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The Art of Creativity

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The Art of Creativity

  1. 1. Berengueres & Friends TheArt of Creativity(30 Brain Hacks)
  2. 2. The Art of Creativity (30 Brain Hacks) ISBN-13: 978-1511535311 ISBN-10: 1511535318 Version ‘TEDxDubai 3.3’ MMXV May 5 Text Copyright © Jose Berengueres (30 Brain Hacks)
  3. 3. Every pair of pages describes one brain hack. (A brain hack is a mind trick). Odd pages show a graphic description, even pages (like this one) contain a deeper explanation. IdeaExplanation How this book is structured 1
  5. 5. 3 M O D E L 2 V I S U A L I S E 1 T E A M W O R K How to be more creative? 7
  7. 7. Chapter 1: Brain Hacks for Better Teamwork
  8. 8. Design Thinking is a way to work in group propagated by the product design firm IDEO in 2004. The purpose of Design Thinking is to solve ‘design’ problems faster by means of efficient teamwork. It is mainly about how to make a team work well in group. Compared to other ‘creative’ methods such as The Seven Thinking Hats, using Design Thinking is more process oriented and usually results in higher group IQ. As a design method it has influenced many other design methodologies such as Agile UX, Lean UX and Google Design. These methods share also many commonalities with Toyota’s Lean methods particularly regarding iterative prototyping. The photo shows a group of students at Dartmouth just after a brainstorming step as a part of Design Thinking workshop. The students are now using the whiteboard to share (as fast as possible) ideas and data. The whiteboard functions as a shared memory space. It helps them to ‘connect the dots’ looking forward. Photo by Karen Endicott/Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth. C H A P T E R 1 : T E A M W O R K C H A P T E R 2 : V I S U A L I S E C H A P T E R 3 : M O D E L
  9. 9. What is Design Thinking? 1 1
  10. 10. What are the best Design Thinking workshops? Tom Wujec MarshmallowChallenge (2009) Peter Skillman Shopping Cart Workshop (1999) George Kembel “empathy” Gift Workshop (2012) 1 3
  11. 11. Teaching Design Thinking Because Design Thinking is not about design. It is about designing how to think better. HOW CAN YOU BE TEACHING DESIGN THINKING IF YOU ARE NOT A DESIGNER!? 1 5
  12. 12. How can I master Design Thinking? S T O P T H I N K I N G S TA RT D O I N G ! … 1 7
  13. 13. What is the ‘workshop’ method? `` 2. Assemble experts as diverse as possible 3. Brief them 4. Send them for field work (two weeks) 5. Experts come back, debrief and Brainstorm 6. Build on each others ideas (combine) iterate 1. Define the problem ? 1 9
  14. 14. What are the ‘roles’ in a workshop? Facilitator Back-up man Experts 2 1
  15. 15. Why use “artificial” deadlines? use in case of procrastination 2 3
  16. 16. What happens if I don’t use Design Thinking? GROUP 2 5
  17. 17. What is Design Deficit Disorder? This “It costs the same to make an ugly car than a good looking one” - Elon Musk, Tesla Motors. 2 7
  18. 18. What is hard about Design? Product “One of the most difficult things to learn is to focus on the process, not the product” 2 9
  19. 19. Where do workshops (usually) fail? Workshop Outcome 2 Weeks spent gathering data 1 3 90% of workshops fail here set a deadline here 3 1
  20. 20. What conduces to a successful workshop? expert visualisation tools prototyping materials ENFP 3 3
  21. 21. What are the logistics of effective brain storming? subject-matter expert Adequate visualisation tools Prototyping materials adequate Layout 20 minutes time limit movable board notes sketching skills 3 5
  22. 22. Chapter 2: Brain Hacks to visualize facts & data
  23. 23. You will seldom find a Toyota Manager inside his office. He is most probably on the factory floor (close to the action). In manufacturing, you cannot truly be Genchi Gembutsu by hiding in an office or by being far removed from the assembly line. The best managers in the world clean factory floors, eat in the same canteen as the rest of the employees and use the same parking spots. “Visualising a problem is 50% of the solution” C H A P T E R 1 : T E A M W O R K C H A P T E R 2 : V I S U A L I Z E C H A P T E R 3 : M O D E L
  24. 24. What is Genchi Gembutsu? Genchi Gembutsu means to get info first hand and by oneself. [n. real place real things] 3 9
  25. 25. What brain hacks are used by Toyota? Data visualisation is at the core of the “Toyota Production System” Waste Identification 5S The 5 Whys A3/PDCA Genchi Gembutsu 4 1
  26. 26. How to visualise Waste of movement? Two factories, same job. Where would you rather work? B A 4 3
  27. 27. What is A3/PDCA reporting? Brain hack: What happens when you demand all reports fit in a single A3 page ? 4 5
  28. 28. The 80/20 rule for Non-Value Added activities ←Before ←After TYPICAL 80/20 BREAKDOWN OF A TASK 50% 50% NON VALUE ADDED ACTIVITIES ADDED VALUE 50% savings > 50% savings 4 7
  29. 29. When Carlos Ghosn arrived at Nissan, Nissan was on its knees*. It was a dysfunctional organisation. Carlos had to act fast to turn around. He did two things: First, he changed the communication language from Japanese to English. This forced the famously polite Japanese manager to become more forthcoming in ugly negotiations. Next he forced people from different departments to work together in so called cross-functional teams. (A cross functional team is the equivalent of having experts representing different points of view in a Design Thinking workshop). *The Revenge of the Electric Car, 2011. dysfunctional organisation functional organisation profitsprofits
  30. 30. How to turn around a dysfunctional organisation? DYSFUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION? CALL 800-GHOSN EXPERTS IN CROSS FUNCTIONAL TEAMS 4 9
  31. 31. root cause analysis of a headache What is ‘The Five Whys’ Root cause analysis? (A) At a ‘normal’ company… Why does it ache? Because I have a cold Solution: Take an Aspirin (B) Meanwhile at Toyota… 1. Why does it ache? Because I have a cold 2. Why did you catch a cold? I spent time in the cold 3. Why? Because I didn’t take my coat 4. Why? I didn’t expect to be so cold outside 5. Why? I don’t check temperature before going out. Solution: install thermo + the discipline to check it every time 5 1
  32. 32. What is the step-back? Step back— A pause in your usual role to gain perspective 5 3
  33. 33. Chapter 3: Brain Hacks to Innovate the Business Model
  34. 34. Why should one learn about business models? One of the biggest mistakes young entrepreneurs commit is that of not paying attention to the business aspect of their idea. You can force them to do that by requiring them to write a business plan. But that is wordy, not very visual and very 1980’s. A more useful tool than the business plan document is the business model and expressing your start-up as a business model not only can help you convince “visual” investors, (such as Richard Branson), it can give you that one insight that saved the day because, (as we saw in the previous chapter), visualising the problem is 50% of the solution and models are great for visualising. C H A P T E R 1 : T E A M W O R K C H A P T E R 2 : V I S U A L I S E C H A P T E R 3 : M O D E L
  35. 35. How to Innovate the Business Model? “The noble art of making money” 5 7
  36. 36. How to step out of the Comfort zone? Failures/year comfort zone years old10 fearless youth Age 5 9
  37. 37. What is the Product Innovation Matrix? FastHeating AlertDefrostMelting Need hot-milk ready for breakfast Magnetron Need to bake a birthday cake Appliances that make you feel better Human need for feedback IC / Timer Antenna Radio Frequency basic tech Timer Need to save time Metal Bell IC Sound Engineering LCD need for mobility Market Needs Wants - - - Product function - - - Technology - - - Field ? Healthy diet 6 1
  38. 38. What is Functional thinking? Outdated GUI Heating box Externalized GUIheating box externalised GUI outdated GUI 6 3
  39. 39. What is ‘Incremental’ thinking? This Brought to you by the company that ‘forgot’ to invent the iPod 6 5
  40. 40. Incremental thinking. In 1979 Sony launched the first Walkman. Thirteen years later, in 1992, Sony launched the MiniDisc Walkman MZ-1, an opto-magnetic disc player. Photos are at scale 1:4. Japan post-war manufacturing miracle was built on such thinking, building ever cheaper, faster and smaller things that were better than the previous generation. In this case, however, the unwillingness to cannibalise profits from the music division prevented Sony of thinking big about digital music distribution and despite the the fact that the MiniDisc sound was superior to the cassette players it replaced, it did not fundamentally improve the user experience of finding, buying, playing, sharing… music. See also hack #18, p. 45. “People do not buy iPods because the love iPods, they buy iPods to access music.” — Arne von Oosterom. #servicedesign “The genius idea was not the iPod, it was iTunes.” — Guy Kawasaki* True innovation
  41. 41. Why learn to sketch a business model on a napkin? Because business happens where it happens (and it is not ‘cool’ to pull up the biz plan in a restaurant) 6 7
  42. 42. with this How to cut the ‘blah-blah’ at the board room meeting? - G A R M E N T R A N G E A D A P T E D T O T H E S T O R E L O C A T I O N A N D L O C A L C U S T O M E R S - N O A D V E R T I S E M E N T B U D G E T - T H E S H O P W I N D O W I S T H E A D - A LWA Y S S O M E T H I N G N E W I N T H E S H O P - M O R E F R E Q . V I S I T S T H A N H & M - T O Y O TA S T Y L E S U P P L I E R N E T W O R K ( A R T E I X O ) - FA S T FA S H I O N P R O D U C E D I N S PA I N ( 5 0 % ) - L O C A L PA R T N E R S I N C L O S E D M A R K E T S ( J A PA N ) The Inditex Canvas (AFTER) R E TA I L … O N L I N E - O P E R A T I O N A L E X C E L L E N C E - Z A R A O W N S I T S S H O P S - 5 0 / 5 0 P R D U C T I O N M O D E L - R E D U C E S H O P WA R E H O U S E A R E A B Y S H I P P I N G O F T E N - E M P L O Y E E S S C O U T N E W T R E N D S 2 4 / 7 - E M P O W E R M E N T - C R O S S F U N C T I O N A L - “ FA S T FA S H I O N ” - T W I C E A W E E K D E L I V E RY ( J I T ) - 5 0 % P R O D U C T I O N I S I N H O U S E FA C T O R I E S - “ A R M A N I A T L O W P R I C E S ” 6 9
  43. 43. What is the Adoption Curve? “If your product is not viral, your customer acquisition costs will cripple you ” — R. Hoffman Innovators Early adopters Laggards Main stream $ Reticence to adopt a given product ‘Larry David’ Number of people in each segment 10% 7 1
  44. 44. Some customers will only buy your product after they see N other people using it. If you group the customers in ‘bins’ according to their ‘reticence level’ and then you draw a line connecting the top of the bins… you get the adoption curve. On the left side we have the early adopters: customers who like to try new things even if no one else uses them yet. On the other extreme customers like Larry David: no matter how many people are using an iPhone, they will stick to their old Nokia. Typically, if the sum of people that currently use your product is less than the reticence level of the next ‘bin’, your sales will not grow organically. The point in the horizontal axis where this happens is called the ‘chasm’, (not shown). A way to cross the ‘chasm’ is by targeting susceptible ‘slices’ of users in other ‘bins’. reticence level (N) 0 1 2 How to build your own adoption curve ‘one’ early adopter ···
  45. 45. What is the ‘Smile’ curve? Number of days a user has been using the ‘Evernote’ App % ofusers 30 60 0.5% that to version onthisday paid switch the Conversion rate Days 7 3
  46. 46. What is the Freemium model? 1978 2015 7 5
  47. 47. What is ‘commando’ mode? You have been hiking with your ten people strong team for five hours. You are arriving back to the car park. You are all thirsty after a great hike but when you arrive to the car you realise your are locked out. The sandwiches and drinks are inside. What do you do? Costofreplacingbroken window:$200 7 7
  48. 48. Should I tell you about my big idea? NO! Companies are built on “secrets”. Therefore, you should tell about your idea to as few people as possible and then work in stealth mode - Peter Thiel YES! ideas are free. What matters is the execution. Invest in the team not the idea*. Therefore, seek as much feedback as possible - Jeff Hawkins VS. 7 9
  49. 49. - What is your creative process? - We don’t have any* *undisclosed source at a Fortune 500 company. Another: Taichii Ohno, the godfather of the Toyota Production System, opposed for many years to write a handbook on TPS. He said: If we put TPS in words it will become stifle and die. I want it to be as flexible as young bamboo.
  50. 50. What are the Laws of Creativity? (This page intentionally left blank) 8 1
  51. 51. What is Pink Lies? LIESLIES PINKPINK 8 3
  52. 52. How to conjugate ideas? My big idea is awesome. Our big idea is awesome. Your idea is sh*t! Our idea is sh*t! 8 5
  53. 53. What is the MVP? 8 7 Minimum Viable Product Purpose: To get quick & dirty feed-back
  54. 54. 8 9
  55. 55. About the author Jose Berengueres received a Masters in Electrical Engineering in Barcelona and a PhD in bio-inspired robots from Tokyo Institute of Technology. He has taught Design Thinking and Business Models Innovation  in  California, Germany, Mexico. He also consults on bio-inspired  manufacturing for a Fortune 500 company. In 2014 he was mentor at StartupWeekend Dubai. He currently is assistant professor at UAE University where he heads the robotics lab.
  56. 56. Paperback —> http://amzn.to/1ce6Nk5 FREE PDF —> josetokyo@gmail.com Did you like it?