Leading and Managing Change
A Theoretical and Practical Understanding
of Organizational Change
Forbes School of Business and Technology (FSBT)
Leadership (BABL) / Entrepreneurship (BAE) / Service Management (BASM) Club
Dr. Rick N. Reed
EdD, MA, PCED
! Present a theoretical and practical
understanding of organizational change.
! Refresh on concepts and theory, and also
learn something new.
Present with Active Learning Methods
! Dialogue with Self and Others
! Skilled and experienced in higher education. Taught over 160 courses in
accelerated education (onground and online teaching modalities). Over 13 years
of experience in higher education.
! Successful Extensive experience in distance education, adult learning and
development, management, leadership, planning, project management,
professional selling, marketing, strategic manaement, P&L management, and
! A seasoned business executive within PepsiCo system, a Fortune 500 company.
! Recipient of local and national Excellence in Teaching Awards.
! Strong servant, strategic and transformational leader who advances managerial
and leadership excellence, and inspires, influences, and improves people and
Dr. Rick N. Reed
EdD, MA, PCED
! Skilled and experienced educator – taught over 160 courses
! Over 13 years of experience in higher education; traditional, hybrid,
distance education, & accelerated learning
! Curriculum developer, HLC accreditation & faculty selection member
! CDI national presenter & consultant on leadership and development
! Local and national education and marketing award recipient
! Transformational servant leader, business & marketing executive
! Successful entrepreneur with over 31 years experience
! Award winning author, illustrator & designer
Our Promise To You – The Next 30 Minutes
! Spend Our Time Wisely
! Make it Fun and Productive
! Promote Learning – The Learning and Knowledge Cycle
Time is Important!
Image Copyright Getty Images, 2013, used under license from Istockphoto.com
“ Learning is an engaging process that results in knowledge.
But the concept of knowledge is an ironic one: You can
discover particular knowledge (claim it, possess it) at the end
of a learning process, but it is invisible. You know you possess
it; you can say, “OK, I got it!” But that doesn’t make it visible.
Your new knowledge does not become visible until you take
action based upon it - then it becomes concrete, visible to
others, and fully owned for you to act on. We are all actors on
the stage of knowledge every day” (Alexander, Clugston, &
Tice, 2009, p. 2).
The Learning–Knowledge Cycle
The Reality –
We Continue to Change!
(Collerette, Schnieder, & Legris, 2003)
Expand the Bigger Picture and See the Many Positive Possibilities!
Don’t try to shrink it, Change Brings Opportunity!
Looking Ahead - Trends
! Continuous change
! Agile Organizations
– Understand and Practice
Successful Change (Speed,
Integration and Minimal
What Does Change Look Like?
What Change Looks Like
Beer (1980) Definition:
“ Planned organizational change is a process that moves
companies from a present state to a desired future state
with the goal of enhancing their effectiveness.
Ultimately, the goal of planned organizational change is
to improve an organization’s capabilities, thus enhancing
its value to stakeholders and stockholders” (as cited in
Weiss, 2012, p. 17).
Types of Organizational Change
! Attitude-Centered Change
! Role-Centered Change
! Changes in Technology
! Change in Competitive Strategy
! Economic or Human Factor Changes
! Generic Change Programs
The Change Continuum
Interesting Article and Theory
(Collerette, Schnieder & Legris, 2003)
Forces That Drive Change
The Four New Phenomena
1. Rupture (External pressures)
2. Fragmentation (Where to go)
3. Concurrence (Managing it all)
What changes are you or others
Thinking About Change
(Work, School, Family and Personal)
What types of organizational
change are these?
1. You want to improve your existing way of operating without
radically changing it.
2. You are changing your existing way of doing business and it
will not only impact your department, but will impact several
departments within your organization.
3. Your organization has purchased and is merging with another
organization. The scope of the change requires your
organizational culture and people behaviors and mindsets
in Simpler Terms...
! A process that enables people to
assimilate changes more quickly and
! A process that connects significant
change to the culture of the
! A process that allows employees to
be more successful more quickly in
the post-change environment.
(The Revere Group, 2008)
Perception is Reality!
Reactions to Change
! People’s reactions to change are not
based just on the change itself
! Reactions are based on past experiences
and perceptions of the change (e.g. -
! Most people don’t resist change, but
resist the perception that it is being
forced upon them
How do we react to change?
Why Some People
May Resistance to Change
! Lack of Trust
! Belief that change is unnecessary
! Belief that the change is not feasible
! Economic threats
! Relative high cost
! Fear of personal failure
! Loss of status and power
! Threat to values and ideals
! Resentment of interference
! Handle change correctly and
people become inoculated and
better prepared to deal with change
! Handle change incorrectly and
unprofessionally leaves people less
resilient and more vulnerable
Ways to Influence Positive Outcomes
! Positive Attention
! Positive Reactions to crisis
! Positive Role Modeling
! Design of systems and procedures
! Design of organizational structure
! Design of facilities
! Stories, legends, and myths
! Formal statements
! KUDOS: Acknowledging People Genuinely and Professionally!
Leading the Change
! Modeling the change
! Communicating about the change
! Involving others in the change
! Helping others break from the past
! Creating a supportive environment
Stages in the Change Process
Lewin’s Force-Field Model
The Performance Gap – COMMUNICATION
Kotter’s 8 Steps: urgency, coalition, vision, communicate,
empower, wins, improvements, institutionalize new approaches
Communication During Change
! Share the Big Picture
! Avoid distractions
! Be specific - X 7 (X11)
! Speak the “native tongue”
! Create 2-way conversation
! Gain immediate feedback
! Power of Body Language
Handle People with Care!
! Help everyone on the team.
! WIFM – Remember people need
to see what is in it for them too.
Change brings opportunity for
more efficiency, personal and
for Changing Times
! Higher Sense of Purpose
! Open Mind – Embrace Diversity
! Common Ground
Rosabeth Moss Kanter
The Change Masters:
Innovation & Entrepreneurship in the
The Reality –
We Continue to Change!
Expand the Bigger Picture and
See the Many Positive Possibilities!
Don’t Shrink it, Change Brings Opportunity!
for your time, attention
Alexander, M., Clugston, W., & Tice, E. (2009). Learning online and achieving lifelong goals. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint
Beer, M. (1980). Organization change and development: a systems view. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear.
Collerette, P., Schnieder, R., & Legris, P. (November – December, 2003). Managing organizational change-Part 6:
Managing the transition. Management Systems. ISO Management Systems. Retrieved from www.iso.org/ims
Davis, W., & Reed, R. (2017). Teaching and career experience [Powerpoint Slides]. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Ford, L. (2007). Organizational change initiatives [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from lecture notes. Clinton, IA: Ashford
Kanter, R. M. (Presenter). (2008). Enduring principles for changing times [DVD video]. Whole Earth Films. North Charleston,
Kanter, R. M. (1983). The change masters: Innovation & entrepreneurship in the American corporation. New York, NY: Simon &
The Revere Group (2008). Business results cycle. Chicago, IL: Information and Technology Services.
Weiss, J. W. (2012). Organizational change. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in organizations. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.
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