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The Process of Conducting Educational Research

The Process of Conducting Educational Research
* Definition of Research and Research Process
* Steps in the Process of Research
* Characteristics of Quantitative and Qualitative Research
* Types of Research Designs
* Skills Needed in Designing and Conducting Research

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The Process of Conducting Educational Research

  1. 1. The Process of Conducting Education Research SEMINAR IN THESIS WRITING 1st Trimester AY 2020-2021 Presented by: CARLO JUSTINO J. LUNA RICARDO V. MALLARI
  2. 2. THE MATHEMATICIAN’S PRAYER Heavenly Father, thank You for all the blessings You gave unto us. Add joy to the world; Subtract evil from our lives, Multiply the good things for us. Divide the gifts and share them to others. Convert badness to goodness. Help us raise our needs to You. Extract the roots of immoralities and perform our different functions in life. Tell us all that life is as easy as math. Help us all to solve our problems. These we ask in Jesus’ name, the Greatest Mathematician who ever lived on earth, Amen!
  3. 3. The Process of Conducting Education Research SEMINAR IN THESIS WRITING 1st Trimester AY 2020-2021 Presented by: CARLO JUSTINO J. LUNA RICARDO V. MALLARI
  4. 4. INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES • Define and describe the importance of educational research • Describe the steps in the process of research • Identify the characteristics of quantitative and qualitative research • Identify types of research designs associated with quantitative and qualitative research • Recognize skills needed to design and conduct research
  5. 5. RESEARCH Using the letters in the word what other words can you create? WORD FACTORY
  6. 6. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought.”
  7. 7. Question: What is Research?
  8. 8. RESEARCH  Research is the process of discovering new knowledge.  Research is a systematic search for knowledge through method of study, observation, comparison and experiment.
  9. 9. RESEARCH  Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines. (Hampshire College https://www.hampshire.edu/dof/what-is-research)
  10. 10. RESEARCH  Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods. American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie
  11. 11. RESEARCH  Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. John W. Creswell
  12. 12. Question: What is the Purpose of Research?
  13. 13. PURPOSES OF RESEARCH 1. Exploratory  problem that has not yet been clearly defined  aims to gain a better understanding 2. Descriptive  expands knowledge of a research problem by describing its characteristics  focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’ 3. Explanatory  is conducted to determine how variables interact  deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments
  14. 14. Question: What is Research Process?
  15. 15. RESEARCH PROCESS “Scientific method” of inquiry (Kerlinger, 1972; Leedy & Ormrod, 2001) • Identify a problem that defines the goal of research. • Make a prediction that, if confirmed, resolves the problem. • Gather data relevant to this prediction. • Analyze and interpret the data to see if it supports the prediction and resolves the question that initiated the research.
  16. 16. Question: What are the steps involved in a research process?
  17. 17. STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS • Define the Research Problem • Review of Literature • Formulate hypothesis • Prepare the research design • Collect data • Analyze the gathered information • Interpret the results and present the final report
  18. 18. STEP 1: Define the Research Problem • Most important step in research  “A problem well-defined is half- solved.” • Selecting a research topic • Specifying a problem  needs, issues, controversies • Justifying the study  providing evidence about the importance of the study • Suggesting the need to study it for audiences • Establish research objectives
  19. 19. Establish Research Objectives • “If you do not know what you are looking for, you won’t find it.” • In establishing research objectives, the researcher must answer the following questions: i. What specific information should the project provide? ii. If more than one type of information will be developed from the study, which is the most important? iii. What are the priorities?
  20. 20. STEP 2: Review of Literature • Locating resources  summaries  books  journal articles  indexed publications • Selecting resources • Summarizing resources
  21. 21. STEP 3: Formulate Hypothesis • Assumptions are drawn to test its logical or empirical consequences • Hypothesis is guiding force of a researcher. • Hypothesis should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it must be tested. • The role of the hypothesis is to guide the researcher by delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the right track.
  22. 22. STEP 4: Prepare the Research Design • Outline or a conceptual structure • Collection of relevant evidence • There are a number of alternative research designs. The choice will largely depend on the research purpose. RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH EXPLORATORY (Focus Group; Observation) QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESCRIPTIVE (Survey Research) CAUSAL (Laboratory Experiment; Field Experiment)
  23. 23. STEP 5: Collecting Data • Selecting individuals to study • Obtaining permissions • Determining the methods of accessing data • Primary information  telephone / mobile phone interview  mail  online / personal interview (Quantitative)  observation studies / focus groups (Qualitative) • Secondary information  internet  Library • Design data collection forms (e.g., questionnaires, observation study forms)
  24. 24. STEP 6: Analyze Data • requires several closely related operations such as establishment of categories • includes coding, editing, tabulation, and conducting various statistical tests • involves drawing conclusions about the data • explaining the conclusions in words to provide answers to the research questions
  25. 25. STEP 7: Interpretation and Report Writing • The researcher must submit a written report and often make an oral presentation. • Writing of report includes:  the preliminary pages  the main text  the end matter
  26. 26. Question: What are the characteristics of research?
  27. 27. Quantitative Research Characteristics • Describing a research problem through a description of trends or a need for an explanation of the relationship among variables • Providing a major role for the literature through suggesting the research questions to be asked and justifying the research problem and creating a need for the direction (purpose statement and research questions or hypotheses) of the study
  28. 28. Quantitative Research Characteristics • Creating purpose statements, research questions, and hypotheses that are specific, narrow, measurable, and observable • Collecting numeric data from a large number of people using instruments with preset questions and responses
  29. 29. Quantitative Research Characteristics • Analyzing trends, comparing groups, or relating variables using statistical analysis, and interpreting results by comparing them with prior predictions and past research • Writing the research report using standard, fixed structures and evaluation criteria, and taking an objective, unbiased approach
  30. 30. Qualitative Research Characteristics • Exploring a problem and developing a detailed understanding of a central phenomenon • Having the literature review play a minor role but justify the problem • Stating the purpose and research questions in a general and broad way so as to the participants’ experiences
  31. 31. Qualitative Research Characteristics • Collecting data based on words from a small number of individuals so that the participants’ views are obtained • Analyzing the data for description and themes using text analysis and interpreting the larger meaning of the findings
  32. 32. Qualitative Research Characteristics • Writing the report using flexible, emerging structures and evaluative criteria, and including the researchers’ subjective reflexivity and bias
  33. 33. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Research Problem • is used to direct the types of questions or hypotheses asked in the study. Research Problem • is typically used to establish the importance of the central idea.
  34. 34. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Use more closed-ended approaches in which the researcher identifies set response categories (e.g., strongly agree, strongly disagree, and so forth), Qualitative approaches use more open-ended approaches in which the inquirer asks general questions of participants, and the participants shape the response possibilities (e.g., in an interview with a teacher, a qualitative researcher might ask: What does professional development mean to you?)
  35. 35. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative Research Qualitative Research The investigator relies on statistical analysis (mathematical analysis) of the data, which is typically in numeric form. Statistics are not used to analyze the data; instead, the inquirer analyzes words (e.g., transcriptions from interviews) or images (e.g., photographs)
  36. 36. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Structure • introduction, literature review, methods, results, and conclusion sections Structure • Some of these sections may be missing (e.g., the literature review in the Shelden et al., 2010 study) • The format may be more of a literary opening with a personal vignette or passage, an unfolding story, the use of extensive quotes from participants, and personal reflections from the researcher.
  37. 37. Question: What are the types of research designs?
  38. 38. Question: What are the skills needed to design and conduct research?
  40. 40. SEMINAR IN THESIS WRITING 1st Trimester AY 2020-2021 Presented by: CARLO JUSTINO J. LUNA RICARDO V. MALLARI