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COMP-111 Past Paper 2022 complete Solution PU BS 4 Year Program

  1. Past paper comp-111-22 Prepared by: Haider Ali Prof: Shahid khan Prof. Usama
  2. • SRAM is mainly fixed on the processor or within the memory and the processor. • DRAM is fixed on the motherboard. • The successor of the SRAM is the DRAM because it is cheaper to produce. • SRAM is available for purchase, but mainly for system builders. • The oldest version of the DRAM is DDR1, but it is only available to industrial manufacturers and not consumers. On the other hand, the latest version is the
  3. • DDR4, which is available for both consumers and industrial manufacturers. • SRAM saves data on the memory when power is still connected to the system. • DRAM needs to be periodically refreshed. • SRAM is an abbreviation for Static Random-Access Memory. • DRAM is an abbreviation for dynamic random access memory.
  4. A magnetic stripe card is generally used in transportation tickets, identity cards, and credit cards. They can be read by swiping it through a magnetic reading head. Companies make the use of the magnetic stripe cards embedded with an RFID tag or microchip to monitor access of employees in the business premises
  5. • Machine language is the lowest level of programming language, consisting of binary code that the computer's CPU can directly execute. Machine language programs are executed faster than programs written in high-level programming languages because there is no need for translation or interpretation of the code.
  6. • Opening suspicious email attachments. • Attaching unsecured removable or external storage devices (e.g., flash drives, external hard drives, memory cards) • Accessing malicious websites. • Clicking malicious ads. • Downloading malicious and unlicensed applications.
  7. • CPU registers are small, high-speed storage areas within the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. They are used to temporarily store data and instructions that the CPU is currently processing, and they are measured in bits. • Registers are located inside the CPU, and they are designed to allow the CPU to access data and instructions quickly. Because registers are part of the CPU, they can be accessed much more quickly than main memory or storage devices, which makes them ideal for storing data that is needed frequently or data that is needed quickly.
  8. • CAD (Computer-Aided Design) and CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing) are two related but distinct computer-aided technologies used in the design and manufacturing processes. • CAD refers to the use of computer software to create detailed digital models of objects, products, or systems. It is primarily used for designing and engineering new products or systems, as well as for making modifications to existing designs • CAM, on the other hand, It requires less labor intensive and saves labor cost as it can perform work electronically which requires minimum supervision. Machines are accurate, and the process is repeated automatically with large quantities. The occurrence of errors is less here, and it can run continually. A virtual machine can help in evaluating the outcomes and routines effectively.
  9. • Web publishing refers to the process of making web content available to the public on the internet. This includes creating, editing, and publishing web pages, websites, and web applications. • Web publishing can be done by individuals, businesses, or organizations, and can range from simple personal blogs to complex e-commerce websites or web-based applications. The goal of web publishing is to make web content accessible and easily available to the public, and to provide a platform for sharing information and communicating with others online.
  10. There are two states of a cell, i.e. active and passive. The currently selected cell where data can be entered or edited is called the active cell. When another cell is selected or cell pointer is moved to another cell, that cell becomes the active cell. Actually, at a time a single is active and other cells of worksheet are inactive. The inactive cells are known as passive cells.
  11. • Yes, it is possible to recover a deleted file in Windows if it was accidentally deleted. The first step you should take is to check the Recycle Bin. When you delete a file in Windows, it is usually moved to the Recycle Bin, where it can be recovered easily. To restore a file from the Recycle Bin, simply locate the file, right-click on it, and select "Restore."
  12. • Command Line Interface (CLI) Operating Systems: These operating systems require the user to interact with the computer through a command prompt or terminal. The user types commands into the prompt and the operating system responds with text output. CLI operating systems are often used by developers, system administrators, and power users who require a high degree of control over their systems. Examples of CLI operating systems include Linux/Unix, MS- DOS, and Windows Command Prompt.
  13. • Graphical User Interface (GUI) Operating Systems: These operating systems provide a graphical interface that allows users to interact with the computer using a mouse, keyboard, and other input devices. GUI operating systems are designed to be more intuitive and user-friendly than CLI systems, and are used by most home and office computer users. Examples of GUI operating systems include Windows, macOS, and various Linux distributions such as Ubuntu and Fed
  14. • An extended partition is a type of partition on a hard drive that can be used to create logical partitions. In a traditional partition scheme, a hard drive can be divided into multiple primary partitions, each of which can contain a file system and be used to store data.
  15. • Formula: =A1+A2+A3+A4+A5 • Function: =SUM(A1:A5) • Both the formula and function will produce the same result, which is the sum of the values in cells A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5. The SUM function is a built-in function in Excel that adds the values in a range of cells, while the formula simply adds the values in the cells together using the plus (+) operator.
  16. • DBMS stands for Database Management System. It is a software system that enables users to create, manage, and manipulate databases. A database is a collection of data that is organized in a specific way to allow for efficient retrieval and manipulation. • A DBMS provides a user-friendly interface for users to interact with the database. It allows users to define the structure of the database, store and retrieve data, enforce data integrity rules, and perform other operations such as querying and updating the data.
  17. • Resolution is an important factor for display screens because it determines the level of detail and clarity that can be displayed on the screen. Resolution refers to the number of pixels that make up the image on the screen. The higher the resolution, the more pixels are present, and the sharper and more detailed the image will appear.
  18. • a foreign key is a field or combination of fields that is used to establish a link between two tables. A foreign key in one table points to the primary key of another table. The use of foreign keys is an essential part of maintaining data integrity and ensuring consistency in the database.
  19. • A video display adapter, also known as a graphics card, is a hardware component that is used to generate and output visual images to a display device, such as a monitor or projector. It is responsible for rendering images, videos, and animations on the computer screen. • There are several types of video display adapters available in the market, including: • Integrated graphics: These are built-in graphics processors that are integrated into the motherboard of a computer. They are low-cost and suitable for basic computing tasks such as web browsing, document editing, and video playback. • Dedicated graphics: These are standalone graphics cards that are installed in the computer's expansion slot. They have their own memory and processing power, making them suitable for demanding tasks such as gaming, video editing, and 3D modeling.
  20. • Workstation graphics: These are specialized graphics cards that are designed for use in professional workstations, such as those used in the fields of architecture, engineering, and media production. They offer advanced features such as multi-monitor support, 3D modeling, and high-end rendering capabilities. • External graphics: These are graphics cards that are connected to a computer via a USB or Thunderbolt port. They are suitable for laptops or other mobile devices that may not have a dedicated graphics card. • Onboard graphics: These are graphics cards that are installed on the computer's motherboard. They are similar to integrated graphics but offer more advanced features and performance.
  21. • A computer virus is a type of malicious software that is designed to replicate itself and spread from one computer system to another, often causing damage to data, hardware, or software. It typically spreads through email attachments, downloads, or infected software. • There are several types of computer viruses, including: • File infectors: These viruses infect executable files, such as .exe or .com files. When the infected file is executed, the virus is activated and can spread to other files on the system. • Boot sector viruses: These viruses infect the boot sector of a disk, making it difficult to remove them. They can cause damage to the disk and prevent the system from booting up.
  22. • Macro viruses: These viruses are spread through macros in applications, such as Microsoft Word or Excel. They can cause damage to the documents and files that are infected. • Polymorphic viruses: These viruses can change their code, making it difficult for antivirus software to detect and remove them. • Worms: These are self-replicating viruses that spread through networks and can cause damage to data and software. • Trojan horses: These are programs that appear to be legitimate but contain hidden malicious code. They can be used to steal data or give unauthorized access to a
  23. • Installing antivirus software: Antivirus software can detect and remove viruses from a computer system. It should be updated regularly to ensure that it can detect new threats. • Keeping software updated: Software updates often contain security patches that can prevent vulnerabilities from being exploited by viruses. • Avoiding suspicious emails and websites: Emails and websites that are suspicious or come from unknown sources should be avoided. They may contain links or downloads that can infect the system with a virus. • Using strong passwords: Strong passwords should be used to prevent unauthorized access to a system. • Backing up data: Regular data backups can help in the event that data is lost or damaged due to a virus.
  24. • Keyboard • Mouse • Scanner • Barcode reader • RFID reader • Touch screen • Joystick • Biometric scanner (e.g. fingerprint scanner) • Microphone • Camera • Sensor • Light pen • Magnetic stripe reader • Gamepad • Graphics tablet • Digital pen