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  1. Robotics: Present & Beyond Md. Hasnaeen Rizvi Rahman
  2. Overview  Robotics - the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application.  Requires a working knowledge of electronics, mechanics and software accompanied by a large working knowledge of many subjects. Asimo by Honda
  3. History  "Robot" coined by science fiction author Karel Čapek, a Nobel Prize nominee, in his 1920 theater play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots)  Robota meaning "self labor" or "hard work" in Czech  “Robotics” was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941.  He was unaware that he was coining the term for a new field. Asimov Capek
  4. History continued  In the Iliad, the god Hephaestus made talking handmaidens out of gold.  Archytas of Tarentum is credited with creating a mechanical Pigeon in 400 BC.  Al-Jazari (1136-1206), an Arab Muslim inventor, designed and constructed a number of automatic machines, including kitchen appliances, musical automata powered by water, and the first programmable humanoid robot in 1206. Al-Jazari Inventions
  5. History continued  One of the first recorded designs of a humanoid robot was made by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) in around 1495.  The first truly modern robot, digitally operated, programmable, and teachable, was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was ultimately called the Unimate. Leonardo’s Robot Devol The Ultimate
  6. Definition  A robot is a mechanical or virtual, artificial agent.  It is usually a system, which, by its appearance or movements, conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own.  The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots to differentiate.  A typical robot will have several, though not necessarily all of the following properties:  is not 'natural' i.e. artificially created  can sense its environment, and manipulate or interact with things in it  has some ability to make choices based on the environment, often using automatic control or a preprogrammed sequence  is programmable
  7. Definition continued  The structure of a robot  is usually mostly mechanical.  can be called a kinematic chain (like the skeleton of the human body).  the chain is formed of links (its bones), actuators (its muscles).  joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom.  Most contemporary robots use open serial chains in which each link connects the one before to the one after it.  These robots are called serial robots (resemble human arm).  Some robots, such as the Stewart platform, use closed parallel kinematic chains.  Structures that mimic the mechanical structure of humans, various animals and insects, are comparatively rare, but is an active area of research (e.g. biomechanics).
  8. Components of robots - Actuation  The actuators are the 'muscles' of a robot.  the parts which convert stored energy into movement.  By far the most popular actuators are electric motors.  Popular forms of actuators are:  Motors  Stepper motors  Ultrasonic motors  Air muscles  Electroactive polymers  Elastic nanotubes
  9. Components of robots - Manipulation  This is the process of manipulating objects in the external environment  pick up, modify, destroy or otherwise have an effect.  ‘Hands' of a robot are often referred to as end effectors.  The arm is referred to as a manipulator.  Some manipulation technologies:  Grippers  Vacuum grippers  Magnetic grippers  General purpose effectors: fully humanoid hands, with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and hundreds of tactile sensor Gripper
  10. Components of robots - Locomotion  Rolling Robots  Usually have four wheels  Possibly, complex wheeled robots, with only one or two wheels.  Track Robot: Another type of rolling robot is one that has tracks like tanks, e.g. NASA's Urban Robot, Urbie Two-wheeled balancing: Segway, dynamic balancing algorithm, NASA's Robonaut Ballbot by Carnegie Mellon University that balances on a ball instead of legs or wheels
  11. Components of robots - Locomotion  Walking Robots  difficult and dynamic problem to solve  two legged robots already available  none as robust as human  can walk well on flat floors, and can occasionally walk up stairs  none can walk over rocky, uneven terrain  Algorithms used - ZMP Technique, Hopping, Dynamic Balancing, Passive Dynamics, etc.  Other methods of locomotion  Flying – normal autopilot based aeroplanes, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), cruise missiles, etc.  Snaking  Skating  Swimming
  12. Components of robots - Human interaction  Speech recognition – difficult task for a computer, mostly because of the great variability of speech.  Gestures – e.g. human hand gestures  Facial expression – a robot like Kismet can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with humans.  Personality – Aibo, Pleo, etc. Kismet Pleo
  13. Contemporary uses  Robots are used in industrial, military, exploration, home making, and academic and research applications.  Jobs which require increased productivity, accuracy, and endurance.  Car production, Packaging, Electronics, Automated Guided Vehicles, etc.
  14. Contemporary uses  Dirty, dangerous, dull or inaccessible tasks  Robots in the home  Telerobots  Military robots Home cleaner Surgeon Military robots
  15. Contemporary uses  Unconventional robots  Nanorobots  Soft robots  Reconfigurable robots – robots which can alter their physical form to suit a particular task, consisting of a small number of cube shaped units, which can move relative to their neighbours.  Swarm robots  Evolutionary robots  Virtual reality Modular robots Nano robot car Swarm robots
  16. Contemporary uses The Mobile Servicing System or Canadarm2 is a robotic system and associated equipment on the International Space Station that plays a key role in station assembly and maintenance: moving equipment and supplies around the station, supporting astronauts working in space, and servicing instruments and other payloads attached to the space station.
  17. Robotics simulators  Used to create embedded applications for a robot  without depending "physically" on the actual robot  these applications can be transferred on the real robot (or rebuilt) without modifications  Based on lower level middleware like Physics engine (ODE, PhysX) and graphics rendering engine (OGRE)  The Microsoft Robotics Studio is a Windows-based environment for robot control and simulation.  aimed at academic, hobbyist, and commercial developers  handles a wide variety of robot hardware
  18. Robotics simulators  Features include:  a visual programming tool, Microsoft Visual Programming Language, for creating and debugging robot applications  web-based and windows-based interfaces  3D simulation (including hardware acceleration)  a lightweight services-oriented runtime  easy access to a robot's sensors and actuators via a .NET-based concurrent library implementation  support for a number of languages including C# and Visual Basic .NET, JScript, and IronPython  Location technologies including GPS  Speech technologies including text to speech and speech recognition  Vision technologies including color tracking, line tracking, and simplified face and hand gesture detection
  19. Dangers and fears  Current robots don’t pose any threat or danger to society.  Fears and concerns about robots have been repeatedly expressed in a wide range of books and films.  The principal theme is the robots' intelligence and ability to act could exceed that of humans  they could develop a conscience and a motivation to take over or destroy the human race  Robots could be dangerous if  programmed to kill  programmed to be so smart that they make their own software  build their own hardware to upgrade themselves  change their own source code  Robot Fatalities - The first human to be killed by a robot was Robert Williams who died at a casting plant in Flat Rock, MI (January 25, 1979). Terminator II – Rise of the Machines Samsung machine gun robot
  20. Literature  Three Laws of Robotics  a set of three rules written by Isaac Asimov in his 1942 short story "Runaround“.  First law: A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.  Second law: A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.  Third law: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.  Two more laws introduced later by other writers.  Fourth law: A robot must establish its identity as a robot in all cases.  Fifth law: A robot must know it is a robot.  Roboticists sometimes see the these laws as a future ideal.
  21. Future of robotics  Robots may soon be everywhere, in homes and at work.  They could change the way humans live.  If true, many philosophical, social, and political questions will have to be answered.  Some people may become Cyborgs, with some parts half biological and half artificial.
  22. Future of robotics  Timeline  2013-2014 — agricultural robots (e.g. AgRobots).  2013-2017 — robots that care for the elderly  2017 — medical robots performing low-invasive surgery  2017-2019 — household robots with full use.  ??? — Nanorobots  Legal rights for robots?  According to research commissioned by the UK Office of Science and Innovation's Horizon Scanning Centre, robots could one day demand the same citizen's rights as humans.  The rise of robots could put a strain on resources and the environment.
  23. Robotics in 2020 and beyond  Home, factories, agriculture, building & construction, undersea, space, mining, hospitals and streets; for repair, construction, maintenance, security, entertainment, companionship, care.  Only our imagination is the limit.  Robot civilization is coming. Stay tuned.
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