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Syllabus design by amina qatan (part one)

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Syllabus design by amina qatan (part one)

  1. 1. Syllabus Design EDUC 605EDUC 605 By: Amina QatanBy: Amina Qatan
  2. 2. OutlineOutline • Overview • Grammatical Syllabus • The “Organic” Approach to Grammar • Needs Analysis • Goal & Objective Setting • CBLT • The Standard Movement • Quiz
  3. 3. Overview • Curriculum development → Syllabus design (Complementary relationship) • What is a curriculum? Who systemized it & when? •What are the four fundamental questions that MUST be answered by any curriculum designer? ☺What educational purpose?What educational purpose? ☺What educational experiencesWhat educational experiences? ☺How can they be effectively organized?How can they be effectively organized? ☺How can we determine whether these purpose have been attained or not?How can we determine whether these purpose have been attained or not? Syllabus designSyllabus design Teaching MethodologyTeaching Methodology Assessment & EvaluationAssessment & Evaluation
  4. 4. Thus, What is Syllabus Design? Content Selection Linguistic: grammar, pronunciation & vocabulary Experiential : topics & themes Selection Process is guided by Needs Analysis which aids the Curriculum Designer in: 1.Content Specification 2.Goals & Objectives Setting
  5. 5. Development of Syllabus Design 1)Linguistic items 2)Concepts (express) 3)Notional-functional (complementing & apologizing) 4)Communicative (task-based) (content- based) 5)Integrated
  6. 6. Grammatical Syllabus o Assumption: selectselect,, sequencesequence grammatical rules andgrammatical rules and integrateintegrate them withthem with vocabulary and phonological items sometimes in order to make meaning.vocabulary and phonological items sometimes in order to make meaning. o Purpose: controlcontrol and master the grammatical input to the learner, so that onlyand master the grammatical input to the learner, so that only one item is presented at a time.one item is presented at a time. How?!How?! o this purpose has created athis purpose has created a Dilemma with CLT in which it tights thein which it tights the learner to only specific limited items ignoring the different kinds of exposurelearner to only specific limited items ignoring the different kinds of exposure encountered outside the classroom.encountered outside the classroom. Solutions: 1.1. AbandonAbandon any attempt at structural grading.any attempt at structural grading. 2.2. UseUse the graded structures not to determine the language but the (items)the graded structures not to determine the language but the (items) pedagogicpedagogic focus in class.focus in class.
  7. 7. Criticisms Against GS Emergence of Natural Approach ⊗ Linear sequencingLinear sequencing did not represent therepresent the complexity of language .. ⊗ SLA: learnersSLA: learners did notdid not necessarily follow up with thenecessarily follow up with the same ordersame order specified in the GS.specified in the GS. ☺ Krashen (1981, 1982) claimed that GS should be abandoned completely in favor of Naturalclaimed that GS should be abandoned completely in favor of Natural Approach which focuses mainly on theApproach which focuses mainly on the communicativecommunicative activities thatactivities that promote the subconsciouspromote the subconscious learninglearning rather than the conscious one.rather than the conscious one. ⊗ Pienemann & Johnston (1987) proposed that GS input should be determined by theproposed that GS input should be determined by the speech processspeech process complexitycomplexity asas learnable structureslearnable structures rather than the grammatical. (rather than the grammatical. (e.g: 3e.g: 3rdrd person singular Vperson singular V).). ⊗ They demonstrated that theThey demonstrated that the orderorder in GS should be different by start teaching the Ss Wh Qs+Vin GS should be different by start teaching the Ss Wh Qs+V (to be) then Wh Qs+V (to do) afterwards.(to be) then Wh Qs+V (to do) afterwards. ⊗ Critics of their proposal argued that theargued that the unlearnable structuresunlearnable structures can be represented in a holistic formula.can be represented in a holistic formula. i:e Wh Qs+V (to do) can be taught as single chunks in communicative tasks such as role-plays and information gaps.i:e Wh Qs+V (to do) can be taught as single chunks in communicative tasks such as role-plays and information gaps.
  8. 8. Organic approach to Grammar Metaphors • In reflection to the purpose of the GS, it is believed that of language acquisition development is like a building constructed brick by brick. • However, SLA argued that language development is basically an organic process.
  9. 9. Needs Analysis Approach • It is an analysis of communicative needs of the learner as well as a set of techniques and procedures. • It has assisted widely the Syllabus Designers of ESP,EAP & GEP. • Needs Analysis has been stimulated in education by the CLT. • CLT proponents called for the content syllabus which reflects the communicative purposes and needs of the learners. (e.g) Language for Tourism (ESP). • Needs Analysis includes biographical information such as age, first language background, reasons for learning a language, other languages spoken and time for learning. • Munby (1978) developed a sophisticated instrument for doing NA called Communicative Needs Processor which involved the following elements;
  10. 10. NA Types  PParticipant  PPurposive domain  SSetting  IInteraction  IInstrumentality  DDialect  DDirect level  CCommunicative event  CCommunicative key  Objective Needs:  diagnosed by teachers  based on the analysis of personal data with information about their language proficiency.  resulted in the LSP (Needs-Based)  Subjective Needs:  diagnosed by learners  cannot be diagnosed easily  Wants, desires & expectations CNP Elements
  11. 11. Criticisms Against Needs-Based • Widdowson (1983); it results in tightly specified learning outcomes; the course is likely training more than educational because it prepares learners for specific tasks only. • Whereas it might be relevant to SL contexts, it is irrelevant to foreign languages contexts, so Subjective Analysis would be more suitable.
  12. 12. Goal & Objective Setting • Needs Analysis: specifies the goals & objectives for a learning program. • What is the difference between goals & objectives? • Goals: broad and general purposes for learning a language. • Halliday (1985) argued that individuls learn a language to; 1.1. obtainobtain goods & services, 2.2. socializesocialize with others and 3.3. entertainentertain & enjoy. These goals have been refined as follows; 1. Participate in conversation. 2. Obtain goods & services in conversation. 3. Establish & maintain relationships. 4. Make social arrangements & solve problems. 5. Discuss topics of interest. 6. Search, process and use information for specific purpose. 7. Listen to, read, use and process the information given. 8. Give information in written or spoken forms (Personal Experience). 9. Listen to, read & respond personally to a story, play, poem or movie.
  13. 13. Criticisms • Elements of FPO:Elements of FPO: ☺ Performance (task): what to do? ☺ Standards: how well the performer of the task? ☺ Conditions: which circumstances? An example is provide on the Course Book (p59) ⊗ Aphorism: “Education is what’s leftEducation is what’s left when everything that has been taught,when everything that has been taught, has been forgotten”has been forgotten” (Explain)?(Explain)? p59p59 ⊗ Prescription of precise & detailed objectives prevents the teacher to utilize the opportunities occur unexpectedly during the class. Objectives
  14. 14. Objectives & CBLT  CBLT: first emerged in the USA in 1970s in the notion of Vocational- Oriented Program & Adult ESL Program.  Identified as “state-of-the-art” approach to ESL by policymakers & curriculum designers (Auerbach 1986) • CBLTCBLT  What learners should be able to do by the end of the class or course?  Norm-referenced. • ObjectivesObjectives  Concerned with the attainment of the specified objectives rather than the individual achievement in relation to a group.  Criterion
  15. 15. Objectives 1. Participate in conversation. 2. Obtain goods & services in conversation. 3. Establish & maintain relationships. 4. Make social arrangements & solve problems. 5. Discuss topics of interest. 6. Search, process and use information for specific purpose. 7. Listen to, read, use and process the information given. 8. Give information in written or spoken forms (Personal Experience). 9. Listen to, read & respond personally to a story, play, poem or movie. 1. Achieves purposes of exchange. 2. Uses appropriate staging. 3. Provides & request information as required. 4. Explains causes, results & solutions. 5. Sustains dialogues. E.g. feedback & turn-taking. 6. Uses appropriate grammatical forms & vocabulary do not interfere with meaning. 7. Speaks with pronunciation, stress & intonation do not impede intelligibility. 8. Is able to interpret gestures & other paralinguistic features. CBLT
  16. 16. Standards Movement • CBLT has been developed into Standards Movement; was seen at all levels of government. • Therefore, legislation mandating the development & implementation of standards emerged in 1990s. 1. Objective movement ► 2. Competency movement ► 3. Standard movement • Content Standards: statements that define what students should know & be able to do.
  17. 17. ESL & TESOL Standards • Regarding pre-K-12, there are nine standards fleshed out in termsin terms ofof:  Descriptors;Descriptors; broad categories of discrete & representative behavior.broad categories of discrete & representative behavior.  Progress indicators;Progress indicators; list assessable, observable activities that students may performlist assessable, observable activities that students may perform to show progress by meeting the designated standards.to show progress by meeting the designated standards.  Classroom vignettes;Classroom vignettes;
  18. 18. Quiz

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