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Hypothesis based typologies for capturing diversity by Descheemaeker et al

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Hypothesis based typologies for capturing diversity by Descheemaeker et al

  1. 1. Hypothesis based typologies for capturing diversity Stephanie Alvarez, Wim Paas, Katrien Descheemaeker, Jeroen Groot Wageningen University, Farming Systems Ecology & Plant Production Systems groups Humidtropics
  2. 2. Aim of typologies: - Capture variability of farming systems - Understand heterogeneity in regions Introduction Hengsdijk et al., 2014; N2Africa report – 2 action sites in Kenya Franke et al., 2014
  3. 3. Aim of typologies: - Capture variability of farming systems - Understand heterogeneity in regions For 1. Targeting and tailoring 2. Scaling out; dissemination 3. Selection of representative farms 4. Scaling up; extrapolate to larger scale Introduction
  4. 4. Major steps: 1. What is the objective? 2. Hypothesis on farming systems diversity 3. Data collection 4. Selection of key variables 5. Clustering the farms 6. Hypothesis and typology verification Overall: Combine expert knowledge from participatory work with statistical analysis Guidelines
  5. 5. Major steps: 1. What is the objective? Specific: Improve forage production in mixed systems of Rwanda Broad: Improve food security in the humid tropics Guidelines
  6. 6. Major steps: 2. Hypothesis on farming systems diversity Participatory process for ex-ante description of farm types ; identification of discriminating criteria Guidelines
  7. 7. Major steps: 3. Data collection 4. Selection of key variables Variable categories: - Structural vs. functional characteristics - Resource availability vs. management - Biophysical vs. socio-economic - Farm vs. external key variables: 5 - 46, av. 15 sampled farms: 18 – 2746, av. 138 #farms > 5 * #variables Guidelines
  8. 8. Major steps: 5. Clustering the farms Guidelines
  9. 9. Major steps: 5. Clustering the farming systems a. Multivariate statistics (PCA, MCA, MFA) Discriminating variables Guidelines
  10. 10. Guidelines Major steps: 5. Clustering the farming systems a. Multivariate statistics (PCA, MCA, MFA) Discriminating variables b. Cluster analysis
  11. 11. Major steps: 6. Hypothesis and typology verification Guidelines
  12. 12. Major steps: 6. Hypothesis and typology verification Example from Ghana – participatory and statistical approach Guidelines Poster, Katja Kuivanen et al.
  13. 13. Major steps: 1. What is the objective? 2. Hypothesis on farming systems diversity 3. Data collection 4. Selection of key variables 5. Clustering the farms 6. Hypothesis and typology verification Guidelines
  14. 14. coffee >35% grazing land>20% khat>30% enset>35% Classification trees and trends Homegarden types in Ethiopia Khat Enset- cereal Enset Enset- coffee Enset- livestock Khat Enset- cereal Enset Enset- coffee Enset- livestock Areashareofkhat(%) Areashareofcoffee(%) Khat Enset- cereal Enset Enset- coffee Enset- livestock Areashareofenset(%) Areashareofgrazingland(%) Khat Enset- cereal Enset Enset- coffee Enset- livestock
  15. 15. Farms 4 types Enset-coffee 3 types Enset- livestock 2 types Enset-cereal- vegetable Enset Khat khat >30% coffee >35% Grazing land>20% Enset >35%
  16. 16. 1991 2013 20132 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 1 12 1 12 12 12 12 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 44444 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 3 44 3 44 3 44 3 44 3 44 34 34 34 3 54 3 54 3 54 3 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 1 54 1 54 1 54 1 54 1 54 1 54 1 54 1 55553 2 53 2 53 5 53 5 53 5 53 5 53 5 53 5 53 3 53 3 53 3 53 3 53 3 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 43 43 43 4 23 4 23 4 23 4 23 4 23 4 23 4 23 4 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 22225 2 25 2 25 2 25 2 25 2 25 2 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 3 25 3 25 35 35 45 4 35 4 35 4 35 4 35 4 35 4 35 4 35 4 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 33331 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 3 Enset Enset- livestock Enset- coffee Enset- cereal- vegetable Khat 1991 2013 20132 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 4 12 1 12 1 12 12 12 12 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 42 1 44444 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 2 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 5 44 3 44 3 44 3 44 3 44 3 44 34 34 34 3 54 3 54 3 54 3 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 4 54 1 54 1 54 1 54 1 54 1 54 1 54 1 54 1 55553 2 53 2 53 5 53 5 53 5 53 5 53 5 53 5 53 3 53 3 53 3 53 3 53 3 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 4 53 43 43 43 4 23 4 23 4 23 4 23 4 23 4 23 4 23 4 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 22225 2 25 2 25 2 25 2 25 2 25 2 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 5 25 3 25 3 25 35 35 45 4 35 4 35 4 35 4 35 4 35 4 35 4 35 4 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 35 1 33331 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 3 Khat Enset- livestock Enset- cereal- vegetable Enset Enset- coffee Classification trees and trends 31% 30% 19% 17% 3% 24% 24% 21% 18% 13%
  17. 17. Spatial organization of farm types Type Main characteristics 1 HRE, large cattle herd, ample off-farm activities 2 MRE, large farms, market orientation 3 MRE, small ruminants, on-farm labour intensive 4 MRE, small ruminants, ample hired labour 5 LRE, maize dominated, few off-farm activities 6 SRC, livestock sales, ample off-farm activities Katja Kuivanen Small & medium farms Small ruminants Market oriented farms High resource endowed farms
  18. 18. Statistical background and examples Appendix C of the report R code to explore the data and run the analysis Tips for interpretation of statistical results
  19. 19. Conclusions Typology guidelines: 6 steps, no recipe book Interpretation of results ; degree of subjectivity Combine statistical methods with participatory work
  20. 20. Thank you https://humidtropics.cgiar.org/constructing-typologies-to-capture-farming-systems-diversity http://humidtropics.cgiar.org/openaccess/?did=231

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