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Becoming	
  a	
  Social	
  Scien-st	
  
	
  
Sociology	
  &	
  Policy	
  Department	
  
TP2	
  Developing	
  Research	
  S...
Key	
  points	
  this	
  lecture	
  is	
  addressing:	
  
	
  
1.  Rela-onship	
  between	
  the	
  sociological	
  imagin...
Ques>ons	
  this	
  lecture	
  is	
  addressing:	
  
	
  
1.  What	
  are	
  the	
  advantages/disadvantages	
  of	
  usin...
Objectives
After this session you will be able to:
•  Distinguish between quantitative, qualitative
and mixed research des...
Further readings
5
Objectives
1.  Mixed Methods
2.  Triangulation
Objectives
1.  Mixed Methods
•  Reminder	
  of	
  the	
  Quan-ta-ve	
  Methods	
  
•  Quan-ta-ve	
  Methods:	
  Ethnography	
  
Reminder	
  
Reminder:	
  The	
  Jing-­‐Jang	
  of	
  the	
  	
  
Quan-ta-ve	
  &	
  Qualita-ve	
  Methods	
  
Reminder	
  
Definition
Mixed methods consists of:
the collection or analysis of both quantitative and
qualitative data in a single stu...
Definition
A mixed-methods research design is a procedure
for collecting, analysing, and
‘mixing’ (triangulation) both qua...
When?
1.  One type of research is not enough to
address the research problem to answer the
research questions
2.  We want ...
Key characteristics
1.  Provide a rationale for the design
2.  Include collecting quantitative and qualitative
data
3.  Co...
Types
Criteria:
1.- Priority
2.- Sequence
3.- Analysis
4.- Where to ‘mix’
Types
Designs:
1.- Embedded designs
2.- Transformative designs
3.- Multiphase designs
Often, it is better to use more
than one method….
•  Mixed methods for one program
− Log of activities and participation
−...
Epistemological positions
•  Quantitative research emanates from an
objectivist position which holds that reality
exists i...
Relationship between researcher
and subjects
•  Quantitative research: Researchers aim to
keep themselves at a distance (e...
Research focus
•  Quantitative research concentrates on the
gathering of ‘facts’, in order that ‘truth claims’
can be esta...
Scope of findings
•  Quantitative methods are regarded as
nomothetic, which attempts to establish
law-like findings that h...
The nature of data
•  Quantitative studies generate data in the
form of numbers, often depicted positively as
reliable and...
Paradigm	
  dimensions	
  	
  
• Qualitative
– Naturalistic inquiry
– Holistic, system-wide
perspective
– Uniqueness and d...
Quantitative methods –
Qualitative methods
Quantitative Qualitative
Surveys
Questionnaires
Focus groups
Tests Unstructured...
Differences between quantitative
and qualitative methods
Quantitative methods Qualitative methods
Epistemological
position...
Mixed methods allow researchers
to…
•  Generalize from a sample to a population (as
in quantitative research).
•  Gain a r...
Qualitative then quantitative
•  Little is known about the research problem or
research setting.
•  Qualitative study expl...
Quantitative then qualitative
•  Quantitative study could be used to identify
important themes that qualitative fieldwork
...
Quantitative and qualitative
concurrently
•  Continuous collection of both sorts of data.
•  The quantitative and qualitat...
Three types of research designs
•  Qualitative research – exploring and
understanding the meaning individuals or
groups as...
Qualitative vs. quantitative research
	
  Criteria	
  	
   Qualita>ve	
  Research	
  	
   Quan>ta>ve	
  Research	
  	
  
P...
37
Criteria Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
Type of Data
Analysis
Identify patterns, features,
themes.
Identify...
38
Criteria	
  	
   Qualita>ve	
  Research	
  	
   Quan>ta>ve	
  Research	
  	
  
View	
  of	
  Human	
  
Behavior	
  	
  ...
Pragmatism – Mixed Method
•  Arises out of actions, situations, and
consequences rather than antecedent
conditions.
•  The...
Reasons for “mixing”
•  The insufficient argument – either quantitative or
qualitative may be insufficient by itself
•  Mu...
How methods can be mixed
Types	
  of	
  mixing	
   Comments	
  	
  
Two	
  types	
  of	
  research	
  ques-on.	
   One	
  ...
Planning	
  mixed	
  methods	
  procedures	
  
Timing Weighting Mixing Theorizing
No
Sequence
Concurrent
Equal Integrating...
Type	
  of	
  Research	
  Design
Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods
Mixed Methods
Research
Methods
Qualitative
re...
Criteria	
  for	
  Choosing	
  a	
  Strategies
Four decisions go into selecting a mixed methods strategy
Theoretical
Persp...
How methods can be mixed
Types of mixing Comments
Two types of research question. One fitting a quantitative approach and ...
Mixed methods models
Benefits of mixed methods designs
•  Triangulation: Seeks convergence, corroboration and
correspondence of results from di...
Potential weaknesses of mixed
methods
•  Quantitative questions may end up
measuring different constructs to qualitative.
...
Summary
1.  Quantitative and qualitative research methods have traditionally
been associated with conflicting research par...
Objectives
2.  Triangulation
57
Concurrent triangulation design:
Characteristics
•  Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data
•  Collecting the...
Concurrent triangulation design
58
QUAN
Data and Results
+ QUAL
Data and Results
Interpretation
Calzada	
  (2015)	
  Benchmarking	
  Cross-­‐Border	
  City-­‐
Regions:	
  Basque	
  and	
  Oresund	
  Compara:ve	
  Terri...
Calzada	
  (2015)	
  Benchmarking	
  Cross-­‐Border	
  City-­‐Regions:	
  Basque	
  and	
  Oresund	
  Compara:ve	
  Territ...
Calzada	
  (2015)	
  Benchmarking	
  Cross-­‐Border	
  City-­‐Regions:	
  Basque	
  and	
  Oresund	
  Compara:ve	
  Territ...
Calzada	
  (2015)	
  Benchmarking	
  Cross-­‐Border	
  City-­‐Regions:	
  Basque	
  and	
  Oresund	
  Compara:ve	
  Territ...
Thanks	
  for	
  your	
  ajen-on	
  
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx
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ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx

Dr Calzada delivered a lecture regarding Mixed Methods and Triangulation as a complex way in which research combines qualitative and quantitative sequential or concurrent approach.

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ETHNOGRAPHY IV: Mixed Research Methods.pptx

  1. 1. Becoming  a  Social  Scien-st     Sociology  &  Policy  Department   TP2  Developing  Research  Skills  and  Prac-ce     Week  9:  Mixed  Research  Methods     The  Best  of  Both  Worlds  or  Uncomfortable  Partners?     Dr  Igor  Calzada  
  2. 2. Key  points  this  lecture  is  addressing:     1.  Rela-onship  between  the  sociological  imagina>on  and   sociological  inves-ga-on   2.  Prospects  for  overcoming  the  apparent  epistemological   barriers  to  integra-ng  methods  for  the  purposes  of  sociological   inves-ga-on.   3.  Triangula>on  data  >  Real  projects  by  Ac-on  Research   4.  Challenges  of  using  both  quan>ta>ve  and  qualita>ve  methods:   parallel  or  sequen-ally.  
  3. 3. Ques>ons  this  lecture  is  addressing:     1.  What  are  the  advantages/disadvantages  of  using  a  Mixed  Methods   approach?   2.  What  topics  in  social  research  might  benefit  from  a  Mixed  Methods   approach?   3.  What  aspects  of  the  research  ques-on,  research  design,  analysis  and   presenta-on  of  results  are  affected  by  Mixed  Methods  approach?   4.  How  would  you  design  a  project  that  was  sequen>ally  ordered?   5.  How  would  this  differ  from  a  design  of  that  proceeded  in  parallel?   6.  How  can  we  ‘know  more’  by  using  a  Mixed  Methods  approach?   7.  Is  it  possible  to  reconcile  different  paradigms  within  such  an  approach?   8.  How  might  you  make  links  among  very  different  types  of  data?  
  4. 4. Objectives After this session you will be able to: •  Distinguish between quantitative, qualitative and mixed research designs. •  Identify when qualitative and qualitative approaches can complement each other. •  Select from a range of mixed methods designs. •  Explain when mixed methods designs may not be appropriate.
  5. 5. Further readings 5
  6. 6. Objectives 1.  Mixed Methods 2.  Triangulation
  7. 7. Objectives 1.  Mixed Methods
  8. 8. •  Reminder  of  the  Quan-ta-ve  Methods   •  Quan-ta-ve  Methods:  Ethnography   Reminder  
  9. 9. Reminder:  The  Jing-­‐Jang  of  the     Quan-ta-ve  &  Qualita-ve  Methods   Reminder  
  10. 10. Definition Mixed methods consists of: the collection or analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study in which the data are collected concurrently or sequentially, are given a priority, and involve the integration of data at one or more stages in the process of research. (Creswell et al., 2003: 212)
  11. 11. Definition A mixed-methods research design is a procedure for collecting, analysing, and ‘mixing’ (triangulation) both quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or a series of studies to understand a research problem. (Creswell et al., 2012: 535)
  12. 12. When? 1.  One type of research is not enough to address the research problem to answer the research questions 2.  We want to provide an alternative perspective in a study 3.  We have both types of data and they, together, provide a better understanding of our research problem than either type by itself
  13. 13. Key characteristics 1.  Provide a rationale for the design 2.  Include collecting quantitative and qualitative data 3.  Consider priority 4.  Consider sequence 5.  Match the data analysis to a design 6.  Diagram the procedures
  14. 14. Types Criteria: 1.- Priority 2.- Sequence 3.- Analysis 4.- Where to ‘mix’
  15. 15. Types Designs: 1.- Embedded designs 2.- Transformative designs 3.- Multiphase designs
  16. 16. Often, it is better to use more than one method…. •  Mixed methods for one program − Log of activities and participation − Self-administered questionnaires completed after each workshop − In-depth interviews with key informants − Observation of workshops − Survey of participants
  17. 17. Epistemological positions •  Quantitative research emanates from an objectivist position which holds that reality exists independently of the researcher – the truth is ‘out there’. •  Qualitative research is more closely linked to a constructivist paradigm, which sees truth and meaning as constructed and interpreted by individuals.
  18. 18. Relationship between researcher and subjects •  Quantitative research: Researchers aim to keep themselves at a distance (emotional/ physical) from those they are researching. •  Qualitative research: Usually involves direct contact between researcher and those they are researching, sometimes for long periods of time.
  19. 19. Research focus •  Quantitative research concentrates on the gathering of ‘facts’, in order that ‘truth claims’ can be established. •  Qualitative researchers contend that truth and meaning do not exist in some external world, but are constructed through peoples’ interactions with the world.
  20. 20. Scope of findings •  Quantitative methods are regarded as nomothetic, which attempts to establish law-like findings that hold irrespective of time. •  Qualitative research is ideographic, which locates its findings in specific time periods and localities and is much more concerned with the depth and intensity of findings rather than breadth (generalizability).
  21. 21. The nature of data •  Quantitative studies generate data in the form of numbers, often depicted positively as reliable and rigorous, probably because of their association with ‘science’. •  Qualitative research generates what is claimed to be ‘rich’ or ‘deep’ data, usually in the form of text but sometimes in photographs, maps or other visual media.
  22. 22. Paradigm  dimensions     • Qualitative – Naturalistic inquiry – Holistic, system-wide perspective – Uniqueness and diversity – Inductive reasoning – Qualitative data (words) – Qualitative methods − unstructured, open-ended – Purposeful sampling – Emergent, flexible design – Content analysis – Extrapolations • Quantitative – Scientific/experimental design – Independent, dependent variables – Standardized, uniform – Deductive reasoning – Quantitative data (numbers) – Quantitative methods − structured, standardized – Probabilistic, random sampling – Fixed, controlled design – Statistical analysis – Generalizations
  23. 23. Quantitative methods – Qualitative methods Quantitative Qualitative Surveys Questionnaires Focus groups Tests Unstructured interviews Existing databases Unstructured observations
  24. 24. Differences between quantitative and qualitative methods Quantitative methods Qualitative methods Epistemological positions Objectivist Constructivist Relationship between researcher and subject Distant /outsider Close/insider Research focus ‘Facts’ Meanings Relationship between theory/concepts and research Deduction/confirmation Induction/emergent Scope of findings Nomothetic Ideographic The nature of data Data based upon numbers Data based upon text
  25. 25. Mixed methods allow researchers to… •  Generalize from a sample to a population (as in quantitative research). •  Gain a richer, contextual understanding of the phenomenon being researched (as in qualitative research).
  26. 26. Qualitative then quantitative •  Little is known about the research problem or research setting. •  Qualitative study explores, identifies and can provide clarity about the kinds of variables requiring further investigation.
  27. 27. Quantitative then qualitative •  Quantitative study could be used to identify important themes that qualitative fieldwork could then deepen. •  Quantitative survey is used to identify groups of respondents with strongly contrasting views about a subject. These polarized groups can then be used for follow-up qualitative interviews to gain an in-depth understanding.
  28. 28. Quantitative and qualitative concurrently •  Continuous collection of both sorts of data. •  The quantitative and qualitative data may focus on similar themes or on different themes.
  29. 29. Three types of research designs •  Qualitative research – exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem. •  Quantitative research – testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables. •  Mixed methods research – an approach to inquiry that combines or associates both qualitative and quantitative forms. 35
  30. 30. Qualitative vs. quantitative research  Criteria     Qualita>ve  Research     Quan>ta>ve  Research     Purpose     To  understand  &  interpret  social   interac-ons.     To  test  hypotheses,  look  at   cause  &  effect,  &  make   predic-ons.     Group  Studied     Smaller  &  not  randomly   selected.     Larger  &  randomly  selected.     Variables     Study  of  the  whole,  not   variables.     Specific  variables  studied     Type  of  Data   Collected     Words,  images,  or  objects.     Numbers  and  sta-s-cs.     Form  of  Data   Collected     Qualita-ve  data  such  as  open-­‐ ended  responses,  interviews,   par-cipant  observa-ons,  field   notes,  &  reflec-ons.     Quan-ta-ve  data  based  on   precise  measurements  using   structured  &  validated  data-­‐ collec-on  instruments.     36
  31. 31. 37 Criteria Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Type of Data Analysis Identify patterns, features, themes. Identify statistical relationships. Objectivity and Subjectivity Subjectivity is expected. Objectivity is critical. Role of Researcher Researcher & their biases may be known to participants in the study, & participant characteristics may be known to the researcher. Researcher & their biases are not known to participants in the study, & participant characteristics are deliberately hidden from the researcher (double blind studies). Results Particular or specialized findings that is less generalizable. Generalizable findings that can be applied to other populations. Scientific Method Exploratory or bottom–up: the researcher generates a new hypothesis and theory from the data collected. Confirmatory or top-down: the researcher tests the hypothesis and theory with the data. Qualitative vs. quantitative research
  32. 32. 38 Criteria     Qualita>ve  Research     Quan>ta>ve  Research     View  of  Human   Behavior     Dynamic,  situa-onal,  social,  &   personal.     Regular  &  predictable.     Most  Common   Research  Objec>ves     Explore,  discover,  &  construct.     Describe,  explain,  &  predict.     Focus     Wide-­‐angle  lens;  examines  the   breadth  &  depth  of  phenomena.     Narrow-­‐angle  lens;  tests  a  specific   hypotheses.     Nature  of   Observa>on     Study  behavior  in  a  natural   environment.     Study  behavior  under  controlled   condi-ons;  isolate  causal  effects.     Nature  of  Reality     Mul-ple  reali-es;  subjec-ve.     Single  reality;  objec-ve.     Final  Report     Narra-ve  report  with  contextual   descrip-on  &  direct  quota-ons  from   research  par-cipants.     Sta-s-cal  report  with  correla-ons,   comparisons  of  means,  &  sta-s-cal   significance  of  findings.     Qualitative vs. quantitative research
  33. 33. Pragmatism – Mixed Method •  Arises out of actions, situations, and consequences rather than antecedent conditions. •  There is a concern with applications—what works—and solutions to problems. •  Instead of focusing on methods, researchers emphasize the research problem and use all approaches available to understand the problem.
  34. 34. Reasons for “mixing” •  The insufficient argument – either quantitative or qualitative may be insufficient by itself •  Multiple angles argument – quantitative and qualitative approaches provide different “pictures” •  The more-evidence-the-better argument – combined quantitative and qualitative provides more evidence •  Community of practice argument – mixed methods may be the preferred approach within a scholarly community •  Eager-to-learn argument – it is the latest methodology •  “Its intuitive” argument – it mirrors “real life”
  35. 35. How methods can be mixed Types  of  mixing   Comments     Two  types  of  research  ques-on.   One  fibng  a  quan-ta-ve  approach  and  the   other  qualita-ve.   The  manner  in  which  the  research   ques-ons  are  developed.   Preplanned  (quan-ta-ve)  versus   par-cipatory/emergent  (qualita-ve).   Two  types  of  sampling  procedure.   Probability  versus  purposive.   Two  types  of  data  collec-on   procedures.   Surveys  (quan-ta-ve)  versus  focus  groups   (qualita-ve).   Two  types  of  data  analysis.   Numerical  versus  textual  (or  visual).   Two  types  of  data  analysis.   Sta-s-cal  versus  thema-c.   Two  types  of  conclusions.   Objec-ve  versus  subjec-ve  interpreta-ons.  
  36. 36. Planning  mixed  methods  procedures   Timing Weighting Mixing Theorizing No Sequence Concurrent Equal Integrating Explicit Sequential - Qualitative first Qualitative Connecting Implicit Sequential - Quantitative first Quantitative Embedding
  37. 37. Type  of  Research  Design Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Mixed Methods Research Methods Qualitative research Methods Quantitative research Methods •  Sequential • Concurrent • Transformative •  Narratives • Phenomenologies • Ethnographies • Grounded theory • Case Studies •  Experimental designs • Non- Experimental designs, such as survey
  38. 38. Criteria  for  Choosing  a  Strategies Four decisions go into selecting a mixed methods strategy Theoretical Perspective IntegrationPriority Implement ation Explicit At data collection Equal No Sequence Concurrent At data analysis Qualitative Sequential- Qualitative first At data interpretation Implicit Quantitative Sequential- Qualitative first With some combination
  39. 39. How methods can be mixed Types of mixing Comments Two types of research question. One fitting a quantitative approach and the other qualitative. The manner in which the research questions are developed. Preplanned (quantitative) versus participatory/emergent (qualitative). Two types of sampling procedure. Probability versus purposive. Two types of data collection procedures. Surveys (quantitative) versus focus groups (qualitative). Two types of data analysis. Numerical versus textual (or visual). Two types of data analysis. Statistical versus thematic. Two types of conclusions. Objective versus subjective interpretations.
  40. 40. Mixed methods models
  41. 41. Benefits of mixed methods designs •  Triangulation: Seeks convergence, corroboration and correspondence of results from different methods. •  Complementarity: Seeks elaboration, enhancement, illustration, clarification of results of one method with the results from the other method. •  Development: Seeks to use the results of one method to help or inform the other method. •  Initiation: Seeks the discovery of paradox and contradiction, new perspectives, the recasting of questions or the results from one method with questions or results from the other method . •  Expansion: Seeks to extend the breadth and range of inquiry by using different methods from different inquiry components.
  42. 42. Potential weaknesses of mixed methods •  Quantitative questions may end up measuring different constructs to qualitative. •  Costs can be high. •  Problems in managing to synthesize quantitative and qualitative findings. •  Lack of integration in many studies.
  43. 43. Summary 1.  Quantitative and qualitative research methods have traditionally been associated with conflicting research paradigms based upon quite different epistemological positions. 2.  Many modern researchers, however, recognize that quantitative and qualitative approaches can be combined into a mixed methods design. 3.  Mixed methods approaches can be based upon different types of research question, sampling procedures, data collection methods or approaches to data analysis. 4.  Mixed methods designs are flexible and can include sequential designs with quantitative methods preceding qualitative, or vice versa, or concurrent designs. 5.  Mixed methods designs should be based upon the kinds of questions being addressed and how the design can aid in the answering of these questions.
  44. 44. Objectives 2.  Triangulation
  45. 45. 57 Concurrent triangulation design: Characteristics •  Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data •  Collecting these data at the same time in the research procedure •  Analysing the quantitative and qualitative data separately •  Comparing or combining the results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis •  Example: collect survey data (quantitative) and collect individual interviews (qualitative) and then compare the results
  46. 46. Concurrent triangulation design 58 QUAN Data and Results + QUAL Data and Results Interpretation
  47. 47. Calzada  (2015)  Benchmarking  Cross-­‐Border  City-­‐ Regions:  Basque  and  Oresund  Compara:ve  Territorial   Connec:on.  REGIONS  Quarterly  Magazine  of  the  RSA   Regional  Studies  Associa-on.  In  Depth.  No.  297.  Issue   1.  Page  6-­‐10.  
  48. 48. Calzada  (2015)  Benchmarking  Cross-­‐Border  City-­‐Regions:  Basque  and  Oresund  Compara:ve  Territorial  Connec:on.  REGIONS  Quarterly  Magazine   of  the  RSA  Regional  Studies  Associa-on.  In  Depth.  No.  297.  Issue  1.  Page  6-­‐10.  
  49. 49. Calzada  (2015)  Benchmarking  Cross-­‐Border  City-­‐Regions:  Basque  and  Oresund  Compara:ve  Territorial  Connec:on.  REGIONS  Quarterly  Magazine   of  the  RSA  Regional  Studies  Associa-on.  In  Depth.  No.  297.  Issue  1.  Page  6-­‐10.  
  50. 50. Calzada  (2015)  Benchmarking  Cross-­‐Border  City-­‐Regions:  Basque  and  Oresund  Compara:ve  Territorial  Connec:on.  REGIONS  Quarterly  Magazine   of  the  RSA  Regional  Studies  Associa-on.  In  Depth.  No.  297.  Issue  1.  Page  6-­‐10.  
  51. 51. Thanks  for  your  ajen-on  

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