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Philosophy 4 Children and Reading

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Philosophy 4 Children and Reading

Attached is a basic outline of an 8-stage P4C-style cycle that can be used with short stories, poetry and longer class readers. For the full set of resources, go to: www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Philosophy-4-Children-and-Reading-6328364/

Attached is a basic outline of an 8-stage P4C-style cycle that can be used with short stories, poetry and longer class readers. For the full set of resources, go to: www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Philosophy-4-Children-and-Reading-6328364/

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Philosophy 4 Children and Reading

  1. 1. History of P4C… • P4C, otherwise known as ‘Philosophy for Children’, was originally developed by the late Matthew Lipman. • Matthew Lipman, a US-based philosophy academic, pioneered a new educational model during the Vietnam War out of concern over ordinary people’s capacity to reason independently. • His work has led to a number of organisations promoting the initiative – one of the most prominent being www.P4C.com.
  2. 2. General Benefits of P4C… • P4C is a method of teaching and learning that seeks to develop students’ higher-order thinking skills and their ability to work co- operatively. • It has been praised by Ofsted in relation to humanities and other bodies looking at the quality of education programmes. • The method has been shown to: - Coach abstract and evidence-based thinking. - Improve the quality of classroom talk. - Contribute to emotional-social maturity.
  3. 3. Benefits to NC English… • P4C can help shape teaching and learning around the following Assessment Foci: - AF2 - understand, describe, select or retrieve information, events or ideas from texts and use quotation and reference to text - AF3 - deduce, infer or interpret information, events or ideas from texts - AF6 - identify and comment on writers' purposes and viewpoints, and the overall effect of the text on the reader - AF7 - relate texts to their social, cultural and historic • P4C offers something to ‘add to the mix’ when teaching lower-attaining classes, including students with SEN and SpLD, who appear ‘stuck’ at NC Level 3 in Reading. • P4C might help counter the habitual spoon-feeding of answers (‘learned helplessness’) that occurs at times in lower-attaining classes and in turn develop greater learner independence.
  4. 4. P4C is all about questions… Raising the level of questioning from what to why… abstract concrete [Marion Blank Model of Verbal Reasoning] Blank Level 1 Blank Level 2 Blank Level 3 Blank Level 4 naming and parts, properties, causation, problem labelling categories, predictive solving, recount narrative, reasoning, narrative, reordering empathy refinement of detail
  5. 5. P4C is all about questions… Varying the type of questions asked… Textual Questions You can find You can use your answers to these imagination to questions by answer these referring to the questions. text. E.g. “How many E.g. “Why did the towers did the damkeeper feel Closed dam have?” so confident?” Open Questions Questions E.g. “How does a E.g. “What could the dam stay safe?” lightening strike represent?” You can find out background information by You can arrive at referring to a number of websites, other answers through stories etc. discussion. Intellectual Questions [Phil Cam Question Quadrant]
  6. 6. P4C is all about questions… Creating a critical self-awareness of thinking… Challenging the Answers What examples can you find to support this? Can you find a quote to back this up? Can you explain that further? How do we know that? Challenging Assumptions What do you think the writer believes? Is there another point of view? What might _______ say in answer to this question? What if someone else were to suggest ______? Challenging the Questions What is the point of asking this question? How important is this question? What kind of discussion does this question lead us to? What other questions could be asked? [Socratic Questioning]
  7. 7. P4C is also all about community… Demonstrating Equality: • Each student’s contribution is encouraged and valued. • Every contribution ultimately contributes to the learning process. • The teacher plays the role of facilitator rather than instructor. By forming part of the circle, they act as a role model for the above. Demonstrating Teamwork: • The structured process of turn-taking builds pragmatic / social skills. • No question is wasted as each contributes to the process of selection and discovery.
  8. 8. The P4C process for reading… 1. Stimulus 8. Final Thoughts The text is presented to Each student produces a the group. short summary. 2. Thinking Time 7. More Thinking Time Each student is given Each student is given time to reflect. further time to reflect. 3. Question Creation 6. Dialogue Each student thinks of a The students respond to question. the selected questions. 4. Sharing Questions 5. Voting Each student airs a The students vote for the question to the group. key questions.
  9. 9. The P4C process for reading… 1. Stimulus •Check the readability of the text. The text is presented to •Prep the text by numbering the lines / the group. paragraphs. •Encourage line tracking with a ruler. •Clarify any unfamiliar vocabulary. •Encourage all students to read aloud – even just a sentence. •A successful text will contain: - Big ideas such as love, death etc. Even better if they are opposing i.e. war vs. peace. - Tension and contradiction i.e. the guardian angel in ‘Skellig’ is bad-tempered and ragged. - Everyday human issues that can be related to (even if the characters aren’t human!)
  10. 10. The P4C process for reading… 2. Thinking Time •Students can re-read the text. Each student is given •Students could be encouraged to create time to reflect. a quick storyboard, summarise the text in 3 words, create a simple mind-map etc. •Background music might assist students in ‘settling’. •Pose the following questions: - How does the text make you feel? - What was most interesting about the text? - How would you feel if you were _______? - What bits confuse you?
  11. 11. The P4C process for reading… 3. Question Creation •Each student could be given post-its to write down their questions on – this stops Each student thinks of a them from feeling ‘final’. question. •From there, the students could rank their own questions. •To prompt students towards higher-level, more varied questions, you could show them Phil Cam’s question quadrant with an example question specifically related to the text in each. •To add a further incentive, you could provide a scoring system e.g. - what is, where, when, who = 1 point - how, what if = 2 points - why, would, could, should = 3 points
  12. 12. The P4C process for reading… 4. Sharing Questions • Each student airs what they consider to be their most important question. The Each student airs a teacher / facilitator needs to record these question to the group. on the board. •To raise awareness, during this process ? they could be divided into the categories provided by Phil Cam Quadrant or using the Marion Blank Model. •With less confident students, this part of the process could be divided into two steps: 1) share the questions with a friend, pick a favourite question from their friend’s collection 2) share this with the rest of the group •This is also a good opportunity to begin to pose Socratic questions.
  13. 13. The P4C process for reading… 5. Voting •Emphasise that the vote is for a ‘juicy question’ not based on friendship or The students vote for the easiness to answer! key questions. •Different voting systems and methods can be used. Votes can be cast on paper or through hands / thumbs up, or you could try something more interesting such as an applause vote. •An open vote will allow for further Socratic question, “Why do you think this question is more important than that question?” •A closed vote will prevent students feeling less pressured if their question is not chosen. However, it will curb discussion. •Sometimes it might be useful to add a question not voted for if a student keeps having their question discounted.
  14. 14. The P4C process for reading… 6. Dialogue •This can be undertaken initially individually, in pairs or even in groups of three. The students respond to the selected questions. •There will naturally be some students who are desperate to speak whilst others hide. It is important not to let the more confident speakers dictate. • Rather than hands up, devise other methods of selecting who reports back such as by numbered sticks, by size of feet etc. •Sometimes it can be useful to select the student/s most likely to have the strongest opinion – then ask others to disagree. • Giving a time limit for each contribution will avoid students overrunning. • This is another point for throwing in Socratic questions!
  15. 15. The P4C process for reading… 7. More Thinking Time • The teacher / facilitator might need to begin by summarising the key points, Each student is given without attempting to lead the students further time to reflect. (too much!). •The teacher / facilitator can pose questions to prompt them: - Which do you agree with? ________ or _______? - Is _____________ the only answer? - Are you thinking anything different to your first thoughts? If so, what?
  16. 16. The P4C process for reading… 8. Final Thoughts •This could be an extended writing activity with students asked to write a short essay or Each student produces produce a piece of creative writing such as a short summary. a letter, speech, poem or newspaper article. •This could be a creative more visual written activity such as producing a mind- map or poster. •This could be a kinaesthetic activity with students asked to swap places if they changed their views, or stand next to someone who helped them come to their final conclusion etc. •Or this could simply be a case of students writing three bullet points and sharing them with the group. • An alternative could be to record their final thoughts via a flip camera.
  17. 17. Getting started… A few texts (with films!) to get you and your students thinking…
  18. 18. Taking it further… www.thephilosophyman.com www.sapere.org.uk
  19. 19. Taking it even further… An insight into Western philosophy… An insight into Eastern philosophy…
  20. 20. And finally… “Don’t just teach your children to read… Teach them to question what they read. Teach them to question everything.” Who said this? Is this quote more Will this lead to a better valid if a teacher society in the future? said it? Are there some things that shouldn’t be questioned?
  21. 21. For further resources or to contact the author, please visit: www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk Copyright , Matt Grant, 2013 All rights reserved. Permission to present this material and distribute freely for non-commercial purposes is granted, provided this copyright notice and those in the slides remain intact and is included in the distribution. If you modify this work, please note where you have modified it, as I want neither credit nor responsibility for your work. Modification for the purpose of taking credit for my work or otherwise circumventing the spirit of this license is not allowed, and will be considered a copyright violation. Any suggestions and corrections are appreciated and may be incorporated into future versions of this work, and credited as appropriate. If you believe I have infringed copyright, please contact me via the above website and I will promptly credit , amend or remove the material in question.

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