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The heritages of world civilization

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The heritages of world civilization

  1. 1. The Heritages of World Civilization Dr. Warrachai Wiriyaromp
  2. 2. Scope of the Lecture Introduction Origin of Human Species World Prehistory
  3. 3. Don’t forget to have some good examples about these topics for yourself
  4. 4. • Prehistory : period of time in the past before the invention of writing language.
  5. 5. Topic : The Prehistoric People
  6. 6. The World Prehistory Our Prehistory : Foundation of Civilization
  7. 7. Why do we have to study the past ?
  8. 8. Studying the Past
  9. 9. Knowledge of the Past : the great assets for one who will work in Tourism Industry
  10. 10. Some important abbreviations used in the Prehistory B.C. : Before Christian Era (ex. 500 B.C. = 2000 + 500 = 2500 years ago) A.D.: Anno Domini (Latin) = In the year of our Lord, since Christ was born. This year is A.D. 2013. (ex. A.D.1000 = 2013-1000 = 1013 years ago) B.P. : Before Present Time, at present (ex. 500 B.P. = 2013 – 500 = A.D.1513) M.Y.A. : Million years ago ( ex. 3 M.Y.A. = 3,000,000 years ago)
  11. 11. Archaeology VS History
  12. 12. The differences between history and archaeology • History study the past by collect data, analysis and interpret evidences of the inscription or writing language. • Archaeology study the past by collect data, analysis and interpret evidences of the ancient objects and other evidences.
  13. 13. Archaeology : The methods to get information from the past • Archaeologists collect data ( mostly the ancient rubbishes ) from excavation. • They classify, analysis, interpret the data then writing the report.
  14. 14. Excavation = Digging
  15. 15. Digging in the square
  16. 16. • Some scholars compared the excavation squares in archaeology as the laboratory of the scientist.
  17. 17. The scientific method of dating • Dating or Chronology is the important process in archaeology. • In the old time archaeologists used the comparative methods to find out date of the events in the past. • Now Radio Carbon Dating or C14 dating technique replaced and became the important scientific tool in archaeology
  18. 18. Artifacts in Prehistory • : Material cultures of human societies from the past before those societies had abilities to write their language for record the memory.
  19. 19. Artifacts in Prehistory : Ear ornament
  20. 20. Cattle Figurines
  21. 21. Cave Art or Rock Painting
  22. 22. Necklace made from stone and glass beads
  23. 23. World Map
  24. 24. World in the past : How old of our World ?
  25. 25. According to the newer solid evidences of Scientists, we believed that our world are older than 4,500 M.Y.A. Some scholars also proposed 10,000 M.Y.A. as well. There are many ways to proof the age of the World. But t he most rel i abl e met hod was done by geol ogi st s
  26. 26. Geologists divided the time span of the World from beginning to present called Geological Period • There are 3 period covered total period of our world. • Begin with Era then Period and Epoch
  27. 27. The Geological Periods 1. Precambrian Era : from the beginning of the World to 600 mya 2. Palaeozoic Era : from 600- 225 mya with 6 periods : Cambrian, Ordovichian, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian 3. Mesozoic Era : from 225-65 mya with 3 periods Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous 4. Cenozoic Era : from 65 mya to the present time with 2 periods Tertiary, Quaternary * for more information about the geological time read the Introduction of Geology
  28. 28. Mesozoic Era : The Age of Dinosaurs • In this time span Dinosaurs ruled the Earth. • Dinosaurs, the Giant Reptiles, had succeeded adaptation in all niches of environment : land , sea, or sky. • There are many species, characters and sizes of dinosaurs.
  29. 29. Mesozoic Era : Dinosaurs ruled the world
  30. 30. Mesozoic Era : The Age of Dinosaurs • In this era only the small mammals already appeared like tree shrews. • These mammals could not competed with Dinosaurs so they lived on the tree in the caves or remote area and some of them are Nocturnal animals.
  31. 31. Dinosaur site in Thailand at Phu Kum Khao, Sahassakhan district, Kalasin
  32. 32. Tree shrew Mesozoic mammals may looked like this Tree Shrew, living on the trees and might be nocturnal animals.
  33. 33. • Many evidences supported that at c. 65 M.Y.A. most of the Dinosaurs were suddenly disappeared from the Earth. • What happened to the Dinosaurs ?
  34. 34. Theory of the Great Extinction • There are a lot of theories about the great extinction. • At present most scholars believed in one theory of the great impacts of the World by meteors or comets or asteroids about 65 M.Y.A.
  35. 35. Theory of the Great Extinction These great collisions destroyed the vast area of the World and caused the huge impacts to the food chains. That were the disastrous of the living organism.
  36. 36. Theory of the Great Extinction • Evidences of the ancient impacts can be seen as crater and some special element like iridium found around the World in the impact layer.
  37. 37. Was it possible for the World to be hit by the meteorites ?
  38. 38. The answer are on the surface of the Moon
  39. 39. Site of collision near Yucathan Peninsular in Mexico
  40. 40. How often that the Comet will hit the Earth ? • Asteroid as large as 20 kms. in dia. Probably have struck the Earth during the last few Billion years and some measuring 10 kms. in dia. apparently may hit it every 50 mya. to 100 mya.
  41. 41. • A 10 kms. size of stony object with a density of about 0.6 kg. per cubic inch striking the Earth surface at a velocity of 25 kms. per second would have kinetic energy in excess of 100,000,000 megatons. • That far greater than the World’s total nuclear weapons and can cause a final crater of possibly dia.100-150 kms.
  42. 42. Why were so difficult to find some evidences of craters on the earth surface ? 1. Atmosphere of the earth are so intensity. 2. Surface of the earth were covered by dirt, ocean, forest, etc. 3. The continual processes of Earth surface erosion.
  43. 43. The Big Craters on the Earth Surface • The Meteor crater in Arizona, U.S.A. • The Manson crater at Manson Iowa, U.S.A. with dia.30-40 km. • The Chicxulub crater near Yucatan peninsula Mexico, with dia.190 km.,probably are the best evidence of the great impact of 65 mya.
  44. 44. The K-T Boundary • The K-T boundary is the thin red layer (6 mm.) between the layer of Cretaceous and Tertiary. It was first observed by Walter Alvarez in 1970. • This layer was dated to 65 M.Y.A. and obtained high density of iridium, about 300-500 times than usually found in the normal layer. • Iridium is a precious metallic element resembling platinum, normally found from cosmic spherules from outer space but very rare in the earth.
  45. 45. • Iridium is the very rare substance in rock of the Earth’s crust ( c. 0.3 part per Billions). • When Alvarez found this element at Gubbio, Italy iridium concentrate at the Cretaceous – Tertiary stratigraphic sequence at 6.3 parts per Billions = > 20 times.
  46. 46. Cenozoic Mesozoic
  47. 47. Age of the Mammals • After 65 mya onward small mammals found itself safe from the large carnivore reptiles. • Mammals began to adapt itself to the broad econiches and evolved to the great number of species, types, sizes. • A group of mammals in order Primate appeared in this period.
  48. 48. Tertiary Period from 65 –2 mya with 5 Epochs 1. Paleocene 65-53 mya : prosimii 2. Eocene 53-35 mya : prosimians and probably anthropoidea 3. Oligocene 35-25 mya : anthropoidea and early hominoidea 4. Miocene 25-5 mya : hominoidea , ex. Dryopithecine and early hominids 5. Pliocene 5-2 mya : clear evidences of the australopithecine
  49. 49. Quaternary Period between 2 MYA – Present, with 2 Epochs 1. Pleistocene 1.1 Lower Pleistocene 1.8 mya – 500,000 BP : Homo erectus and probably early Homo sapiens 1.2 Middle Pleistocene 500,000 – 100,000 BP : the Ice Age, archaic Homo sapiens, Neanderthal 1.3 Upper Pleistocene 100,000 -10,000 BP : Homo sapiens sapiens 2. Holocene 10,000 – present : the human began to practice agriculture
  50. 50. • Please explain your ideas about the past by writing a short essay( not more than half a page) about : The important of The Past to Tourism Industry : according to your imagination.
  51. 51. Intermission 10 minutes
  52. 52. The Evolution of Mankind
  53. 53. The Evolution of Mankind • Where were we came from ? • From heaven or space ? • So far, no clear evidences for both questions at this moment. • We only known that, according to our knowledge, no evidences of Extra-Terrestrial species existed in the other planets of our Solar system, except Earth.
  54. 54. The Emergence of Human Species Wisdom VS Locomotion
  55. 55. The Human Evolution • The evidences of human evolution came from the fossils of hominid in Asia and Africa. It was found by the Palaeontologists such as Dubois and Leakey family. • Formerly many scientists believed that the development of brain size was the first step in human evolution.
  56. 56. The Human Evolution More and more researches in human palaeontology provided the new evidences and different ideas. • At present most palaeontologists surrendered to the evidences of Erect Posture and Bi-Pedalism which appeared in the fossils of our ancestors long before the enlargement of brain.
  57. 57. Dr. Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey
  58. 58. Comparison of divergence times among primates based on the fossil and immunological records ( in millions of years) species Immunological distance time estimates Fossil record time estimates Human and chimpanzee 4±1.5 7-5 Human and gibbon 12±3 19-15 Human and rhesus monkey 22-20 40-26 Human and new world monkey(capuchin) 38-35 60-50
  59. 59. Adaptation to the New Environment • The climatic and environment change in the Miocene and Pliocene epoch might be the major factors of this adaptation.
  60. 60. The Ice Age
  61. 61. The Environment of the World during Miocene period • Climate and temperature had changed, world temperature were cooler and drier. • These phenomenon set off the changing of the World environment especially in the tropical area of Africa. • The vast area of grassland or savanna became the main topography of Africa instead of dense forest.
  62. 62. The new environment : The new way of food gathering • In the forest, abundance of foods such as fruits, nut, leafs, small animals, insects, etc. provided ideal habitation for primates. • On the contrary, in the grassland there are a lot of grass eating animals such as deer, antelope, zebra, buffalo, etc. and also the carnivore and scavenging animals as well. • To survive well in the new environment some primate adapted itself.
  63. 63. Human VS Monkeys
  64. 64. The anatomical difference between human and non-human primates • Upright posture • Bigger brain with complex nervous system • Lumbar curve difference, S and C shape • Broader hip bone and basin shape • Longer legs than arms • Curve at feet palm • First digits of human feet are in the same direction with the other digits
  65. 65. • Prominent calcaneus or heel bone • Prominent chin bone • Prominent nasal bone ( nose ) • No crest on top of the skull • Foramen magnum hole is in the middle position beneath the skull base • Small amount of hair covered the body • More developed in sexual organs • Groove above the lip • Bigger and darker lip
  66. 66. Human Skull
  67. 67. Do you know how big of our brain ? • The brain size of modern human species are 1,100 – 1,400 c.c.. or average 1,250 c.c. • In female the brain size are a little bit smaller than in male but its does not related to the wisdom of each sex.
  68. 68. Pat Shipman Hypothesis Human ancestor gathered food from scavenging, to do so they had to compete with the other scavengers.
  69. 69. The advantage and disadvantage of the locomotor types of the animals in the grassland • Comparing to the most efficient scavenging animal in this environment : hyena and vulture • To compete with these animals and also survived from the carnivores hominids must stand up in straight position on their 2 feet. The new gait provided the new far vision and free hands for grasping wood or stone as their tools. • They also had more chances for carrying foods and their offspring.
  70. 70. The Benefit of to be Bi - Pedalism animals • Standing in higher position than before take advantage with new far looking vision. • Saving more energy and water while walking (not running) in the long distance journey for gathering foods. • Having free hands for carry many things and making tools.
  71. 71. Measuring the size of brain • Anatomists known the size of brain by measuring the capacity of cranial. • To do so, they pour the tiny pellets like mung beans or metal pellets into the cranial compartment through the foramen magnum hole underneath the skull.
  72. 72. Evidences of Bi-Pedalism • At least 4 mya. many evidences of bi- pedalism hominid already appeared in East Africa. • For example in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania.
  73. 73. • According to latest evidences, scientists separated hominid into 2 genera 1. Australopithecus 2. Homo
  74. 74. The Hominids • The Australopithecus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus robustus Austalopithecus boisei • The Homo Homo habilis Homo erectus Homo sapiens archaic Homo sapiens neanderthalensis Homo sapiens sapiens
  75. 75. Australopithecus
  76. 76. Australopithecine sites Australopithecine fossils has been discovered in Africa only, especially in East and South Africa. The foremost discovery of australopithecine appeared in Africa were at Taung site, in South Africa, followed with the other South Africa sites such as Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai and Magapansgaat. But in 1959 there were the big discovery of Zinjanthropus at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, the emphasis of fossil finds began to turn to East Africa. After the expedition at Olduvai, the major sites are at Koobi Fora (Kenya), the Lower Omo Valley (Ethiopia), and then the Hadar (Ethiopia).
  77. 77. The Fossils
  78. 78. “Lucy” Australopithecus afarensis
  79. 79. Dr. Donald Johansen and Lucy
  80. 80. The Footprints
  81. 81. The general characteristics of Australopithecus • Same or smaller body size with modern human. • Covered body with hair. • Same size of brain with modern great apes • Flatter face and nose. • Protruding mouth and lacked of the prominent chin • The maxilla and mandible arch shape like “v” or “u” which different from human.
  82. 82. • Arms longer than legs • Back bone pelvis and leg represented the ability of bi - pedalism. • Can eat almost all kinds of food. • Found in Africa only.
  83. 83. • Cranial capacity about 4-500 cc.(a little bit bigger than Chimpanzee.) • Face still look like apes. • Back bone, pelvis and leg showed ability of bi-pedalism. • Possibly living together as family.
  84. 84. Genus Australopithecus • Australopithecus anamensis c.4.2-3.4 m.y.a. • Australopithecus afarensis c.4 m.y.a. • Australopithecus robustus c.1.7-1.1 m.y.a. • Australopithecus boisei c.2.5-1 m.y.a. • Australopithecus africanus c.3-1 m.y.a.
  85. 85. Australopithecus afarensis • Some anthropologists proposed that this species evolved from the Dryopithecine. They lived in Africa at least 4 m.y.a. • First found fossils at Afar Triangle at the north of Ethiopia by Dr. Donald Johansen and his team, later on, at Omo region and also fossils of footprint at Laetoli in Tanzania found by Mary Leakey. • Overall anatomy of this hominid look like Chim. But can stand and walk by 2 legs, height about.150 cm.,weight about 30 k.
  86. 86. Australopithecus afarensis
  87. 87. Model of Lucy in Sciences Museum
  88. 88. The First Family • The evidence of hominid bones found at the bottom of the stream in Africa, which can classified to many persons and its may indicated that these hominids lived together as family or band.
  89. 89. The First Camp Site • Oldest evidence are at Olduvai gorge in Tanzania as showed by evidence of animal bone, stone flake were found scatter in an area but condensed in circular shape.
  90. 90. Comparison of Early Hominid Skulls Australopithecus • Small or no sagittal crest • Large back teeth Homo habilis • More rounded braincase • Larger brain • Flatter face • Relatively large back teeth
  91. 91. HOMO
  92. 92. Genus Homo • Homo habilis c. 2.4-1.8 m.y.a. • Homo ergaster c.1.7 m.y.a. • Homo erectus c. 1.3 m.y.a.-200,000 B.P. • Homo sapiens archaic c. 300,000 B.P. • Homo sapiens neanderthalensis c. 200,000- 30,000 B.P. • Homo sapiens sapiens c. 200,000 B.P.
  93. 93. Homo habilis
  94. 94. Homo ergaster
  95. 95. The Invention of Homo • The first stone tools, chopper –chopping tools. • These tools were made from solid stone like flint, chert or quartzite c. 2-2.5 m.y.a. • These stone tools were found at Olduvai gorge in Tanzania and represented the first culture of Humankind called Olduvai culture. • Our ancestor continue using this kind of tools for million of years.
  96. 96. The new evidences of earliest hominid out of Africa • The Dmanisi hominids were found at the site of the medieval city of Dmanisi, Georgia. • It’s dated from the early Pleistocene, some 1.5 to 2 M.Y.A. • Lordkipanidze proposes that the Dmanisi hominids were closer to the slight, small brained ancestral humans from Africa, Homo habilis and Homo ergaster (2.5 to 1.6 M.Y.A.), who came before the larger, brainier Homo erectus.
  97. 97. New evidences Homo erectus were found at Dmanisi, Georgia by David Lordkipanidze in 1991
  98. 98. • At present the Dmanisi hominids may be the earliest-known human ancestors to venture out of Africa, however this proposal still in controversy. • The Dmanisi Hominids have small skulls with brain size of between 650-780 cc., smaller than Homo erectus and only half of modern humans.
  99. 99. These Hominid skulls dates c.1.75 m.y.a
  100. 100. Skull D2700
  101. 101. Stone tool of Dmanisi man, probably used for throwing
  102. 102. The migration from Africa to Dmanisi and then to the West and East
  103. 103. Homo erectus • Peking Man • Java Man
  104. 104. The Multiregional ModelThe Multiregional Model 0.2 m.y.a Modern humans 1 m.y.a Archaic humans 2 m.y.a Homo erectus
  105. 105. Human Pelvis : broader hip and basin shape
  106. 106. Craniums of Peking Man or Homo erectus found in Choukoutian cave near Beijing
  107. 107. Java Man or Homo erectus 700,000-900,000 B.P. found in Java, Indonesia
  108. 108. Sangiran 17, Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia dating more than 1 M.Y.A
  109. 109. Lantian Man or Homo erectus found in China
  110. 110. Homo erectus may be looked like this
  111. 111. Hand Axe : Tools of Homo erectus
  112. 112. Stone tools of Acheulean and Mousterian culture found in Europe
  113. 113. First evidences of the control of fire by hominids at Choukoutian cave in China at least 400,000 years B.P.
  114. 114. Homo sapiens
  115. 115. The Out of Africa of Homo sapiens Theory : New Evidence • According to interpretations of the mitochondrial DNA data, modern humans arose somewhere in Africa about 200,000 B.P. • About 100,000 years ago these people moved into the rest of the Old World, reaching Australia via land bridge during the Ice Age about 50,000 years ago, and settle down in Western Europe c.35,000 years ago.
  116. 116. From A. afarensis to H. sapiens
  117. 117. Evidences of Earliest Homo sapiens sapiens in the World • Africa 120,000 – 200,000 B.P. • Near East 100,000-115,000 B.P. • Central Europe 33,000 B.P. • Western Europe 30,000 B.P. • Asia 50,000 B.P. • Australia 5-30,000 B.P. • New World 40,000 B.P.
  118. 118. Skull of Homo sapiens sapiens
  119. 119. Skull of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
  120. 120. Some Neanderthal skull showed the healed wound at mandible
  121. 121. Skull and skeletal comparison between H. sapiens and H. sapiens neanderthalensis
  122. 122. The Unique Features of Human • Human are the most generalized animal, adapted to the various environments by forming the culture. • Human are the most omnivorous of all animals. • Human has a generalized reproductive system. They can reproduce at any time of the year. • Homo sapiens has a tremendous range of variation to undergo natural selection and a relatively better chance for survival. • Human is the only animal with a proven ability to manipulate speech symbols.
  123. 123. Spread of Modern Humans • Now it is widely accepted modern humans evolved in Africa and spread to the rest of the World. • Most scholar believe that a spreading wave of modern human replaced existing populations of archaic human entirely. • However some scholars argue that archaic and modern humans interbred forming the living people of the earth.
  124. 124. • A major behavioral transformation probably marked the birth of true language and other traits that distinguish modern humans from the rest of the animal kingdom.
  125. 125. Modern human began to create the arts for rituals or some specific purposes
  126. 126. Prehistory of the World Generally the Prehistory of the World can be divided into 6 ages • The Paleolithic Age • The Mesolithic Age • The Neolithic Age • The Copper Age • The Bronze Age • The Iron Age
  127. 127. The New Discovery of Mystery hominid in Flores, Indonesia • In 2003 the new ancient hominids has been discovered at Liang Bua cave (cool cave) in Flores island, Indonesia. • These mystery hominids are so small, only half size when compare to modern human and same size of brain with the australopithecine. • The researchers believed that this is the new species of tiny people or “Hobbits” so they gave them the scientific name Homo florensiensis • Dating c. 95,000-12,000 B.P. • But some scholars argued that these tiny hominids are not the new species in genus Homo but possibly the modern human with the symptom of severe blood disorder or abnormal hormone or disease in isolated island.
  128. 128. The Hunting and Gathering Societies • The Palaeolithic • The Mesolithic
  129. 129. • For millions of years human and their hominid ancestors had gathered edible wild plants, hunted wild animals, and exploited marine resources. • Foragers were generally nomadic, traveling from place to place to take advantage of the seasonal foods available in different areas.
  130. 130. Specialized Hunters • Between approximately 30,000 and 10,000 years ago the earth experienced the last major glacial period of the Ice Age.
  131. 131. The Beginning of Agriculture • The Neolithic Revolution
  132. 132. Origin Areas of Plants Domestication Asia Rice 8,000 y.a. Soy Bean 3,000 y.a. Banana 2,000 y.a. Middle East Barley 10,500 y.a. Wheat 10,500 y.a. Apple 3,000 y.a.
  133. 133. Mediterranean Asparagus 2,200 y.a. Broccoli 1,900 y.a. Cabbage 2,000 y.a. Olive 5,000 y.a. Africa Millet 4,000 y.a. Coffee ?
  134. 134. South America and Mexico Potato 4,000 y.a. Peanut 4,000 y.a. Tobacco ? Papaya ? Pineapple ? Cashew ? Chili 4,500 y.a. Manioc 4,000 y.a. Cacao 1,500 y.a. Maize 4,500 y.a. Tomato ?
  135. 135. Oldest Ceramic and Pottery • The deliberate heating of clay can be traced back almost 30,000 B.P. at Moravia, Czech Republic. • Pieces of fired clay some of which appear to be figurines are clearly not the accidental result of having been placed in or close to fire. • The first utilitarian use of fire clay are Jomon pottery vessels made in Japan and the East Asian mainland about 12,000B.P.
  136. 136. Pyrotechnology : Kiln and Forge • The ability to build very hot fires was the springboard for two major technological advances in human prehistory. • The pottery making and metallurgy.
  137. 137. Metallurgy Development • Native state metals, copper being the most common. • Smelting metals requires very high temperatures to be reached : the melting point of copper is 1083 C. • Copper is very soft, its most common early use was for ornaments such as beads and pendants.
  138. 138. • Te deliberate alloying of copper with another metal, most commonly tin, produces a yet harder material, bronze. • Copper and tin ores do not occur together naturally, so bronze smelting was a major innovation, requiring knowledge of those metal properties, as well as exchange networks to obtain supplies of each ore from separate location.
  139. 139. The Metal Ages • The copper age • The bronze age • The iron age
  140. 140. Hunting & Gathering Society Agriculture & Pastoralism Society Human Society Change ! Civilization
  141. 141. Origin of the Civilization • Hydraulic civilization model • Innovation model • Environmental stress model • Coercion & warfare model