifically with conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in water and on land:  SDG 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development  SDG 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
  106. 106. VID-20190311-WA0028.mp4