iii. Description of chocolate
iv. How chocolate is made
vi. Types of chocolate
ix. Chocolate myths & truth
x. Chocolate craving theories
• Chocolate invented 3,100 years ago by the Aztecs - but they
were trying to make beer.
• Scientists have discovered that chocolate was invented at
least 3,100 years ago in Central America and not as the
sweet treat people now crave, but as a celebratory beer-
like beverage and status symbol.
• Chocolate has become one of the most popular food types
and flavour's in the world.
6. hISTORy Of ChOCOLATE
• The chocolate drink was first brought to Europe by
Spanish conquistador, Hernan Cortes.
– The drink was sweetened to match European tastes.
– The drink spread from Spanish courts to other
– The drink was also prescribed to people for depression
and used in love and death potions.
• In the late 18th
century French and Dutch processors
experimented with chocolate liquid.
– This lead to the production of chocolate powder, which
then led to the production of the first solid chocolate.
– The first solid chocolate was believed to have been sold
in England in the mid-1800s.
7. hISTORy Of
ChOCOLATE(CONT..)• Dates back to about 1,500 years ago.
• First found in Mayan and Aztec Civilizations.
- Mayans used cacao beans to create a cold, unsweetened,
spicy chocolate beverage. This was the first form of
- Aztecs came across cacao beans through trade. They
named the spicy drink xocolatl (bitter water).
- Cacao beans played important roles in both Mayan and
This scene was painted on an ancient
Maya vessel, which reveals how
people drank chocolate as a beverage
and often presented it to their gods as
8. DESCRIPTION Of
Chocolate is made from
cocoa beans found on the
• The cacao tree was first
discovered in the South
The three main
ingredients in chocolate
are chocolate liquor, cocoa
powder, and cocoa butter.
Different kinds of
chocolate use varying
amounts of these 3
Picture of the Cacao Tree
9. How CHoColate is Made
• Cocoa pods are harvested
• Pods are crushed and
• Cocoa beans are taken out
of the pods and then dried.
• Beans are roasted, graded,
and then ground.
• Grinding the beans creates
a liquid called chocolate
– Chocolate liquor -
made mostly of fat
called cocoa butter.
Picture of Cocoa
10. How CHoColate is
Picture of Cocoa
• Cocoa butter is extracted.
• Cocoa powder is also
created when beans are
• Process creates chocolate
liquor, cocoa powder, and
• Ingredients are blended
back together to create
different kinds of
• Steps to produce a chocolate:
• Harvesting the cocoa beans
13. 2. Fermenting
• Pouring into baskets
- biochemical changes
- determines the smell, taste and quality
• Drying the beans
• Bagging for transport
14. 3. Roasting
• Cleaning, inspecting and sorting the beans at the factory
• Roasted in special equipment at a temperature of 130−150 °С
• The shells are removed and the cocoa beans are crushed into cocoa
• Cocoa-nibs are ground (75 microns)
– cocoa liquor
15. 4. Blending
• Cocoa liquor, sugar, cocoa butter
= plain dark chocolate
+ milk or milk powder and vanilla
= milk chocolate
- cocoa liquor
= white chocolate
16. 5. Conching
• Intensive mixing at high temperature
• A conche (container filled with metal beads) acts as grinder, also
heavy rollers can be used
– more homogeneous consistency
– the length of the process determines the final smoothness and
quality of the chocolate
• Long and complex process
• Chocolate mass must be cooled
– specific heat treatment
• The problem: cocoa-butter is a polymorphic fat
– crystallizes and congeals
– takes different consistencies
• The purpose:
– to assure that only the best form is present
• the uniform sheen and crisp bite
• best appearance and mouth feel
• most stable crystals so the texture and appearance will not
degrade over time
18. 7. Moulding
• Pouring into heated moulds
• Adding extras, if wanted (like nuts)
• The chocolate solidifies
19. 8. Storing
• Ideal temperature between 15 and 19
• Relative humidity of less than 50 %
• Stored away from other foods
– can absorbs different aromas
20. Types of ChoColaTe
• Contains no milk solids
• Cannot contain less than
15% chocolate liquor
Dark Bittersweet Chocolate
• Contains the most chocolate
• It is sweet chocolate that
cannot contain less than
35% chocolate liquor.
Semi Sweet Chocolate
• Similar to dark bittersweet
• Contains no sweeteners and
21. Types of
ChoColaTe(ConT..) Milk Chocolate
• Contains milk and sugar,
which differs from
bittersweet and semisweet
• Cannot contain less than
12% milk and cannot
contain less than 10%
• Can contain other
ingredients but must
comply with regulations.
• Technically not real
• Contains no chocolate
liquor, which is one of the
main ingredients in
• It’s made of cocoa butter,
25. ChoColate FaCts
• Americans consume over 3.1 billion pounds of chocolate every
year, which is about 11.7 pounds per person.
• Milk Chocolate is the most popular among Americans, followed by
dark chocolate and then white chocolate.
Chocolate contains more than 300 known chemicals.
Chocolate is considered a mood food.
• Contains an amino acid called L-tryptophan. This increases
serotonin in the brain, which is a calming hormone.
• Said to be nature’s own “antidepressant.”
Central nervous system stimulants
26. ChoColate Myths and
Myth: Causes acne.
Myth: High in cholesterol.
Myth: Causes tooth decay.
Myth: High in caffeine.
Myth: Causes weight gain.
Myth: Is addictive.
Truth: Studies found no connection
between eating chocolate and
Truth: Chocolate is low in cholesterol
and low in animal fat.
Truth: Studies found that tooth decay
is not as big of a problem as once
thought. Tooth decay is mostly
caused by poor hygiene.
Truth: Chocolate is not high in caffeine
and contains less caffeine than
Truth: When eaten in moderation,
chocolate does not cause weight
Truth: People who say they are
addicted are just experiencing
strong cravings. The
characteristics of an addiction such
as tolerance and withdrawal and
chemical changes in the brain are
not associated with eating
27. ChoColate Craving
• Chocolate cravings are a result of the chemical ingredients
found in chocolate.
• Chocolate cravings come from the sensory properties of
chocolate = texture, taste, smell, and color.
• Chocolate cravings are influenced by culture.
• Many theories exist, but there is no conclusive scientific
evidence on what causes people to crave chocolate.
28. Potential health
Chocolate may be good for the heart.
Chocolate contains chemicals like those found in red wine and
Helps improve circulation
Helps cut down blood pressure
Chocolate contains flavanols.
Helps in preventing the oxidations of “bad” cholesterol, which
reduces the stickiness of blood platelets and improve blood
Theobromine, found in chocolate, was found to treat coughs better
When Spanish explorers first came across the drink, they didn’t like it because of it’s bitterness. They later learned how to sweeten the drink by mixing sugar and vanilla to remove the bitterness. Unlike the original drink, it was served hot. The chocolate drink was served to royal guests.
The Mayans took the cacao trees and grew it for themselves. They harvested, fermented, roasted, and ground the seeds into a paste and created a chocolate drink. The drink was made by mixing water, Chile peppers, cornmeal, cocoa beans, and some other ingredients. The Mayans believed the cacao tree came from a divine source and worshipped the tree. They used the drink in ceremonies, such as religious and burial ceremonies. It was also drunk by people in the upper class, including the wealthy and the religious elite.
The Aztecs came across the cacao beans through trade, because they were unable to grow the cacao tree for themselves due to the climate.. They named the spicy drink xocaltl, meaning bitter water. The Aztec emperor, Montezuma, loved the drink so much he was said to have drank it 50 times a day. He was reported to have taken the drink before visiting his wives so historians say that this might have been where the legends of chocolate being an aphrodisiac began.
Mayan and Aztec Civilization:
Not only were the cacao beans used to make a drink, it was used as a form of currency.
The first step is to harvest the cocoa pods, which contain the cacao beans. Then the pods are crushed and fermented. Fermenting takes about 6 days. When the pods are fermented, the cocoa beans are taken out of the pods and then dried. After the beans are dried, they are roasted, graded, and then ground. When the beans are ground a liquid called chocolate liquor is created, which is made mostly of fat called cocoa butter, and it also contains carbohydrates, proteins, and some mineral matter. This cocoa butter is extracted. Also in the process cocoa powder is created. This process is how chocolate liquor, cocoa powder, and cocoa butter are produced. These three ingredients are blended back together to make different kinds of chocolates.
In the U.S. there are regulations manufacturers must follow when making chocolate. These regulations belong to the Definitions and Standards of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Law of 1944.
White chocolate is technically no real chocolate because it contains no chocolate liquor.
About 35 % like dark chocolate and 26% like white.
Researcher found that chocolate stimulates the same part of the brain that morphine does.
Theobromine and caffeine are both stimulants, which might be the reason why people get a feeling of well being after eating chocolate.
Tyramine, Pehnyletylamine and anadamide are related to amphetamines, which increase activity of neurotransmitters in parts of the brain that control the ability to pay attention and stay allert.
Cholesterol: in a 1.65 ounce chocolate bar, it contains about 12 milligrams of cholesterol.
Caffeine: when a 1 ounce milk chocolate bar is compared to a 5 ounce cup of instant coffee, the chocolate bar only contained 6 milligrams of caffeine while the coffee had between 40 and 108 milligrams.
Weight: When on a diet eating something sweet can help keep you on the diet.
Chocolate contains caffeine, theobromine, tyramine, pehnyletlamine, and anadamide, which may cause chocolate cravings. Others say that sensory properties contribute to the cravings. A study was done where people were given capsules that included the chemical ingredients of chocolate but their chocolate cravings were not satisfied, so they think the sensory properties have a lot to do with why we crave chocolate.
Although health benefits may exist, scientists say that most of the commercially produced chocolate has high levels of sugar and fat that can outweigh the benefits. Also, the levels of flavanols can be reduced.
Currently Mars Inc. used the research done on chocolate to come up with CocoaVia which is a low fat flavanol rich snack. Its being test marketed now. They developed a method to process cocoa bean o that the chocolate keeps more of its flavanols. The cocoa is called cocoapro and is now used in dove, m and m’s and the cocoa via snack.
To get the most flavanols, choosing dark chocolate is a good choice. The more chocolate liquor, the higher the flavanols. In Germany, scientists found that people that ate 100 grams of dark chocolate a day lowered their blood pressure but the effect wore off two days after the treatment stopped.
Theobromine: A study was done and theobromine was compared to codeine and a placebo. The study showed theobromine was more effective than the other two in treating coughs.