SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez nos Conditions d’utilisation et notre Politique de confidentialité.
SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
The Art of Creativity: 30 brain hacks - J. Berengueres Ph. D - Ing.
These are some books about Design Thinking. Surprisingly, most of them preach the virtues of visualisation, yet they drown on a sea of words.
What is the purpose of being creative? - To ‘make a dent in the universe’. But unless you are James Dyson, you cannot do that alone, you’ll need help. The Yellow part of the book is about how to master the art of creative teamwork. That is what Design Thinking is all about.
Next, creativity without quality data is like power without control. That is what we will learn in the Green part: How the Japanese mastered the art of getting and visualise data (the secret sauce of Toyota).
Finally, you can have the most creative idea in the world, but do you know how to sell it? The pink is a set of brain hacks that will help you do business model innovation
This book is organised in three sections. The yellow section is about Design Thinking and how it to leverage its ‘brain hacks’ to manage a team’s creative workflow. The green section is about how to get and how visualise information. The third section, is about how to innovate a business model and it is mostly influenced by Stanford University teachings
The photo shows a brainstorming session. After sharing all the possible information the students are connecting the dots. What is the function of the whiteboard? It is a shared memory space that facilitates connections between: gathered facts, ideas and cognitive processes. Or, in other words, the ideas are ‘using’ post its and participants’s brains to ‘evolve’ on their own. Photo by Karen Endicott/Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth.
These are three most popular workshops. The MarshmallowChallenge is the most shocking of them all because it revealed that kindergarten kids build better teams than most fresh graduates of MBA schools.
Once, a (jobless) designer of Dubai asked me how could be teaching design thinking not being a designer. Because it has nothing to do with design - I replied. So what is it about? he asked puzzled. Lets see… How much time of our life do we spend thinking? How much time do we spend thinking about how we think? Design thinking is about that, (how to think in group) better.
Would you try to learn to play rugby by reading a book? In the same way, the fastest way to learn design thinking is by practicing (or by teaching it…^.^‘ )
This is, in a nutshell, the seven steps of the ideo method. However, the hard part is not following the steps. It is “finding the deep experts that can work well in group” - Tom Kelly, The Art of Innovation, 2001. The more radical different points of view you gather and mix, the more the chances to generate a groundbreaking idea.
It is all about the little details. Did you know that how you set up a room, colors, illumination, background music and other “details” can greatly affect how your brain thinks? (Meyers-Levy, 2007). A workshop is equally delicate. The key to success lay in the details: having the right markers, the right size of post it. Layout is also a key part. Photo: ABC Nightline 1999.
Artificial deadlines help people to focus and to file work. Artificial deadlines are most useful when the the end-goal is ill defined. For example, “design a better shopping cart” falls in this category because design ‘improvements’ can go on forever. Deadlines kill that.
Group Thinking or groupthink, (also known as Death by Committee), is a term is used to refer to design that compromised between different viewpoints or stakeholders for the sake of harmony. Usually found together with poor leadership/technical knowledge. Steve Jobs avoided GroupThinking by firing* and shunning ‘focus groups’.
In other words, a good manager will obsess about the product. A great manager will obsess about if their team has the right environment to produce great products. When Pixar realised that the quality of their films depended on unplanned collaboration (serendipitous encounter between employees) Steve Jobs famously proposed to have one single WC for the new Pixar building. Photo:
One cannot design a meaningful product without deep knowledge about the reduct and its users. The only way to gain such knowledge is nitty gritty hard research. Yet many designers and architects that basic step. ‘GenchiGembutsu’ is one of the ways to get quality data. Photo: Stanford d.School Summer 2013.
Having the right thickness of markers and the right table size can make or break a workshop. Photo: Cupertino Jan 2015
The facilitator role. Having a brainstorming session without appointing a facilitator is like having a ship sailing without captain. The key roles of the facilitator are: to mange criticism, to gauge the energy of the group to stop a brainstorm. Usually, no productive brainstorming can go on beyond twenty minutes.
in this section we will see tools to “see” better
A Spaghetti Diagram is used to trace movement of workers. “A and B are layouts with the same number of machines where a worker must attend each ‘M’ station regularly. The B layout was ‘discovered’ in the 60’s in Japan. It is called u-cell. When it was invented it was a revolution.
“For any given task (‘Original’), most savings potential lay in non-value added activities, because they typically amount to 80% of the work. However, most managers focus on optimising value added activities (20%) like for example buying a faster machine, when in fact, the areas that offer most potential are non productive ones.
When Carlos Goshn arrived at Nissan, Nissan was on its knees. It was a dysfunctional organisation. Carlos did two things: First, changes the communication language from Japanese to English. Then he forced people from different departments to work together in so called cross-functional teams.
Over a long period of time, one of these two solution is cheaper and more efficient. However, the ‘install a thermometer’ solution requires the creation of a rule “check thermometer before going out” and the discipline to follow it.
a.k.a. “Show me the money not the glory…” - Terry McGuire.
It is a paper that maps tech to product functions and functions to market needs.
In the previous page we learnt to do functional mapping. Now you can ask yourself. What is a microwave, really? Did you know that, (depending on the brand), 20% to up to 35% of a microwave cost is attributed to the User Interface?
Up until that time, all airlines used the hub and spoke model. SouthWest boss sketched his radical new idea on this napkin: Direct routes to small cities to achieve low cost fares. In history, many people have used napkins to win over business lunches. Salvador Dali used a napkin to sell the future logo of ChupaChups. Henry Laffer sketched the Laffer curve on a napkin. The art of Napkin is one of “less is more”.
“It is an A3 paper that visualises the 9 key activities of a company. Its purpose is to to cut the blah blah at board meeting level - A. Ostervalder” But it is useless without gent gembutsu…
Some customers will only buy your product after others buy it first. If you order them by this reticence level you get an adoption curve.
That is why now VC ask you, how long have you known your co-founder for?
The Art of Creativity
Berengueres & Friends
Creativity(30 Brain Hacks)
Every pair of pages describes one brain hack. (A brain hack is a mind trick). Odd
pages show a graphic description, even pages (like this one) contain a deeper
How this book is structured
Why this book? 5
M O D E L
V I S U A L I S E
T E A M W O R K
How to be more creative? 7
CREATIVITY WITHOUT DATA IS LIKE
POWER WITHOUT CONTROL. FROM
JAPAN WE WILL LEARN HACKS FOR
GETTING AND VISUALISING DATA.
(THE SECRET SAUCE BEHIND
PRODUCT DESIGN DEPENDS ON
TEAMWORK. HOWEVER, YOU CAN
HAVE A TEAM OF INDIVIDUALLY FINE
PEOPLE WHO AS A GROUP
ACHIEVE A POOR IQ. CHAPTER
1 LISTS HACKS FOR BETTER
Three steps towards effective creativity
YOU CAN HAVE
THE MOST CREATIVE IDEA EVER, BUT IF
YOU CANNOT SELL IT, IT WILL BE
USELESS AND DIE. CHAPTER 3
EXPLAINS HACKS TO
INNOVATE THE BUSINESS
Design Thinking is a way to work in group propagated by the product design firm
IDEO in 2004. The purpose of Design Thinking is to solve ‘design’ problems faster
by means of efficient teamwork. It is mainly about how to make a team work well in
group. Compared to other ‘creative’ methods such as The Seven Thinking Hats,
using Design Thinking is more process oriented and usually results in higher
group IQ. As a design method it has influenced many other design
methodologies such as Agile UX, Lean UX and Google Design. These methods
share also many commonalities with Toyota’s Lean methods particularly regarding
The photo shows a group of students at Dartmouth just after a brainstorming step
as a part of Design Thinking workshop. The students are now using the whiteboard
to share (as fast as possible) ideas and data. The whiteboard functions as a shared
memory space. It helps them to ‘connect the dots’ looking forward. Photo by
Karen Endicott/Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth.
C H A P T E R 1 : T E A M W O R K
C H A P T E R 2 : V I S U A L I S E
C H A P T E R 3 : M O D E L
What are the best Design Thinking workshops?
Shopping Cart Workshop
“empathy” Gift Workshop
Teaching Design Thinking
Because Design Thinking is not about design. It is
about designing how to think better.
HOW CAN YOU BE TEACHING
IF YOU ARE NOT
How can I master Design Thinking?
S T O P T H I N K I N G
S TA RT D O I N G !
What is the ‘workshop’ method?
2. Assemble experts
as diverse as possible
3. Brief them
4. Send them for
5. Experts come
back, debrief and
6. Build on each
1. Define the
What are the ‘roles’ in a workshop?
Why use “artificial” deadlines?
use in case of procrastination
What happens if I don’t use Design Thinking?
What is Design Deficit Disorder?
“It costs the same to make an ugly car than a good
looking one” - Elon Musk, Tesla Motors.
What is hard about Design?
“One of the most difﬁcult things to learn is to focus on
the process, not the product”
Where do workshops (usually) fail?
Weeks spent gathering data
What conduces to a successful workshop?
What are the logistics of effective brain storming?
Chapter 2: Brain Hacks to
visualize facts & data
You will seldom find a Toyota Manager inside his office. He is most probably on
the factory floor (close to the action). In manufacturing, you cannot truly be Genchi
Gembutsu by hiding in an office or by being far removed from the assembly line.
The best managers in the world clean factory floors, eat in the same canteen as the
rest of the employees and use the same parking spots.
“Visualising a problem is
50% of the solution”
C H A P T E R 1 : T E A M W O R K
C H A P T E R 2 : V I S U A L I Z E
C H A P T E R 3 : M O D E L
What is Genchi Gembutsu?
Genchi Gembutsu means to get info first hand and by oneself.
[n. real place real things]
What brain hacks are used by Toyota?
Data visualisation is at the core of
the “Toyota Production System”
The 5 Whys
How to visualise Waste of movement?
Two factories, same job.
Where would you rather work?
What is A3/PDCA reporting?
Brain hack: What happens when you demand all
reports fit in a single A3 page ?
The 80/20 rule for Non-Value Added activities
TYPICAL 80/20 BREAKDOWN OF A TASK
NON VALUE ADDED ACTIVITIES ADDED VALUE
50% savings > 50% savings
When Carlos Ghosn arrived at Nissan, Nissan was on its knees*. It was a
dysfunctional organisation. Carlos had to act fast to turn around. He did two
things: First, he changed the communication language from Japanese to English.
This forced the famously polite Japanese manager to become more forthcoming in
ugly negotiations. Next he forced people from different departments to work
together in so called cross-functional teams. (A cross functional team is the
equivalent of having experts representing different points of view in a Design
Thinking workshop). *The Revenge of the Electric Car, 2011.
How to turn around a dysfunctional organisation?
EXPERTS IN CROSS FUNCTIONAL TEAMS
analysis of a
What is ‘The Five Whys’ Root cause analysis?
(A) At a ‘normal’ company…
Why does it ache? Because I have a cold
Solution: Take an Aspirin
(B) Meanwhile at Toyota…
1. Why does it ache? Because I have a cold
2. Why did you catch a cold? I spent time in the cold
3. Why? Because I didn’t take my coat
4. Why? I didn’t expect to be so cold outside
5. Why? I don’t check temperature before going out.
Solution: install thermo + the discipline
to check it every time
What is the step-back?
Step back— A pause in your
usual role to gain perspective
Chapter 3: Brain Hacks to
Innovate the Business Model
Why should one learn about business models? One of the biggest mistakes young
entrepreneurs commit is that of not paying attention to the business aspect of their
idea. You can force them to do that by requiring them to write a business plan. But
that is wordy, not very visual and very 1980’s. A more useful tool than the business
plan document is the business model and expressing your start-up as a business
model not only can help you convince “visual” investors, (such as Richard
Branson), it can give you that one insight that saved the day because, (as we saw in
the previous chapter), visualising the problem is 50% of the solution and models
are great for visualising.
C H A P T E R 1 : T E A M W O R K
C H A P T E R 2 : V I S U A L I S E
C H A P T E R 3 : M O D E L
How to Innovate the Business Model?
“The noble art of making money”
How to step out of the Comfort zone?
What is the Product Innovation Matrix?
Need hot-milk ready for breakfast
Need to bake a birthday cake
Appliances that make you feel better
Human need for
Radio Frequency basic tech
Need to save time
need for mobility
- - -
- - -
- - -
What is Functional thinking?
Heating box Externalized GUIheating box externalised GUI
What is ‘Incremental’ thinking?
Brought to you by the company that ‘forgot’ to
invent the iPod
Incremental thinking. In 1979 Sony launched the first Walkman. Thirteen years
later, in 1992, Sony launched the MiniDisc Walkman MZ-1, an opto-magnetic disc
player. Photos are at scale 1:4. Japan post-war manufacturing miracle was built on
such thinking, building ever cheaper, faster and smaller things that were better
than the previous generation. In this case, however, the unwillingness to
cannibalise profits from the music division prevented Sony of thinking big about
digital music distribution and despite the the fact that the MiniDisc sound was
superior to the cassette players it replaced, it did not fundamentally improve the
user experience of finding, buying, playing, sharing… music. See also hack #18, p.
“People do not buy iPods because the love iPods, they buy iPods to access
music.” — Arne von Oosterom. #servicedesign
“The genius idea was not the iPod, it was iTunes.” — Guy Kawasaki*
Why learn to sketch a business model on a napkin?
Because business happens where it happens
(and it is not ‘cool’ to pull up the biz plan
in a restaurant)
How to cut the ‘blah-blah’ at the board room meeting?
- G A R M E N T R A N G E
A D A P T E D T O T H E
S T O R E L O C A T I O N
A N D L O C A L
C U S T O M E R S
- N O
A D V E R T I S E M E N T
B U D G E T
- T H E S H O P W I N D O W
I S T H E A D
- A LWA Y S
S O M E T H I N G N E W
I N T H E S H O P
- M O R E F R E Q . V I S I T S
T H A N H & M
- T O Y O TA S T Y L E
S U P P L I E R
N E T W O R K
( A R T E I X O )
- FA S T FA S H I O N
P R O D U C E D I N
S PA I N ( 5 0 % )
- L O C A L PA R T N E R S
I N C L O S E D
M A R K E T S ( J A PA N )
The Inditex Canvas (AFTER)
R E TA I L … O N L I N E
- O P E R A T I O N A L E X C E L L E N C E
- Z A R A O W N S I T S S H O P S
- 5 0 / 5 0 P R D U C T I O N M O D E L
- R E D U C E S H O P WA R E H O U S E A R E A B Y S H I P P I N G
O F T E N
- E M P L O Y E E S S C O U T
N E W T R E N D S 2 4 / 7
- E M P O W E R M E N T
- C R O S S
F U N C T I O N A L
- “ FA S T
FA S H I O N ”
- T W I C E A W E E K
D E L I V E RY ( J I T )
- 5 0 % P R O D U C T I O N
I S I N H O U S E
FA C T O R I E S
- “ A R M A N I
A T L O W
P R I C E S ”
What is the Adoption Curve?
“If your product is not viral,
your customer acquisition costs will cripple you ”
— R. Hoffman
Reticence to adopt a given product
Some customers will only buy your product after they see N other people using it.
If you group the customers in ‘bins’ according to their ‘reticence level’ and then
you draw a line connecting the top of the bins… you get the adoption curve. On
the left side we have the early adopters: customers who like to try new things even
if no one else uses them yet. On the other extreme customers like Larry David: no
matter how many people are using an iPhone, they will stick to their old Nokia.
Typically, if the sum of people that currently use your product is less than the
reticence level of the next ‘bin’, your sales will not grow organically. The point in
the horizontal axis where this happens is called the ‘chasm’, (not shown). A way to
cross the ‘chasm’ is by targeting susceptible ‘slices’ of users in other ‘bins’.
reticence level (N) 0 1 2
How to build your
own adoption curve
What is the ‘Smile’ curve?
Number of days a user has been using
the ‘Evernote’ App
What is ‘commando’ mode?
You have been hiking with your ten people
strong team for five hours. You are arriving back to
the car park. You are all thirsty after a great hike but
when you arrive to the car you realise your are locked
out. The sandwiches and drinks are inside. What do you
Should I tell you about my big idea?
NO! Companies are built
on “secrets”. Therefore,
you should tell about your
idea to as few people as
possible and then work in
stealth mode - Peter Thiel
YES! ideas are free. What
matters is the execution.
Invest in the team not the
idea*. Therefore, seek as
much feedback as possible
- Jeff Hawkins
- What is your creative process?
- We don’t have any*
*undisclosed source at a Fortune 500 company.
Another: Taichii Ohno, the godfather of the Toyota Production System, opposed
for many years to write a handbook on TPS. He said: If we put TPS in words it will
become stifle and die. I want it to be as flexible as young bamboo.
What are the Laws of Creativity?
(This page intentionally left blank)
About the author
Jose Berengueres received a Masters in Electrical Engineering in Barcelona and
a PhD in bio-inspired robots from Tokyo Institute of Technology. He has taught
Design Thinking and Business Models Innovation in California, Germany,
Mexico. He also consults on bio-inspired manufacturing for a Fortune 500
company. In 2014 he was mentor at StartupWeekend Dubai. He currently is
assistant professor at UAE University where he heads the robotics lab.
Paperback —> http://amzn.to/1ce6Nk5
FREE PDF —> email@example.com
Did you like it?