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Smart Grids: An Introduction

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Smart Grids: An Introduction

  1. 1. DESAI HARSHAD SURESH B050254EE, NIT Calicut http://harshadonweb.googlepages.com
  2. 2. EDISON VS. BELL 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  3. 3. OVERVIEW <ul><li>The existing electric grid and its problems </li></ul><ul><li>The Smart Grid </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies involved </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  4. 4. THE EXISTING ELECTRIC GRID <ul><li>Designed by pioneers like Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse in early 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Regarded as ‘the most significant engineering achievement of the 20 th century’ </li></ul><ul><li>Due to lack of energy storage devices </li></ul><ul><li>Generate -> Transmit -> Distribute </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the ultimate in just-in-time manufacturing </li></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  5. 5. CONTD 23rd February, 2009 The electric grid – generation, transmission and distribution [1] Harshad Desai
  6. 6. PROBLEMS <ul><li>Reliability : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overburdening of the system results in numerous blackouts/brownouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The frequency of such interruptions has also increased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiency : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission losses = 20% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 30% of the energy consumed is transmitted to the consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affordability : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost has doubled in real terms </li></ul></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  7. 7. CONTD <ul><li>Economy : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric power being the backbone of the entire world’s economy, any blackouts result in heavy losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: 2003 NE US blackout resulted in $6bn loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Impacts : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% of world’s electricity generated by burning coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This accounts for around 40% of GHG emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce the emissions renewable sources of energy need to be used extensively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating these into the existing grid is difficult </li></ul></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  8. 8. SOLUTION – THE SMART GRID <ul><li>Smart energy is defined as the application of digital information technology to optimize electrical power generation, delivery and end use </li></ul><ul><li>The smart grid is the product of applying smart energy technology to systematically optimize power delivery and generation </li></ul><ul><li>It is envisioned as a power system incorporating millions of sensors and connected through advanced communication and data acquisition system </li></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  9. 9. 23rd February, 2009 A view of the smart grid [4] Harshad Desai
  10. 10. 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  11. 11. CONTD <ul><li>The EU has laid down the following vision for smart grids </li></ul><ul><li>Smart grids are electric grids that are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  12. 12. TECHNOLOGIES INVOLVED <ul><li>The smart grid is not a single technology </li></ul><ul><li>It encompasses different facets of the technological developments that have taken place in the past 4-5 decades </li></ul><ul><li>It includes telecommunications, smart energy devices, IT, digital control etc. </li></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  13. 13. 23rd February, 2009 SMART GRIDS Harshad Desai
  14. 14. CONTD <ul><li>Energy generation and storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed Generation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Involves use of renewable sources of energy like PV, micro wind turbines, fuel cells etc. Also includes CHP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits include improved system reliability, reduced transmission losses, reduce investment costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Storage Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  15. 15. CONTD <ul><li>Power grid management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real time monitoring and synchrophasors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real time information stream enables rapid diagnosis and correction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchrophasors – Phasor measurements that occur at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samples are taken from widely dispersed locations and synchronized from a common time source of a GPS clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A PMU can record 30 samples/sec offering a dynamic visibility into the system </li></ul></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  16. 16. CONTD <ul><ul><li>Transmission and Distribution Automation: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automation allows faster adjustments to conditions, both preventing blackouts and making for faster recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Networks: </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Broadband networks carry information among smart devices that allow them to respond to grid conditions, offer services to the grid and make economic transactions </li></ul><ul><li>2-way communication. Utilities Consumer </li></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  17. 17. CONTD 23rd February, 2009 Communication between the utility and the consumer [3] Harshad Desai
  18. 18. CONTD <ul><li>Customer Power Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Meters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record power usage and report it back enabling a variable price structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also helps in peak power management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Appliances: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home appliances provided with on board intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate with the utility and can reduce demand when the grid is under stress </li></ul></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  19. 19. Smart Meter and Smart Appliance 23rd February, 2009 Smart Meter by Itron Home appliances with on board intelligence Harshad Desai
  20. 20. ADVANTAGES <ul><li>Intelligent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of sensing system overloads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-healing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can meet increased demand without adding infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality-focused </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power of highest quality can be delivered – free of sags, spikes and disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability is increased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resilient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforced with security protocols to restrain attacks </li></ul></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  21. 21. CONTD <ul><li>Accommodating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can easily accommodate any form of generation – wind, solar etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plug-and-play </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real time communication between consumer and utility enables consumers to tailor their energy demands according to their preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers a genuine path towards environment improvement without major changes in our life styles </li></ul></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  22. 22. MAJOR CHALLENGES <ul><li>New technologies require proof </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially power technologies as these are the backbone of all other industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changing the ‘business as usual’ attitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart grids require a transformation from the existing business models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility companies are skeptical about this new model fearing a loss of revenue </li></ul></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  23. 23. PILOT PROJECTS 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  24. 24. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Current grid is outdated, inefficient and at the same time is overburdened </li></ul><ul><li>Smart grid is designed to optimize efficiency and stability </li></ul><ul><li>The Smart Grid demonstrates the importance of innovation, collaboration and leadership which are particularly needed in the current energy scenario </li></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  25. 25. CONTD <ul><li>Smart grid is a journey and not a single destination </li></ul><ul><li>The question to be asked is can we afford not to have sustainable development? </li></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  26. 26. FUTURE NETWORK VISION 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  27. 27. REFERENCES <ul><li>[1] Nahigian K., “The Smart Alternative: Securing and Strengthening Our Nation’s Vulnerable Electric Grid” The Reform Institute, June 30, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>[2] The US Department of Energy (DOE) “The Smart Grid: An Introduction” </li></ul><ul><li>[3] Mazza P., “Powering Up the Smart Grid: A Northwest Initiative for Job Creation, Energy Security and Clean, Affordable Electricity” Climate solutions, July 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>[4] European Commission, Directorate-General for Research, “European SmartGrids Technology Platform” 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>[5] “Grid 2030 — A National Vision for Electricity’s Second 100 Years”, United States Department of Energy, July 2003. </li></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  28. 28. <ul><li> THANK YOU </li></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai
  29. 29. QUESTIONS <ul><li>? </li></ul>23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai