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Wine making

Year 13 Edexcel wine making production

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Wine making

  1. 1. Wine making <ul><li>The processes involved in wine making including </li></ul><ul><li>red, white and rosé </li></ul><ul><li>fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>fortified </li></ul>
  2. 2. Wine making <ul><li>4 stages: </li></ul><ul><li>Pressing </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Casking </li></ul><ul><li>Bottling </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stage 1: Pressing <ul><li>Grapes ferment naturally because they contain glucose, fructose ,water and yeast </li></ul><ul><li>The yeast is naturally present on the skins of the grapes (bloom) </li></ul><ul><li>The bloom contains a mixture of wine yeasts and wild yeasts </li></ul><ul><li>Juice is extracted from grapes by crushing them in a press and sulphites are added to destroy undesirable wild yeasts </li></ul>
  4. 5. Stage 2: Fermentation <ul><li>Glucose and fructose are converted to alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>If fermentation continues until all the available sugar is used up, the resulting wine is dry. </li></ul><ul><li>If some sugars remain , it is sweet. </li></ul><ul><li>Yeasts cease fermenting when the alcohol content exceeds 15- 16%. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes benzoates are added to stop further fermentation </li></ul>
  5. 6. Stage 3: Casking <ul><li>After fermentation the wine is racked to separate the wine from the sediment </li></ul><ul><li>Wine is transferred to wooden casks or stainless steel containers. </li></ul><ul><li>Some wines remain in the cask for many years whilst secondary fermentation takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>A few live yeast cells remain from the fermentation stage. </li></ul><ul><li>The wine slowly matures in the cask </li></ul>
  6. 8. Stage 4: Bottling <ul><li>Wine once bottled , continues to mature. The longer the maturity , the richer the flavour and the more expensive the wine. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Classification of wine <ul><li>Red Rosé White </li></ul>
  8. 10. Red wine <ul><li>Produced from black grapes, which are pulped and fermented along with the skins. </li></ul><ul><li>The blue/black pigments of the anthocyanins turn red in the presence of the acids in the grape juice </li></ul><ul><li>The longer the skins remain in the fermentation, the darker the colour. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Rosé wine <ul><li>Rosé wines are produced in a similar way to red, but the skins only remain for about 24 hours before straining </li></ul>
  10. 12. White wines <ul><li>These can be made from most grapes, even black ones. </li></ul><ul><li>The wine is only made from the grape juice, not the skins. </li></ul><ul><li>“White wines” often have a yellow tinge and may even be brown ( if it has been aged in a wood barrel) </li></ul>
  11. 13. Quality and characteristics of wine <ul><li>Variety of grape- produce different colours and flavours </li></ul><ul><li>Climate-sufficient rainfall and warmth is needed for grapes to ripen </li></ul><ul><li>Soil- water holding capacity, drainage, nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Method of manufacture- modern v traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Maturation- in bottle or cask. Flavour compounds develop over time </li></ul>
  12. 14. Flavour of wine <ul><li>Acids from the grape juice </li></ul><ul><li>Tannins from the skins, stalks and wood of the barrel </li></ul><ul><li>Small amounts of esters are formed - a reaction between the acid and alcohol. These give a fragrant, floral aroma </li></ul>
  13. 15. Fortified wines <ul><li>Wines such as port ,sherry ,Madeira and Marsala are said to be fortified </li></ul><ul><li>These have an alcohol content of 17-21%. To achieve this, spirit, usually brandy of lower quality is added to fortify a normal wine. </li></ul><ul><li>The advantage is that these keep well because the alcohol content is sufficiently high to kill micro organisms </li></ul>
  14. 16. What happens to alcohol in the body? <ul><li>Alcohol is absorbed from the stomach and the small </li></ul><ul><li>intestine. This occurs more slowly if alcohol is drunk </li></ul><ul><li>with food. It is soluble in water and carried around the </li></ul><ul><li>body in the bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol is removed from the blood by the liver over a </li></ul><ul><li>period of several hours. The rate at which this happens </li></ul><ul><li>depends on age, sex, body weight, liver size and how </li></ul><ul><li>much alcohol was consumed. </li></ul>
  15. 17. How does alcohol affect the body? <ul><li>As the level of alcohol in the bloodstream increases it </li></ul><ul><li>has an affect on a person’s behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Short term: </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction times are slower. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased risk taking. </li></ul><ul><li>Judgement becomes blurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordination is poor. </li></ul><ul><li>This is why it is dangerous to drink alcohol before </li></ul><ul><li>driving a car. </li></ul><ul><li>Long term: </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to liver damage such as cirrhosis and liver </li></ul><ul><li>cancer and the vitamin B deficiency disease beri-beri. </li></ul>