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Knowledge of the Past : the
great assets for one who will
work in Tourism Industry
Some important abbreviations used
in the Prehistory
B.C. : Before Christian Era (ex.
500 B.C. = 2000 + 500 = 2500 years ago)
A.D.: Anno Domini (Latin) = In the year of our Lord,
since Christ was born. This year is A.D. 2013.
(ex. A.D.1000 = 2013-1000 = 1013
B.P. : Before Present Time, at present
(ex. 500 B.P. = 2013 – 500 = A.D.1513)
M.Y.A. : Million years ago (
ex. 3 M.Y.A. = 3,000,000 years ago)
The differences between
history and archaeology
• History study the past by
collect data, analysis and
interpret evidences of the
inscription or writing
• Archaeology study the past
by collect data, analysis
and interpret evidences of
the ancient objects and
Archaeology : The methods to
get information from the past
( mostly the ancient
rubbishes ) from
• They classify,
analysis, interpret the
data then writing the
• Some scholars compared the excavation
squares in archaeology as the laboratory
of the scientist.
The scientific method of dating
• Dating or Chronology is the important
process in archaeology.
• In the old time archaeologists used the
comparative methods to find out date of
the events in the past.
• Now Radio Carbon Dating or C14 dating
technique replaced and became the
important scientific tool in archaeology
• : Material cultures of human societies
from the past before those societies
had abilities to write their language for
record the memory.
According to the newer solid evidences of
Scientists, we believed that our world are older than
Some scholars also proposed 10,000 M.Y.A. as well.
There are many ways to proof the age of the
But t he most rel i abl e met hod was
done by geol ogi st s
Geologists divided the time span of the
World from beginning to present called
• There are 3 period covered total
period of our world.
• Begin with Era then Period and
The Geological Periods
1. Precambrian Era : from the beginning of the
World to 600 mya
2. Palaeozoic Era : from 600- 225 mya with 6
periods : Cambrian, Ordovichian, Silurian,
Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian
3. Mesozoic Era : from 225-65 mya with 3 periods
Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous
4. Cenozoic Era : from 65 mya to the present time
with 2 periods Tertiary, Quaternary
* for more information about the geological time
read the Introduction of Geology
Mesozoic Era : The Age of Dinosaurs
• In this time span Dinosaurs ruled the
• Dinosaurs, the Giant Reptiles, had
succeeded adaptation in all niches of
environment : land , sea, or sky.
• There are many species, characters and
sizes of dinosaurs.
Mesozoic Era : The Age of Dinosaurs
• In this era only the small mammals already
appeared like tree shrews.
• These mammals could not competed with
Dinosaurs so they lived on the tree in the
caves or remote area and some of them are
Dinosaur site in Thailand at Phu Kum Khao,
Sahassakhan district, Kalasin
Mesozoic mammals may looked like this
Tree Shrew, living on the trees and might be
• Many evidences supported that at
c. 65 M.Y.A. most of the Dinosaurs
were suddenly disappeared from
• What happened to the
Theory of the Great Extinction
• There are a lot of theories about the
• At present most scholars believed in
one theory of the great impacts of
the World by meteors or comets or
asteroids about 65 M.Y.A.
Theory of the Great Extinction
These great collisions destroyed the
vast area of the World and caused the
huge impacts to the food chains.
That were the disastrous of the
Theory of the Great Extinction
• Evidences of the ancient impacts can
be seen as crater and some special
element like iridium found around
the World in the impact layer.
Was it possible for the World
to be hit by the meteorites ?
Site of collision near
How often that the Comet will hit
the Earth ?
• Asteroid as large as 20 kms. in dia.
Probably have struck the Earth during the
last few Billion years and some measuring
10 kms. in dia. apparently may hit it every
50 mya. to 100 mya.
• A 10 kms. size of stony object with a
density of about 0.6 kg. per cubic inch
striking the Earth surface at a velocity of 25
kms. per second would have kinetic energy
in excess of 100,000,000 megatons.
• That far greater than the World’s total
nuclear weapons and can cause a final
crater of possibly dia.100-150 kms.
Why were so difficult to find some
evidences of craters on the earth surface ?
1. Atmosphere of the earth are so intensity.
2. Surface of the earth were covered by dirt, ocean,
3. The continual processes of Earth surface erosion.
The Big Craters on the Earth Surface
• The Meteor crater in Arizona, U.S.A.
• The Manson crater at Manson Iowa, U.S.A.
with dia.30-40 km.
• The Chicxulub crater near Yucatan
peninsula Mexico, with dia.190
km.,probably are the best evidence of
the great impact of 65 mya.
The K-T Boundary
• The K-T boundary is the thin red layer (6 mm.)
between the layer of Cretaceous and Tertiary. It
was first observed by Walter Alvarez in 1970.
• This layer was dated to 65 M.Y.A. and obtained
high density of iridium, about 300-500 times
than usually found in the normal layer.
• Iridium is a precious metallic element resembling
platinum, normally found from cosmic
spherules from outer space but very rare in
• Iridium is the very rare substance in rock of
the Earth’s crust ( c. 0.3 part per Billions).
• When Alvarez found this element at Gubbio,
Italy iridium concentrate at the Cretaceous
– Tertiary stratigraphic sequence at 6.3
parts per Billions = > 20 times.
Age of the Mammals
• After 65 mya onward small mammals
found itself safe from the large
• Mammals began to adapt itself to the
broad econiches and evolved to the
great number of species, types, sizes.
• A group of mammals in order Primate
appeared in this period.
Tertiary Period from 65 –2 mya with 5 Epochs
1. Paleocene 65-53 mya : prosimii
2. Eocene 53-35 mya : prosimians and
3. Oligocene 35-25 mya : anthropoidea and
4. Miocene 25-5 mya : hominoidea , ex.
Dryopithecine and early hominids
5. Pliocene 5-2 mya : clear evidences of the
Quaternary Period between 2 MYA – Present, with
1.1 Lower Pleistocene 1.8 mya – 500,000 BP :
Homo erectus and probably early Homo sapiens
1.2 Middle Pleistocene 500,000 – 100,000 BP : the
Ice Age, archaic Homo sapiens, Neanderthal
1.3 Upper Pleistocene 100,000 -10,000 BP : Homo
2. Holocene 10,000 – present : the human
began to practice agriculture
• Please explain your ideas about the
past by writing a short essay( not more
than half a page) about :
The important of The Past
to Tourism Industry :
according to your
The Evolution of Mankind
• Where were we came from ?
• From heaven or space ?
• So far, no clear evidences for both questions
at this moment.
• We only known that, according to our
knowledge, no evidences of Extra-Terrestrial
species existed in the other planets of our
Solar system, except Earth.
The Emergence of Human Species
Wisdom VS Locomotion
The Human Evolution
• The evidences of human evolution came
from the fossils of hominid in Asia and
Africa. It was found by the
Palaeontologists such as Dubois and
• Formerly many scientists believed that
the development of brain size was the
first step in human evolution.
The Human Evolution
More and more researches in human
palaeontology provided the new evidences
and different ideas.
• At present most palaeontologists
surrendered to the evidences of Erect
Posture and Bi-Pedalism which appeared
in the fossils of our ancestors long before
the enlargement of brain.
Comparison of divergence times among primates based on
the fossil and immunological records ( in millions of years)
Human and gibbon 12±3 19-15
Human and rhesus
Human and new world
Adaptation to the New
• The climatic and environment
change in the Miocene and
Pliocene epoch might be the major
factors of this adaptation.
The Environment of the World
during Miocene period
• Climate and temperature had changed,
world temperature were cooler and drier.
• These phenomenon set off the changing of
the World environment especially in the
tropical area of Africa.
• The vast area of grassland or savanna
became the main topography of Africa
instead of dense forest.
The new environment : The new way of food gathering
• In the forest, abundance of foods such as
fruits, nut, leafs, small animals, insects, etc.
provided ideal habitation for primates.
• On the contrary, in the grassland there are a
lot of grass eating animals such as deer,
antelope, zebra, buffalo, etc. and also the
carnivore and scavenging animals as well.
• To survive well in the new environment some
primate adapted itself.
The anatomical difference between
human and non-human primates
• Upright posture
• Bigger brain with complex nervous system
• Lumbar curve difference, S and C shape
• Broader hip bone and basin shape
• Longer legs than arms
• Curve at feet palm
• First digits of human feet are in the same
direction with the other digits
• Prominent calcaneus or heel bone
• Prominent chin bone
• Prominent nasal bone ( nose )
• No crest on top of the skull
• Foramen magnum hole is in the middle
position beneath the skull base
• Small amount of hair covered the body
• More developed in sexual organs
• Groove above the lip
• Bigger and darker lip
Do you know how big of our brain ?
• The brain size of modern human species are
1,100 – 1,400 c.c.. or average 1,250 c.c.
• In female the brain size are a little bit smaller
than in male but its does not related to the
wisdom of each sex.
Pat Shipman Hypothesis
Human ancestor gathered food from
scavenging, to do so they had to compete
with the other scavengers.
The advantage and disadvantage of the locomotor
types of the animals in the grassland
• Comparing to the most efficient scavenging animal
in this environment : hyena and vulture
• To compete with these animals and also survived
from the carnivores hominids must stand up in
straight position on their 2 feet. The new gait
provided the new far vision and free hands for
grasping wood or stone as their tools.
• They also had more chances for carrying foods
and their offspring.
The Benefit of to be Bi - Pedalism animals
• Standing in higher position than before take
advantage with new far looking vision.
• Saving more energy and water while walking
(not running) in the long distance journey for
• Having free hands for carry many things and
Measuring the size of brain
• Anatomists known the size
of brain by measuring the
capacity of cranial.
• To do so, they pour the tiny
pellets like mung beans or
metal pellets into the cranial
compartment through the
hole underneath the skull.
Evidences of Bi-Pedalism
• At least 4 mya. many evidences of bi-
pedalism hominid already appeared in East
• For example in Ethiopia, Kenya and
• According to latest evidences, scientists
separated hominid into 2 genera
• The Australopithecus
• The Homo
Homo sapiens archaic
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
Homo sapiens sapiens
Australopithecine fossils has been discovered in Africa
only, especially in East and South Africa.
The foremost discovery of australopithecine appeared in Africa
were at Taung site, in South Africa, followed with the other
South Africa sites such as Sterkfontein, Swartkrans,
Kromdraai and Magapansgaat.
But in 1959 there were the big discovery of Zinjanthropus at
Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, the emphasis of fossil finds began
to turn to East Africa. After the expedition at Olduvai, the major
sites are at Koobi Fora (Kenya), the Lower Omo Valley
(Ethiopia), and then the Hadar (Ethiopia).
The general characteristics of
• Same or smaller body size with modern human.
• Covered body with hair.
• Same size of brain with modern great apes
• Flatter face and nose.
• Protruding mouth and lacked of the prominent chin
• The maxilla and mandible arch shape like “v” or “u”
which different from human.
• Arms longer than legs
• Back bone pelvis and leg
represented the ability of bi -
• Can eat almost all kinds of food.
• Found in Africa only.
• Cranial capacity about 4-500 cc.(a little
bit bigger than Chimpanzee.)
• Face still look like apes.
• Back bone, pelvis and leg showed ability
• Possibly living together as family.
• Some anthropologists proposed that this species
evolved from the Dryopithecine. They lived in Africa
at least 4 m.y.a.
• First found fossils at Afar Triangle at the north of
Ethiopia by Dr. Donald Johansen and his team,
later on, at Omo region and also fossils of footprint
at Laetoli in Tanzania found by Mary Leakey.
• Overall anatomy of this hominid look like Chim. But
can stand and walk by 2 legs, height about.150
cm.,weight about 30 k.
The First Family
• The evidence of hominid bones found at the
bottom of the stream in Africa, which can
classified to many persons and its may
indicated that these hominids lived together
as family or band.
The First Camp Site
• Oldest evidence are at Olduvai gorge in
Tanzania as showed by evidence of
animal bone, stone flake were found
scatter in an area but condensed in
Comparison of Early Hominid Skulls
• Small or no sagittal
• Large back teeth
• More rounded
• Larger brain
• Flatter face
• Relatively large
• Homo habilis c. 2.4-1.8 m.y.a.
• Homo ergaster c.1.7 m.y.a.
• Homo erectus c. 1.3 m.y.a.-200,000 B.P.
• Homo sapiens archaic c. 300,000 B.P.
• Homo sapiens neanderthalensis c.
200,000- 30,000 B.P.
• Homo sapiens sapiens c. 200,000 B.P.
The Invention of Homo
• The first stone tools, chopper –chopping tools.
• These tools were made from solid stone like flint,
chert or quartzite c. 2-2.5 m.y.a.
• These stone tools were found at Olduvai gorge in
Tanzania and represented the first culture of
Humankind called Olduvai culture.
• Our ancestor continue using this kind of tools for
million of years.
The new evidences of earliest hominid out of Africa
• The Dmanisi hominids were found at the site of
the medieval city of Dmanisi, Georgia.
• It’s dated from the early Pleistocene, some 1.5 to
• Lordkipanidze proposes that the Dmanisi
hominids were closer to the slight, small brained
ancestral humans from Africa, Homo habilis and
Homo ergaster (2.5 to 1.6 M.Y.A.), who came
before the larger, brainier Homo erectus.
New evidences Homo erectus were found at
Dmanisi, Georgia by David Lordkipanidze in
• At present the Dmanisi hominids may be the
earliest-known human ancestors to venture
out of Africa, however this proposal still in
• The Dmanisi Hominids have small skulls with
brain size of between 650-780 cc., smaller
than Homo erectus and only half of modern
The Out of Africa of Homo sapiens Theory : New Evidence
• According to interpretations of the mitochondrial DNA
data, modern humans arose somewhere in Africa
about 200,000 B.P.
• About 100,000 years ago these people moved into the
rest of the Old World, reaching Australia via land
bridge during the Ice Age about 50,000 years ago, and
settle down in Western Europe c.35,000 years ago.
Evidences of Earliest Homo sapiens sapiens in the World
• Africa 120,000 – 200,000 B.P.
• Near East 100,000-115,000 B.P.
• Central Europe 33,000 B.P.
• Western Europe 30,000 B.P.
• Asia 50,000 B.P.
• Australia 5-30,000 B.P.
• New World 40,000 B.P.
Some Neanderthal skull showed
the healed wound at mandible
Skull and skeletal comparison between
H. sapiens and H. sapiens neanderthalensis
The Unique Features of Human
• Human are the most generalized animal, adapted
to the various environments by forming the culture.
• Human are the most omnivorous of all animals.
• Human has a generalized reproductive system.
They can reproduce at any time of the year.
• Homo sapiens has a tremendous range of
variation to undergo natural selection and a
relatively better chance for survival.
• Human is the only animal with a proven ability to
manipulate speech symbols.
Spread of Modern Humans
• Now it is widely accepted modern humans
evolved in Africa and spread to the rest of
• Most scholar believe that a spreading
wave of modern human replaced existing
populations of archaic human entirely.
• However some scholars argue that
archaic and modern humans interbred
forming the living people of the earth.
• A major behavioral transformation
probably marked the birth of true language
and other traits that distinguish modern
humans from the rest of the animal
Modern human began to
create the arts for rituals or
some specific purposes
Prehistory of the World
Generally the Prehistory of the World can
be divided into 6 ages
• The Paleolithic Age
• The Mesolithic Age
• The Neolithic Age
• The Copper Age
• The Bronze Age
• The Iron Age
The New Discovery of Mystery hominid in Flores, Indonesia
• In 2003 the new ancient hominids has been discovered at
Liang Bua cave (cool cave) in Flores island, Indonesia.
• These mystery hominids are so small, only half size when
compare to modern human and same size of brain with the
• The researchers believed that this is the new species of
tiny people or “Hobbits” so they gave them the scientific
name Homo florensiensis
• Dating c. 95,000-12,000 B.P.
• But some scholars argued that these tiny hominids are not
the new species in genus Homo but possibly the modern
human with the symptom of severe blood disorder or
abnormal hormone or disease in isolated island.
The Hunting and Gathering Societies
• The Palaeolithic
• The Mesolithic
• For millions of years human and their
hominid ancestors had gathered edible
wild plants, hunted wild animals, and
exploited marine resources.
• Foragers were generally nomadic,
traveling from place to place to take
advantage of the seasonal foods available
in different areas.
• Between approximately 30,000 and
10,000 years ago the earth experienced
the last major glacial period of the Ice Age.
The Beginning of Agriculture
• The Neolithic Revolution
Origin Areas of Plants Domestication
Rice 8,000 y.a.
Soy Bean 3,000 y.a.
Banana 2,000 y.a.
Barley 10,500 y.a.
Wheat 10,500 y.a.
Apple 3,000 y.a.
South America and Mexico
Potato 4,000 y.a.
Peanut 4,000 y.a.
Chili 4,500 y.a.
Manioc 4,000 y.a.
Cacao 1,500 y.a.
Maize 4,500 y.a.
Oldest Ceramic and Pottery
• The deliberate heating of clay can be traced
back almost 30,000 B.P. at Moravia, Czech
• Pieces of fired clay some of which appear to be
figurines are clearly not the accidental result of
having been placed in or close to fire.
• The first utilitarian use of fire clay are Jomon
pottery vessels made in Japan and the East
Asian mainland about 12,000B.P.
Pyrotechnology : Kiln and Forge
• The ability to build very hot fires was the
springboard for two major technological
advances in human prehistory.
• The pottery making and metallurgy.
• Native state metals, copper being the
• Smelting metals requires very high
temperatures to be reached : the melting
point of copper is 1083 C.
• Copper is very soft, its most common early
use was for ornaments such as beads and
• Te deliberate alloying of copper with
another metal, most commonly tin,
produces a yet harder material, bronze.
• Copper and tin ores do not occur together
naturally, so bronze smelting was a major
innovation, requiring knowledge of those
metal properties, as well as exchange
networks to obtain supplies of each ore
from separate location.
The Metal Ages
• The copper age
• The bronze age
• The iron age
Hunting & Gathering Society
Agriculture & Pastoralism Society
Human Society Change !
Origin of the Civilization
• Hydraulic civilization model
• Innovation model
• Environmental stress model
• Coercion & warfare model