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"Managing Bad News in Social Media: A Case Study on Domino's Pizza Crisis" - Finally, the research I've worked with two computer scientists and one brain scientist have been accepted to one of the prestigious conference in social computing ICWSM(International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media
Managing Bad News in Social Media: A Case Study on Domino’s Pizza Crisis Jaram Park Meeyoung Cha Hoh Kim Jaeseung Jeong Graduate School of Culture Technology, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, Republic of Korea Abstract social media. From a corporate point of view, the “diffu- Social media has become prominently popular. Tens of sion of bad news” often means a crisis, having a negative millions of users login to social media sites like Twitter impact on brand reputation, word-of-mouth advertisements, to disseminate breaking news and share their opinions and even sales. Before the social media era, companies used and thoughts. For businesses, social media is poten- to respond to bad news by releasing position statements or tially useful for monitoring the public perception and public apologies via traditional media within days to weeks. the social reputation of companies and products. De- Nowadays, however, the public expects companies to apol- spite great potential, how bad news about a company ogy promptly (within 24 hours) and response directly via inﬂuences the public sentiments in social media has not social media—the channel in which a crisis occurs. been studied in depth. The aim of this study is to assess people’s sentiments in Twitter upon the spread of two Therefore, companies are interested in knowing how bad types of information: corporate bad news and a CEO’s news spreads in social media. Their major concerns are on apology. We attempted to understand how sentiments knowing how people’s feelings propagate, what inﬂuences on corporate bad news propagate in Twitter and whether the public sentiment, and how it impacts corporate repu- any social network feature facilitates its spread. We in- tation. Several recent work have paid attention to analyz- vestigated the Domino’s Pizza crisis in 2009, where bad ing public sentiments in social media. Studies have shown news spread rapidly through social media followed by that online communities like Twitter can be used for pre- an ofﬁcial apology from the company. Our work shows dicting election results (Tumasjan et al. 2010) or even stock that bad news spreads faster than other types of infor- prices (Bollen, Mao, and Zeng 2011). Another study ex- mation, such as an apology, and sparks a great degree of negative sentiments in the network. However, when amined how sentiments embedded in online content affect users converse about bad news repeatedly, their negative the persistence of information, measured by decay time in sentiments are softened. We discuss various reactions the spread (Wu et al. 2011). However, sentiment analysis of users towards the bad news in social media such as in the spread of corporate bad news, in particular, has not negative purchase intent. been studied. Understanding the diffusion dynamics of bad news in social media is important for crisis communication, as such knowledge can help companies and the government Introduction respond appropriately to crisis situations.Social media is bringing a major headache to the corporate One of the ﬁrst companies to experience a serious andworld because it has been shown to facilitate the spread bad global damage in its reputation due to the spread of bad newsnews. In January 2012, a Korean-American female cus- in social media is Domino’s Pizza. The crisis started whentomer, who visited Papa John’s Pizza in New York, discov- two employees produced and uploaded a vulgar YouTubeered that the cashier identiﬁed her as “lady chinky eyes” on video in 2009. Within a few days, the video gained moreher receipt. She tweeted about the negative experience via than half a million views, major news media covered theTwitter that morning, and a local newspaper picked up the event, and people started to discuss the incident on socialstory. Within a few days, the news was reported not only media. Domino’s soon released a YouTube video where itsin the US newspapers and broadcasts like CNN, but it also CEO apologized and explained the situation.spread to other countries. The employee was ﬁred, Papa We paid attention to the Domino’s crisis in Twitter, be-John’s in the US apologized, and even Papa John’s in Ko- cause from the beginning to the end the medium played area had to apologize to Korean customers. This news started central role in spreading both the bad news and the apology.from one tweet by a customer in New York, but its impact First, the crisis started in YouTube, but soon it was picked upreached all the way to Asia (ABC 2012). by users in various social media sites. Twitter was one of the In the past, only elite journalists could break bad news. key places where discussions took place. Based on our es-Nowadays, anyone can produce bad news and spread it in timation, more than 15,000 Twitter users posted a messageCopyright c 2012, Association for the Advancement of Artiﬁcial about the event. Second, Domino’s apologized on TwitterIntelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved. by sharing a link to its CEO’s apology on YouTube.
Similar corporate crises have occurred causing dire conse- tempts to provide a holistic view of the crisis event in socialquences to various companies. Interestingly, however, crisis media through both quantitative and qualitative analyses.communication researchers have not yet conducted a sys-tematic analysis of public sentiments in social media (Jin Case Descriptionand Pang 2010). By conducting an in-depth analysis of pub- On April 13th, 2009, two employees of Domino’s Pizza inlic sentiments in Twitter related to the Domino’s Pizza crisis, Conover, North Carolina, ﬁlmed a prank in the restaurant’swe attempted to answer the following three questions: kitchen and posted a video on YouTube, showing vulgar acts1. What are the temporal and spatial diffusion characteristics while making sandwiches. The employee in the video put in the spread of corporate bad news? cheese up his nose, nasal mucus on the sandwiches, and vio-2. How does the network structure determine the reactions lated other health-code standards, while his fellow employee of socially connected users? provided commentary. The URL of this video rapidly spread via online social media, especially through Twitter, as soon3. What kinds of negative and positive sentiments are por- as it appeared. The video was viewed more than half a mil- trayed in Twitter conversations? lion times in the following two days and prompted angry This study makes three contributions. First, we demon- reactions from the customers and from social media users.strate the beneﬁts of analyzing the actual social media con- Two days later, on April 15th, the president of Domino’s,versations on a crisis situation. Before social media existed, Patrick Doyle, shot a video directly apologizing about theit was extremely difﬁcult for researchers and companies to incident and uploaded the apology on YouTube. Domino’sexamine the actual conversations during crises. Social me- also created a Twitter account with username @dpzinfo todia is hence called “the world’s largest focus group,” and the actively address the comments and share the apology videoimportance of decoding its content for businesses is being link. The apology video also spread through social media.recognized (Talbot 2011). The original prank video was removed from YouTube be- Second, this is one of the ﬁrst studies to conduct a sys- cause of a copyright claim, but its aliases or copies remainedtematic analysis of sentiments during a crisis situation. Re- both inside and outside the YouTube community and contin-searchers have pointed out the lack of systematic under- ued to circulate. The company prepared a civil lawsuit, andstanding of emotions in crisis communication research and the two employees were faced with felony charges for deliv-have suggested analysis of emotions as an important future ering prohibited foods to customers.research direction in the area (Jin and Pang 2010). Twitter Data In order to examine the global spreading Third, we not only analyzed how bad news spread in so- pattern in the network, it is important to have access to allcial media but also analyzed the inﬂuence of a corporate the tweet posts and the social network topology during theapology in social media. We used multiple methods, both event period. This is because using sample tweets will notquantitative and qualitative, to obtain a balanced view. only increase biases in the measured sentiments but also re- sult in fragmentation of information propagation patterns. In Related Work this work, we obtained and used the near-complete TwitterIn the past, it took a long time for companies to apologize data in (Cha et al. 2010).for mistakes. Nowadays, the reaction is quicker. As so- The data consists of information about 54 million users,cial media plays a major role in the diffusion of bad news 1.9 billion social links, and 1.7 billion tweets. The followand crisis communication, companies have started to lever- links are based on a topology snapshot taken in the summerage social media in responding to corporate crises, such as of 2009, a few months after the Domino’s event. The 1.7CEO’s apologies using YouTube: David Neeleman, former billion tweets include all public tweets that were ever postedChairman of JetBlue Airways responding to its Valentine’s by the 54 million users. Each tweet entry contains the tweetday crisis in 2007; Bob Eckert, CEO of Mattel responding content as well as the corresponding time stamp.to its millions of toy recalls; and Patrick Doyle, President We extracted tweets that contained the word “domino”of Domino’s Pizza responding to its prank video crisis. The for an eight-day period from April 13th, 2009. A total ofwork in (Efthimious 2010) analyzed the case of JetBlue Air- 19,328 tweets were identiﬁed in this way. This extractionways, and the work in (HCD a) analyzed how people’s per- method incurs both false positives (i.e., irrelevant tweetsception changed after viewing the CEO’s apologies of Mat- about the event containing the keyword) and true negativestel and Domino’s. They found positive effects of the CEO’s (i.e., tweets about the event that do not include the keyword).apologizing via YouTube. In order to mitigate the error, we resorted to examining the Nonetheless, many scholars have pointed out the lack of a tweet content and utilized the fact that the majority (60%) ofscientiﬁc approach in crisis communication research. Case these tweets contain a URL. We chose URLs that appearedstudies have been a major research method in this area, yet more than 10 times and searched for tweets containing themit has been judged that more than half of them failed to from the entire Twitter data without necessarily mentioningdescribe a reliable data gathering method and only about the keyword. Encompassing the 1,445 true negative tweets13 percent proposed research questions or hypotheses (An found in this fashion, we analyzed a total of 20,773 tweetsand Cheng 2010). In that context, the work in (Coombs in this work.2008) emphasized the importance of building evidence- Table 1 displays the number of users, tweets, mentions,based knowledge for crisis management. This paper at- re-tweets (RTs), and tweets with URls on the Domino’s case.
Figure 1: Temporal evolution of the positive and negative sentiment scoresThe number of users who posted at least one tweet is 15,513. sentiment scores. Therefore, we do not attempt to retrieve aWe found that 4,990 or 24% of the tweets were mentions, meaningful sentiment score of a single tweet nor try to inferincluding @username in the tweet. This implies that a lively the moods of individuals. Since the LIWC tool calculatesconversation took place among the Twitter users. We also the sentiment scores based on just word count, capturing thefound that 2,673 or 13% of the tweets were re-tweets. The subtle mood changes or the differences in tone of voice wasmost proliﬁc tweet had been re-tweeted over 500 times. not possible. Therefore, qualitative content analysis of sen- timent propagation was needed, and we will show the results # users # tweets # mentions # RTs URL (%) at the end of this paper. 15,513 20,773 4,990 2,673 13,132 (63%) Overall Trend The bar plot in Figure 1 shows the daily Table 1: Summary of the data set number of tweets containing the word “domino” through- out the month of April in 2009. On the day after the prank video was uploaded, the number of tweets about Domino’sSentiment Analysis Tool In order to quantitatively mea- Pizza increased to over 2,500 tweets per day, which is ﬁvesure the mood changes of Twitter users, we used Linguis- times larger than in the previous week. Only for two daystic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), which is a transpar- (April 14th and 15th) right after the employees posted theent text analysis program that counts words in psycholog- prank video on April 13th, there were nearly 7,000 tweets.ically meaningful categories. The LIWC dictionary in- When we account for the sheer size of the audience, a total ofcludes around 4,500 words and word stems. It has been 16,553,169 or 30% of all Twitter users were exposed to thewidely used by many social media researchers for senti- news during an eight-day period (April 13th–20th, 2009).ment analysis (Tumasjan et al. 2010; Wu et al. 2011; The line plots in Figure 1 show the level of positive af-Golder and Macy 2011). This program shows the propor- fect (blue solid line) and negative affect (red solid line withtion of words that is related to each category (e.g., affect, markers) embedded in tweets over the same time period.cognition) in an input ﬁle. Empirical results demonstrate Twitter users exhibited a stronger positive affect towardsthat LIWC can detect meanings in a wide variety of ex- Domino’s Pizza except for during the three peak days. Basedperimental settings, including attention focus, emotionality, on a randomly chosen set of 10,000 tweets from the same pe-social relationships, thinking styles, and individual differ- riod, the level of positive and negative affects were 4.24 andences (Tausczik and Pennebaker 2010). 1.65, respectively. In this work, we focused on the affective psychological Figure 1 shows the overall trend. We ﬁnd that the amountprocess and examined the fraction of words in tweets that of conversations and negative sentiments suddenly and sig-are related to the positive and negative affects. Note that typ- niﬁcantly increased right after the crisis event was triggeredically, the levels of positive and negative affects are indepen- via social media. The amount and the negative sentiments,dent (Golder and Macy 2011). There are some limitations in however, dropped right after the CEO posted an apologyusing LIWC for sentiment analysis in Twitter. According to video, indicating that the CEO’s apology video was an ap-the LIWC provider, the input ﬁle should contain more than propriate response from a crisis management practice point50 words for accurate analysis. In practice, tweets written in of view. In fact, the apology is considered a reasonably fastfewer than 50 words yield extremely high or extremely low one (within 48 hours) although it could have been faster.
Num Num Num Med Audience LCC Avg Node Clustering Diameter Path Type URLs tweets spreaders followers size (edges) degree density coefﬁcient hop length Prank 24 2230 2078 169 2204175 42% (99%) 5.3 0.001 0.071 10 3.4 Apology 15 771 707 351 542161 82% (99%) 7.2 0.008 0.230 7 2.7 Commentary 44 1641 1608 367 4706032 89% (99%) 14.5 0.008 0.233 9 2.8Table 2: Spatial characteristics of the users who spread Web links to the prank video, apology video, and critiques, respectively. Characteristics of Bad News Spreading users who could have received URLs on the Domino’s event through Twitter.We examine the temporal and spatial characteristics in thespread of Domino’s news. In order to identify bad news, we Hundreds to thousands of users posted URLs on themanually inspected the URLs embedded in tweets. Given Domino’s event, and more people (47%) participated inthat the majority of tweets (63%) contained a URL, we only spreading the prank video than in spreading the apologyconsidered those tweets that contained a URL that appeared video or commentaries. However, the median number ofmore than 10 times during the trace period. There were followers was the smallest for the prank network, indicat-90 distinct URLs, and the most popular one appeared 561 ing that the bad news was shared by less connected userstimes. After manual inspection, we classiﬁed these URLs compared to those who spread the apology news or com-into three representative categories. Seven out of 90 URLs mentaries.did not belong to the main categories and were discarded in Several spreaders in each of these networks had very largethe analysis. The three categories are: indegrees. As a result, the size of the audience is three orders of magnitude larger than that of spreaders and reaches from• Prank: There were 24 URLs on the prank video, either half a million to nearly 5 million users on Twitter. containing a link directly to the YouTube video or con- The second set of statistics is on the largest connected taining a link to news or blog articles which had the link component (LCC) of each of these networks. We focus on to the prank video, e.g., “U need 2 look @ this especially connected users because they have a high chance of having if u eat at domino’s http...” and “Be careful before order- read about the Domino’s event through followers in Twitter ing Domino’s: http..” before their posts.1 Hence, the LCC can be viewed as an• Apology: There were 15 URLs on the apology video, ei- active community that voiced the event. We show the frac- ther a direct link or a link to a website with relevant infor- tion of users and edges belonging to the LCC, the average mation, e.g., “Domino’s President responds http...” and degree, density, and clustering coefﬁcient of nodes, as well “Excellent 2-min video on YouTube from Patrick Doyle. as the diameter and the average path length. Congrats on this move http...” The prank network varied in its shape compared to the apology and commentary networks. Fewer than half of the• Commentary: When a crisis happens, journalists, cri- nodes formed the LCC in the prank network, while a great sis management consultants, and consumers write various majority (over 80%) formed the LCC in the two other net- articles to show their points of view on the event. Fur- works. Furthermore, users in the LCC had sparse connec- thermore, Twitter users often spread the commentaries by tions in the prank network compared to in the two other net- linking the URLs. There were 44 URLs on the commen- works, as seen from small average node degree, density, and tary in total, e.g., “Apropos to the #dominos fallout, How clustering coefﬁcient values. The commentary network was to weather a #twitter storm http...” and “RT @briansolis: the most well connected; its nodes had 13 edges on average. The Domino’s Effect http...” The diameter of these networks similarly ranged from 7 to For each of these categories, we constructed a social net- 10, and all three networks had short average path length ofwork of users who tweeted about Domino’s event based on between 2.7 and 3.4.their follow link relationships. A large fraction of users in We discuss three implications of the ﬁndings. First, it iseach of these networks were connected to each other by common sense that more people pay attention to an event inTwitter’s follow links and formed one large weakly con- the beginning of a crisis, rather than later when companiesnected component. However, some users were singletons respond to the crisis. Table 2 conﬁrms this implication. Theand others formed small communities of their own and were prank network receives the most number of spreaders andnot connected to the majority of users who talked about the tweets compared to the other networks.crisis. Second, while the prank video was more popular than the apology or commentaries, the median numbers of followersSpatial Characteristics Table 2 displays the characteris- in the apology and commentary networks far exceed that intics of the prank, apology, and commentary networks. The the prank network. We can reasonably assume that whileﬁrst set of statistics are on the number of URLs, the number normal consumers or the average Twitter users would payof tweets, the number of users who posted the URLs (whom more attention to the prank video, experts such as journal-we call “spreaders” for convenience), the median numberof Twitter users who follow these spreaders, and the unique 1 This intuition is based on the extremely low probability fornumber of total followers of these spreaders (whom we call when any two randomly chosen users are connected and have“audience”). Audience represents the maximum number of shared similar content in the Twitter network.
ists, marketing consultants, and power bloggers would pay fuse. The median spreading times were 8.0, 19.3, and 23.8close attention to how companies or the public respond to hours for the prank, apology, and commentary networks, re-the crisis. These experts spread corporate responses and spectively. Based on the 95th percentile values, the prankcommentaries, and they likely have more connections than and apology news slowed down quickly in their spreadingpeople who simply spread the bad news. We could observe rates after 2.2-2.4 days. However, the commentary newsthis power of inﬂuence, as the apology and commentary net- continued to spread actively for up to 5.4 days.works had denser connections the prank network. These ex- Our temporal analysis has several implications. Consider-perts would more likely be opinion sharers who share their ing the speed of spreading, we can conclude that more peo-point of view, rather than information sharers who simply ple deliver bad news “faster” to more friends. Also, com-deliver news. pared to other types of news, commentary tweets stayed and Third, Pete Blackshaw, the executive vice president of spread for a longer period of time (more than twice the time)digital strategy services for Nielsen Online, wrote a book and reached a large audience. This means that when it comeswith an exaggerated title, “Satisﬁed Customers Tell Three to commentary, more people share conversation with othersFriends, Angry Customers Tell 3,000” (Blackshaw 2008). for a longer time period.Crisis management consultants used to say that people de-liver bad news than good news to more friends. Our anal- Social Network Determinants in Spreadingysis conﬁrms the overall trends. Considering the audience The most important characteristic of Twitter is that its userssize and the number of spreaders, one spreader tells about are linked to each other based on the follow feature. Underthe prank video to 1,061 (2204175/2078) people in the audi- this circumstance, we tried to identify the factors that areence, but the apology video to 766 (542161/707) people on related to the structure of social network and the interactionaverage. From the difference in the number of spreaders be- of users that could affect sentiment propagation.tween the prank and the apology, we can conclude that more In this section, we limit our focus to the sentiment of peo-people deliver bad news to more friends. ple in respect to the bad news. Therefore, we only consid-Diffusion Time Lag Given that web links are discovered ered tweets that were posted within the ﬁrst 48 hours of theat different rates depending on their topics, we next examine event prior to the CEO’s apology from April 13th to 15th.how the tweets containing the same URL are correlated in We grouped tweets by the hour of their post time and ig-time. To understand this, we identify the follow links that nored the time window with fewer than 100 tweets. In total,could have been used for information diffusion. We say a we took 23 valid time windows and analyzed sentiments ofpiece of information diffused from user A to B if and only the tweets in each time window.if (1) B follows A on Twitter, and (2) B posted the same Connected Users We asked whether the social networkURL only after A did so. Then the diffusion time for a piece structure or user interactions in Twitter can inﬂuence pub-of information to cross a social link is calculated as the time lic sentiments (i.e., positive or negative psychological af-difference between the tweet posts of A and B. In case a fects) on corporate bad news. Using LIWC, we conducteduser has multiple possible sources, we pick the user who sentiment analysis considering different types of user rela-posted the same URL the latest as the source. tionships. We examined the difference by comparing the sentiments of tweets generated by users who independently talked about the event against those generated by users who had at least one friend who talked about the same event. We classiﬁed users into two types as follows: • Isolated users: those who tweeted independently about the Domino’s event and did not follow any other user who tweeted about the same event • Connected users: those who are connected to other users who tweeted about the Domino’s event # tweets # RTs # mentions Isolated users 2,718 243 684Figure 2: Time taken for information to cross a social link Connected users 2,009 559 535 Total 4,727 802 1,219 Figure 2 shows the cumulative distribution function of the Table 3: Statistics for the isolated and connected userssocial diffusion times. We ﬁnd that the spreading time varieswidely in all three networks. A non-negligible fraction of We compared the difference in sentiments of the isolatedtweets (10-25%) spread within an hour and the majority less users with the connected users. Two-sample t-tests were per-than a day to cross a social link, indicating a rapid social dif- formed, which showed that there was no signiﬁcant differ-fusion process. Some tweets took several days to be found, ence between the two groups in both positive sentiments andpossibly because these users did not login to Twitter every negative sentiments (p>.05). This observation indicates thatday. Notably, the prank video took the shortest time to dif- there is no statistically meaningful level of inﬂuence of a
social link in the propagation of sentiments shared by two his personal thoughts (i.e., statement tweet) on the Domino’s connected users. That is to say, the users that tweeted about incident two times and retweeted another user’s tweet once, the Domino’s Pizza incident had similar sentiments, whether than he is categorized as the retweet interaction group. they were linked to each other or not. Figure 4 shows the sentiment scores of the ﬁrst tweet and Note that our ﬁnding does not deny the high level of the last tweet of users in a given interaction group. Compar- assortativity observed in the everyday mood of social net- ing the ﬁrst tweet and the last tweet for each user, we found work users, where researchers found that happy or unhappy that the overall negative sentiment decreased with repeated people form clusters in the ofﬂine contact network (Fowler, interaction. In contrast, the positive sentiment increased J.H. and Christakis 2008) as well as in the online counter- slightly with repeated interaction. Users who only posted part (Bollen et al. 2011). Our ﬁnding rather supports that statement tweets showed the least variations in their moods while there might be a great level of homophily in the gen- over time compared to those who interacted with others. eral mood of users who are connected in social networks, the collective sentiments on a particular topic are strikingly in tune with one another regardless of social distance. For instance, people would collectively feel sad towards disas- ters like an earthquake. In the case of Domino’s Pizza, most people felt disgusted watching the prank video; hence, their sentiments were similar irrespective of social distance. Interacted Users Next, we examined the various types of user interactions on Twitter such as retweets and mentions to determine whether tweet sentiments are affected by user in- teractions. Figure 3 shows the level of positive and negative (a) Positive sentiment (b) Negative sentiment sentiments among different interaction groups. According to the results of analysis of variance, the tweets that were Figure 4: Sentiment difference by repeated interactions retweeted had more negative sentiment words compared to tweets without any interaction (called “statement” in the ﬁg- ure) tweets (p<.05). That is, as the tweet introducing the Qualitative Analysis of Twitter Conversations prank video was retweeted on Twitter, people added more In addition to the quantitative content analysis using LIWC, negative comments in their retweets. we conducted a qualitative content analysis. Qualitative While retweets had more negative sentiments than the analysis focuses on the meaning of the content, provid- statement tweets, mentions had more positive sentiments ing a thick description rather than quantiﬁcation of the than the statement tweets did (p<.05). This contrast is worth data (Geertz 1973). noticing because it means that when people converse with Computerized quantitative content analysis has pre- others about bad news, their choice of words are much more structured content categories, and it can deal with mass con- positive than when they simply forward the same piece of tent data. In qualitative analysis, the coding scheme is devel- information to others. oped during the analysis, but the size of the data is limited. While quantitative analysis can provide a big picture, qual- itative analysis can give a detailed picture of the data. No pre-structured coding categories were used. Instead, open 8 8 q coding was used so that relevant categories could emerge.Sentiment Score Sentiment Score 6 6 q q Open coding is the part of analysis that pertains speciﬁcally 4 4 q q to the naming and categorizing of phenomena through close examination of the data (Strauss and Corbin 1990). 2 2 q q q Methods We sampled a total of 860 Twitter conversations 0 0 statement mention retweet statement mention retweet from two peak times: 395 from 3:00–4:00, April, 15th, when Tweet Type Tweet Type the video prank by the employees spread, and 465 from (a) Positive sentiment (b) Negative sentiment 20:00–21:00, April, 16th, when the Domino’s President re- leased an apology video in YouTube. Figure 3: Sentiment difference by user interactions Through continuous review of the data, we excluded tweets irrelevant to the 2009 Domino’s crisis. Some tweets For detailed analysis, we selected those users who posted in this category were written in non-English and therefore, at least three and no more than ﬁve tweets on the event and thrown out. A tweet like “I heart Lotus Domino!” also is classiﬁed them into the following four groups: (1) statement irrelevant, because it refers to IBM’s software product. An- group, if a user only posted statement tweets; (2) retweet other example is “picking up Dominos for the fam. Wife group, if a user posted at least one retweet; (3) mention called it in. Pepperoni for the kids; &Ham ; Pineapple for group, if a user posted at least one mention tweet; and (4) the grown-ups.” It is about Domino’s Pizza, but is not re- both group, if a user posted at least one retweet and one men- lated to the crisis (in fact, the user may not know about the tion tweet, respectively. For example, if a user posted about crisis). Furthermore, tweets like “Domino Pizza Time” were
excluded because of their ambiguity in whether they refer to The 1st peak The 2nd peakthe crisis or not. From the 860 tweets, 117 tweets (53 from Facts 57 (16.7%) 160 (39.9%)the 1st peak and 64 from the 2nd peak) were considered as Positive opinions 2 (0.6%) 22 (5.5%)irrelevant and thus, excluded. Negative opinions 283 (82.8%) 219 (54.6%) Total 342 (100%) 401 (100%)Results We identiﬁed two types of tweet content: factsand opinions. Tweets on facts have no sentiments, but sim- Table 4: Tweets on facts versus opinionsply state the event. This category included mere links with-out any text, links with the same headline of the linked web-site, or simple introductions of the link. Examples are: 1. Future intent: Some users showed that in the future they “Shared: Dominos Pranksters Done In By Crowdsourc- will not to eat at Domino’s, for example, ing: Teens have long used YouTube to post videos of “No more Domino’s at my house” them.. http://tinyurl.com/dx8kln” “and I don’t think I will be eating Domino’s again... “Searched Twitter for dominos: *throw up in my mouth*.” http://tinyurl.com/c4s4lx” 2. Persuasion: Some recommended others not to eat at “See the video: http://ping.fm/9Eybi” Domino’s, for example,During the 1st peak (right after the launch of the prank “This Is Why You Never Eat Dominos Pizzavideo), 57 out of the 342 relevant tweets (16.7%) were cate- http://tinyurl.com/d22ubr”gorized as facts, while in the 2nd peak (right after the launchof the apology video), 160 out of the 401 relevant tweets “If you didn’t have a reason to not eat Domino’s(39.9%) were facts. pizza http://tinyurl.com/cd62h3” The opinions category contained tweets that had either 3. Perception: Some tweets conﬁrmed people’s past nega-positive or negative sentiments. Because of the nature of tive purchase intent towards Domino’s, such as,the event, most opinions were negative. However, a few had “This is why I don’t eat anything from Domino’spositive sentiments towards the crisis: pizza http://tinyurl.com/chxbbz” “Yes, I read the stories about Dominoes on Con- sumerist today. No, that didn’t stop me from just or- “@TheDLC Due to their disgusting pizza, I also dering a philly cheesesteak pizza.” haven’t eaten at Domino’s pizza in about 20 years. Thanks for conﬁrming my decision!” “RT @BillieGee RT @berniebay I will continue to eat at Domino’s Pizza. What about you? http://bit.ly/y3T” “Thankfully, due to its psycho anti-abortion founder, I haven’t eaten a Domino’s pizza in probably 20Some tweets had both positive and negative sentiments, in years.”which case the annotator questioned what the major senti-ment was and then categorized the tweet. For example, the We counted the negative purchase intent in two peaks. Itfollowing tweet shows regret in the end. Nevertheless, the signiﬁcantly dropped from the 1st peak with 129 tweetstweet was categorized as positive because its major senti- (37.7%) to the 2nd peak with 26 tweets (6.5%).ment was judged to be positive. Finally, our analysis conﬁrmed that not all tweets men- “liking the response by dominos... wish he would have tioning the CEO’s apology had a positive sentiment. A total looked at the camera tho http://tinyurl.com/c8dju3” of 71 tweets (17.7%) talked about the apology, out of which 34 of them (47.9%) exhibited negative sentiments, such as We make the following observations from Table 4. First,after the ofﬁcial corporate apology, the level of negative sen- “Too little too late Domino’s http://tinyurl.com/c8dju3”timents dropped from 82.8% to 54.6%. However, the level “Very insincere response from Domino’s -of positive sentiments increased marginally from 0.6% to http://ow.ly/31mF. Compare to Jet Blue’s very5.5%. In crisis management practice, when companies pub- sincere response 2 yrs ago - http://ow.ly/31mV”licly apologize, they do not have high expectations for re- and ten tweets (14.1%) were positive, for example,ceiving praise or suddenly being viewed positively. Rather,they expect the public’s negative sentiment to calm down “via @hollisthomases http://bit.ly/2lZr8m kudos toand become more rational because of the apology. Our anal- Dominos for taking swift action via social media in re-ysis conﬁrms this expectation. The number of factual tweets sponse to the nasty employee videos.”increased signiﬁcantly from 16.7% to 39.9%. Therefore, “Impressed w/ Domino’s Response RT @lon-in Domino’s case, the public apology reduced the amount niehodge:RT @SherryinAL: Dominos posts apologyof negative opinions and increased (neutral) facts in Twitter video on YouTubehttp://bit.ly/2lZr8m”conversations. When a crisis like this hits a company, they worry not only while 27 tweets (38%) were factual rather than being opin-about its reputation damage but also and probably more im- ionated, such asportantly about its impact on sales. In fact, during the ﬁrst “Razor Report Blog: Update - Domino’s Responds:peak, a category on negative purchase intent emerged con- Patrick Doyle, President, Domino’s U.S.A., resp..taining the following three representative types of opinions: http://tinyurl.com/csls5n”
“For the PR agencies to analize, Domino’s ofﬁcial re- References sponse to the video http://tinyurl.com/cr9ak7” 2012. ABC News Papa John’s Employee Calls Woman ‘Lady Chinky Eyes’ on Receipt. http://tinyurl.com/746lzko.It is interesting to observe that nearly half of the tweets on An, S.-K., and Cheng, I.-H. 2010. Crisis communication researchapology were negative. Nonetheless, slightly more than half in public relations journals: Tracking research trends over thirtyof such tweets, including facts (38%) or positive opinions years, in The handbook of crisis comm. Handbooks in Comm. and(14.1%), were non-negative. Media. Wiley-Blackwell. Blackshaw, P. 2008. Satisﬁed Customers Tell Three Friends, Angry Conclusion Customers Tell 3,000. Crown Business. Bollen, J.; Goncalves, B.; Ruan, G.; and Mao, H. 2011. HappinessWhen bad news spread, we could not ﬁnd any statistically is Assortative in Online Social Networks. Artiﬁcial Life 17(3):237–meaningful inﬂuence of sentiments taking place at the so- 251.cial network level. However, when users interacted with Bollen, J.; Mao, H.; and Zeng, X.-J. 2011. Twitter mood predictseach other, their sentiments changed signiﬁcantly. People the stock market. J. Comput. Science 2(1):1–8.spread and retweeted bad news with negative sentiment, but Cha, M.; Haddadi, H.; Benevenuto, F.; and Gummadi, K. 2010.interacted with other through mentions with relatively pos- Measuring User Inﬂuence in Twitter: The Million Follower Fal-itive sentiment. We provide one possible explanation for lacy. In Int. AAAI Conf. on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM).this result. As people interact with others in social media, Coombs, W. T., . H. S. J. 2008. Comparing apology to equivalentthey share their feelings and this act could reduce the nega- crisis response strategies: clarifying apology’s role and value intive sentiments. For example, it is well known in psychol- crisis comm. Public Relations Review 34:252–257.ogy that people’s anger could be reduced by simply venting Efthimious, G. 2010. Regaining Altitude: A case analysis of thetheir sentiments (Frantz and Bennigson 2005). Also, bad JetBlue Airways Valentine’s Day 2007 crisis, in The handbook ofnews spread faster than a corporate response (i.e., apology) crisis comm. Handbooks in Comm. and Media. Wiley-Blackwell.and by more people, while commentaries resonated in the Fowler, J.H., and Christakis, N. 2008. Dynamic spread of happi-network for a longer period of time. From our qualitative ness in a large social network: Longitudinal analysis over 20 yearsanalysis, the negative purchase intent emerged as a major in the framlington heart study. British Medical Journal 337:a2338.negative sentiment category. The CEO’s YouTube apology Frantz, C., and Bennigson, C. 2005. Better late than early: Thecaused a signiﬁcant decrease in negative sentiments, espe- inﬂuence of timing on apology effectiveness. Journal of Experi-cially the negative purchase intent, and facilitated factual mental Social Psychology 41(2):201–207.and non-opinionated conversations. Geertz, C. 1973. The interpretation of cultures: selected essays. Our study has practical implications for crisis managers in Harper colophon books. Basic Books.businesses. First, when a company makes a mistake and bad Golder, S. A., and Macy, M. W. 2011. Diurnal and seasonal moodnews starts to spread in social media, crisis managers should vary with work, sleep, and daylength across diverse cultures. Sci-react quickly, admitting mistakes and apologizing appro- ence 333(6051):1878–1881.priately. Several recent work conﬁrmed the positive effect HCD Research 2007. Majority of Americans Will Continue to Pur-of CEO’s apologies in social media, Twitter and YouTube, chase Mattel Toys after Recall. http://tinyurl.com/6ujmcbu.both in the US and in Korea (HCD b; Efthimious 2010; HCD Research 2009. Domino’s Brand Takes a Hit after YouTubePark et al. 2011). Second, companies should start conver- “Prank” Video. http://tinyurl.com/d4e47h.sations in social media during normal times, not just after Jin, Y., and Pang, A. 2010. Future directions of crisis communi-a crisis hits the organizations. Third, considering the speed cation research: Emotions in crisis - the next frontier in The hand-at which bad news spreads, companies should prepare to re- book of crisis comm. Handbooks in Comm. and Media. Wiley- Blackwell.spond within hours, not within days. Park, J.; Kim, H.; Cha, M.; and Jeong, J. 2011. Ceo’s apology in There are several exciting directions for future research. twitter: A case study of the fake beef labeling incident by e-mart.First, our methodology could not capture any subtle changes In SocInfo, volume 6984 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science,in sentiments of individuals, because an automated analyses 300–303. Springer.tool like LIWC operates based on simple word counts. As Strauss, A., and Corbin, J. 1990. Basics of qualitative research:we have demonstrated, a cross examination of both quan- Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Sage Publications.titative and qualitative analyses can provide a big and in- Talbot, D. 2011. A social media decoder. MIT Technology reviewdepth picture. Second, our investigation focused on only 44–51.one event. Other bad news cases can be analyzed using the Tausczik, Y. R., and Pennebaker, J. W. 2010. The Psychologicalresearch framework of this study to identify commonalities Meaning of Words: LIWC and Computerized Text Analysis Meth-and differences in the spread of bad news. ods. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 29(1):24–54. Tumasjan, A.; O.Sprenger, T.; G.Sander, P.; and M.Welpe, I. 2010. Acknowledgement Predicting elections with twitter: What 140 characters reveal about political sentiment. In Int. AAAI Conf. on Weblogs and Social Me- Meeyoung Cha and Jaram Park were supported by Basic dia (ICWSM).Science Research Program through the National Research Wu, S.; Tan, C.; Kleinberg, J.; and Macy, M. 2011. Does bad newsFoundation (NRF) of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Ed- go away faster? In Int. AAAI Conf. on Weblogs and Social Mediaucation, Science and Technology (2011-0012988). (ICWSM).