2. mu·sic [my zik]
1. sounds that produce effect: sounds, usually
produced by instruments or voices, that are
arranged or played in order to create an effect
2. art of arranging sounds: the art of arranging
or making sounds, usually those of musical
instruments or voices, so as to create an effect
3. type of music: music of a particular type,
place, time, instrument, or style
3. 4. written music: written notation indicating the
pitch, duration, rhythm, and tone of notes to be
5. pleasing sound: a sound or group of sounds that
creates a desired effect
the music of the wind in the trees
[13th century. Via French musique < Greek
mousikē "art of the Muse, music" < mousikos "of a
Muse" < mousa "muse"]
be (like) music to somebody's ears to be very
pleasant, satisfying, or reassuring to hear
face the music to deal with a pressing, difficult, or
unpleasant situation arising from something you
have done previously
4. 1. Music becomes more elaborate.
2. Composers exploited ways of expressing a
range of different emotions.
3. Musicians began to add more complex
melodies to the simple chant of the monks.
4. Wondering entertainers such as jongleurs,
Minstrels, Troubadours, Minnesingers,
Mastersinger begun to entertain people
MEDIEVAL MUSIC (1000-1600)
5. - Acrobats and jugglers as well as musicians.
- They provide music for folk dances.
6. , professional entertainer in medieval Europe, skilled
at playing instruments, singing, telling stories, and
performing acrobatics and other tricks. Many
minstrels were employed in houses of the nobility,
but the majority were itinerants. After about 1300
they began to form guilds in the towns. Such
entertainers were called jongleurs before about 1100,
and they were often hired to perform the songs
written by troubadours and trouvères.
7. - (Provençal trobar,”to find” or “to invent”),
- lyric poets and poet-musicians who flourished in France from the end
of the 11th century to the end of the 13th century.
- the lyrics of the troubadours were among the first to use native
language rather than Latin, the literary language of the Middle Ages.
- The earliest troubadour whose works have been preserved was
Guillaume IX of Aquitaine (1071-1127).
- the troubadours sang their own poems to their assembled courts and
often held competitions, or so-called tournaments of song; later, they
engaged itinerant musicians, called jongleurs, to perform their works.
- The subjects included love, chivalry, religion, politics, war, funerals,
8. - (German Minne,”courtly love”), German lyric poet-composers of
the 12th to the 14th century, the Middle High German period.
- the term minnesinger means “singer of love songs (Minne),” but it
came to be applied to all German poets of the time, particularly
those who composed Sprüche, or religious and political poems.
- Among the best-known minnesingers (who usually belonged to
the lesser aristocracy) were Wolfram von Eschenbach and
Walther von der Vogelweide in the 12th century, and Frauenlob
(Heinrich von Meissen; 1250?-1318) and Tannhäuser in the 13th
century. In the 14th century the minnesingers were gradually
succeeded by the Meistersinger.
9. - (German, “mastersinger”), members of the German guilds for poets and
musicians of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
- The Meistersinger were craftsmen of the middle classes who continued the
traditions of the noble-born minnesingers (see Minnesinger).
- The most famous was Hans Sachs. Meistersinger guilds flourished in the
large cities of Germany.
- Each guild was organized in distinct grades, ranging from the apprentice
Schüler and Schulfreunde (who were merely familiar with the rules of
composition), through journeymen Sänger (“singers”) and Dichter (“poets”),
to Meister (who invented new melodies).
- Although the Meistersinger movement played a large part in the lives of
middle-class Germans, it had little lasting literary and musical value
because of mechanical requirements for composition and other rigid,
10. - Devised the staff or stave, clefs
and sol-fa syllables.
11. - In Gregorian chant, as this collection plus later
additions came to be known, the melodies of the
Proper are particularly important, especially the
Introit (Entrance), Gradual, Alleluia, Tract (Psalm),
Offertory, and Communion.
- An important early collection of polyphonic Graduals
and Alleluias is the Magnus Liber Organi (1175?),
written in Paris.
- 4 voices in which the singers sing the same tune and
words but enter one after the other.
12. • French composer, who was one of the early masters of
counterpoint, especially four-part music, and was
influential in establishing the smooth harmonic idiom of
Renaissance writing. He was born probably in Cambrai, in
what is now northern France. As a young priest and
chorister he lived in Italy and France, and during most of
the years 1428-37 he was a singer in the papal chapel in
Rome. In 1536 he was made canon of the Cathedral of
Cambrai, but 18 years at the courts of Savoy and
Burgundy elapsed before he made Cambrai his permanent
residence and a renowned center for music. Among his
compositions are magnificats, masses, motets, and songs.
13. • Italian composer, composed the Missa
Papae Marcelli, to persuade the
council of trent not to ban
GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI DA