Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
Transforming
Tourism
Regional perspectives
on a global phenomenon2020 I 01
Transforming Tourism
Essays by Dr Marina Abad Galtzakorta, Dr Aurkene Alzua-
Sorzabal, Pedro Bravo, Dr Igor Calzada, Dr Re...
4 5Transforming Tourism
Contents
Contributors 6
By Way of Introduction 10
An Introduction to Degrowth in Tourism Through K...
6 7Transforming Tourism
Pedro Bravo
writer and journalist
Pedro is a Columnist in the digital daily newspaper Eldiario.es ...
8 9Transforming Tourism
and event industry constitute another area of interest for her. Her new research
explores hospital...
10 11Transforming Tourism
When we take a small step back in history, let us not forget that prominent Spanish
politician C...
12 13Transforming Tourism
of the conference. We are deeply grateful to lecturers Aurkene Alzua-Sorzabal
and Marina Abad fo...
14 15Transforming Tourism
Introduction
During the last decade, degrowth theories in tourism have taken significant
space a...
16 17Transforming Tourism
Kallis and Schneider. The degrowth movement challenges the general focus on
economic growth. The...
18 19Transforming Tourism
Andriotis believes that the failure to consider the needs of the local community,
as well as the...
20 21Transforming Tourism
The Degrowth Paradigm
Andriotis explores principles associated with the limits to growth, recogn...
22 23Transforming Tourism
the travel choices that a person makes when given the opportunity are not always
free, people be...
24 25Transforming Tourism
Concluding Remarks on the Theory of Degrowth
in ­Tourism
The current moment is characterised by ...
26 27Transforming Tourism
Recommendations
Education and awareness-raising are needed to move towards a shift to tourism
va...
28 29Transforming Tourism
References
Andriotis, K., Degrowth in Tourism – Conceptual, Theoretical and Philosophical Issues...
30 31Transforming Tourism
Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2018b). Why Australia might be at risk of ‘overtourism’. The
Conversatio...
32 33Transforming Tourism
Collaborative
Tourism Platforms
and the Production
of Urban Space:
Tales from Barcelona
Dr Julie...
34 35Transforming Tourism
Collaborative Tourism-Related Platforms:
From ­Blessing to Blight?
Tourism-related collaborative...
36 37Transforming Tourism
pressures from tourism activity25 26
, where forms and effects of tourism are
contested or deplo...
38 39Transforming Tourism
city, uneven development and geographies of resistance. As Ferreri and Sanyal put it:
“the disco...
40 41Transforming Tourism
for via protest and resistance, and there are myriad examples of the struggles
inherent in being...
42 43Transforming Tourism
are two timely previous studies to bear in mind. Sequera Airbnb in Madrid89
and
Romero Renau in ...
44 45Transforming Tourism
impacts of the accommodation platform Airbnb are seen to be geographically
uneven within and bet...
46 47Transforming Tourism
use or not, as well as to allow citizens to check whether a dwelling has an official
license or ...
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses

Abstract:
In light of the recent ‘tourism-phobia’, there is a need to better understand how tourism could be transformed through new business and social models. Attempts have been made, for example, to identify which experimental tourism models would align with the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Nonetheless, research remains scant and the policy paradigm slightly out of date. With the pervasive proliferation of tourism services provided by big tech multinationals such as AirBnB and Uber and the rapid algorithmic disruption of the so-called “sharing economy” paradigm, several European cities and regions are seeking to mitigate the negative side-effects caused by “platform capitalism” in their neighborhoods and local communities. These side-effects include gentrification, privatization of public space, inherent conflicts between visitors/tourists and residents/locals, environmental damage, and precarious working conditions, among others. Thus, this paper explores why tourism in Europe requires new business and social models to neutralise this algorithmic disruption and modify the extractivist neoliberal logic in tourism to develop new, transformative, techno-political, bottom-up, and networked strategies stemming from the city-regional realm. Against the backdrop of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the EU that has recently taken effect on 25 May 2018, this paper argues that a new, transformative, tourism paradigm could emerge from the European political left. The push of the city-regional resurgence beyond established nation-states could enable grassroots and institutional tourism initiatives to take the lead and coordinate a political response to achieve further sustainable, equitable, and, ultimately, democratic technological sovereignty in diverse localities through Europe. In conclusion, this paper posits city-regional, bottom-up, and networked dynamics characterised by the GDPR as an opportunity to establish a new techno-political paradigm in tourism by overcoming data and algorithmic extractivist practices.

To cite this publication: Calzada, I. (2020), Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses, In Transforming Tourism: Regional Perspectives on a Global Phenomenon. Edited by the Coppieters and Ezkerraberri Foundations. 2020/01. Chapter 6. pp 74-89. Brussels: Centre Maurits Coppieters CMC. ISBN: 978-90-826321-0-1. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.33522.45769/1.

  • Soyez le premier à commenter

  • Soyez le premier à aimer ceci

Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political and City-Regional Lenses

  1. 1. Transforming Tourism Regional perspectives on a global phenomenon2020 I 01
  2. 2. Transforming Tourism Essays by Dr Marina Abad Galtzakorta, Dr Aurkene Alzua- Sorzabal, Pedro Bravo, Dr Igor Calzada, Dr Rebecca Finkel, Dr Iñaki Irazabalbeitia Fernandez, Dr Majella Sweeney and Dr Julie Wilson Edited by the Coppieters and Ezkerraberri foundations 2020 Coppieters Foundation BRUSSELS | 2020 Regional perspectives on a global phenomenon
  3. 3. 4 5Transforming Tourism Contents Contributors 6 By Way of Introduction 10 An Introduction to Degrowth in Tourism Through Konstantinos Andriotis’s Work 14 Collaborative Tourism Platforms and the Production of Urban Space: Tales from Barcelona 32 Event Tourism and Social Responsibility: Tensions between Global and Local 60 Accessible Tourism: Wheels of all Sizes 68 Seeing Tourism Transformations in Europe through Algorithmic, Techno-Political, and City-Regional Lenses 74 We travel with excess baggage. A Review of the Causes and Consequences of Tourism Saturation 90 Towards a Measurement Framework for More Responsible Tourism Development 106 A message from Coppieters Foundation 130 Acknowledgements 136 This publication is financed with the support of the European Parliament (EP). The EP is not responsible for any use made of the content of this publication. The editor of the publication is the sole person liable. Coppieters Foundation promotes policy research at the European and international level, focusing primarily on management of cultural and linguistic diversity, multi-level governance, political and economic governance of sub- central governments, decentralization, state and constitutional reform, self-determination, conflict resolution, human rights and peace promotion. Coppieters Foundation is a European Political Foundation, founded and recognized by the European Parliament since 2007. Ezkerraberri Fundazioa is a foundation linked to Aralar Basque political party. Ezkerraberri aims to contribute to socio-political debates in the Basque Country from the perspective of a leftist and progressive national movement. The University of Deusto opened its doors in 1886. At the beginning, two concerns or intentions came together: the desire of the Basque Country to have its own university and the intention of Jesuits to establish higher education in one part of the state. The University of Deusto aims to serve society today by contributing to the university from a Christian perspective.
  4. 4. 6 7Transforming Tourism Pedro Bravo writer and journalist Pedro is a Columnist in the digital daily newspaper Eldiario.es but he often writes pieces for other media. He is member of a cooperative dealing with communication on social and environmental issues called Soulandia. Sustainable mobility and tourism are two of his main concerns. In 2012, he published a thriller entitled La opción B. Two years later, Pedro published his first essay, Biciosos, on the use of bikes in cities. In 2018, he published an essay on the impact of the growth of tourism in the world, Exceso de Equipaje. Dr Igor Calzada University of Oxford University of Strathclyde Igor is a Lecturer, Research Fellow and Policy Adviser in the framework of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)’s Urban Transformations portfolio and in the Future of Cities Programme at the University of Oxford. In addition to this, he holds the position of Lecturer in the Global Sustainable Cities MSc from the Institute for Future Cities at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow. He previously worked for the University of Birmingham, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, the University of Nevada, and the University of Helsinki. His research focusses on (i) benchmarking city-regions through processes of rescaling nation-States, devolution and pervasive metropolitanisation and (ii) comparing cases of smart cities in transition paying special attention to the techno-political implications of data and to technological sovereignty. His research intersects the changing city-regional patterns in Europe and their influence in consolidating a new territorial order. He conducts action research and qualitative fieldwork research stemming from a social innovation perspective. He regularly publishes his findings in open access scientific peer-review journals such as the Journal of Urban Technology, Regional Studies Regional Science and Space and Policy, among others. Outside academia he worked for a decade in the Mondragon Co-operative Corporation and was the Director of Coordination in the Basque Government. Dr Rebecca Finkel Queen Margaret University Rebecca is an Urban Cultural Geographer and currently holds the position of Reader in Events Management at Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh. She is also a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. Her focus of research is on critical events studies which she looks at through the lenses of social justice, equality and Dr Marina Abad Galtzakorta University of Deusto Marina obtained her PhD from the University of Deusto. She currently teaches in the framework of the University’s Tourism Degree. Her areas of interest are technology in leisure and tourism environments; innovation and social transformations; sociology of tourism and mobility; measurement and behaviour analysis in areas related to tourism, culture, technology and innovation; and religious and pilgrimage tourism. She has worked on numerous national and international research projects. Dr Aurkene Alzua-Sorzabal University of Deusto Aurkene obtained her PhD in Tourism from Purdue University. She has extensive experience in research and the academic field of tourism. She was the Executive Director of the Research Center for Tourism Research Skills (CICtourGUNE). She taught at Purdue University, Rovira i Virgilli University in Catalonia and Deusto University. Aurkene also coordinated academic programs and participated in several European networks of excellence. She directed competitive research projects and collaborated with Basque, Spanish and international public administrations. Aurkene’s research focus is on Tourism, advanced measurement systems (Big Data) and intelligent solutions. Contributors
  5. 5. 8 9Transforming Tourism and event industry constitute another area of interest for her. Her new research explores hospitality and tourism events through the lenses of family inclusion, marginalisation and accessibility. She has published in international peer-reviewed academic journals within hospitality, tourism and events and is a reviewer for several academic journals within these fields. She is on the executive board of the Council of Hospitality Management Education and was involved with the development of Scotland’s first Hospitality and Tourism Academy. Dr Julie Wilson Open University of Catalonia Julie is an Associate Professor of the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC), where she is a member of the NOUTUR Research Group and teaches in the field of tourism and sustainability. She has published ten edited books including the Geographies of Tourism (Emerald Insight, 2013, with S. Anton Clavé); The Routledge Handbook of Tourism Geographies (Routledge, 2012) and Tourism, Creativity and Development (Routledge, 2012 with G. Richards). Julie has held several international postdoctoral fellowships at Columbia University (2008- 9, Fulbright Advanced Research Awards); Rovira i Virgili University (Beatriu de Pinós Programme, 2009-11; Batista i Roca Programme, 2003-04) the Autonomous University of Barcelona (EU Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowships, 2004-07); and competitive predoctoral visiting fellowships at the Universities of Aalborg and Erasmus University Rotterdam. Her research has been published in international peer-reviewed journals including Urban Studies, Tourism Management, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Tourism Geographies and Current Issues in Tourism and she is a member of the editorial boards of three international refereed journals – Tourism Geographies (Taylor and Francis), Current Issues in Tourism (Taylor and Francis) and the Journal of Tourism Analysis / Revista de Analisis Turística (Emerald). She is a member of the steering group of the Barcelona Strategic Tourism Plan 2017- 2020 and an External Capitalisation Expert for the EU Interreg MED Horizontal Project BleuTourMed Sustainable Tourism Community (2018-19). She has been a member of the International Geographical Union Commission for Tourism, Leisure and Global Change since 2012. diversity, as well as cultural identity. Her main research interests centre on social change, including resistance to globalisation processes through cultural events, ‘doing gender’ at festivals, and mapping human rights and international sporting events. Her new research investigates post-humanism in events, tourism and leisure contexts. She is a co-editor of Accessibility, Inclusion, and Diversity in Critical Event Studies (2018, Routledge) and Research Themes in Events (2014, CABI). She has also been a consultant for the Hong Kong Government and London Development Agency, in the field of investment in creative industries. Rebecca publishes in highly rated, international, peer-reviewed academic journals and edited a special issue on social justice and events-related policy. She also co-edited a special issue on equality and diversity in events for the Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, a special issue for Organization about diversity and equality in the creative industries, as well as a special issue on multi-species leisure for Leisure Studies. Dr Iñaki Irazabalbeitia Fernandez Ezkerraberri fundazioa Iñaki holds a PhD in Chemistry from the University of the Basque Country. His professional career is mostly linked to the revitalisation of Basque language and the Elhuyar Foundation group. He was an Editor of Elhuyar Science Magazine (1983-1990), CEO of the Elhuyar Foundation (1995-2003), CEO of Eleka Language Engineering (2006-2011) and member of the Board of Trustees of the group (2005- 2011). He was the General Director of NGO Basque Summer University (1987- 1991) and a member of its Board of Directors (1983-2008). He was also involved in the creation of several language normalisation initiatives such as Euskaldunon Egunkaria, Kontseilua or Langune. Iñaki is a member of the Royal Academy of the Basque Language. He was Member of the European Parliament in the Greens-EFA group (2013-2014). Currently, Iñaki is the Mayor of Alkiza and Director of Ezkerraberri Foundation. He is a Honorary Member of the European Free Alliance and the Coppieters Foundation’s Treasurer. Dr Majella Sweeney Queen Margaret University Majella is the Head of the Queen Margaret Business School and a Senior Lecturer in International Hospitality and Tourism Management, as well as a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. Her research interests include small hospitality enterprises, focusing on the host-home relationship and self-identity. Qualitative research methods, specifically visual methods within the hospitality, tourism
  6. 6. 10 11Transforming Tourism When we take a small step back in history, let us not forget that prominent Spanish politician Cánovas del Castillo was assassinated by anarchist Michele Angiolillo at a spa in Arrasate-Mondragon on 8 August 1897.2 Tourism has until recently been regarded as a supplementary economic activity whenever an economic scan of our country is taken. The social perception was that it was important in certain coastal towns but that it did not exert weight in terms of the Basque Country’s economic activity. Over the last two or three decades and during this second decade of the new century, the perception held by society about tourism and its effect on the economy and wellbeing of the population has been gradually changing. Today tourism is regarded as a significant economic activity. Naturally, this social perception has a basis. Tourism accounts for about six percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the Basque Autonomous Community – Araba, Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa – and that percentage has seen an upward trend in recent years. For the purposes of comparison, while industry accounts for 21 to 22 percent of the GDP, it has seen a downward trend during the same period. Tourism accounts for up to seven percent of the GDP in Navarre. I have not found any data on the Continental Basque Country but its economic weight in the nation is greater than that of the Peninsular Basque Country and it is one of the most influential driving forces of the local economy. In addition to change in the social perception of the weight exerted by tourism on our economy, another phenomenon has begun to emerge over the last two or three years. The general public overall has regarded tourism as a positive phenomenon and with a touch of pride as well: “If foreigners are coming to us, it must be worth their while!” Even then, complaints about some of the consequences of tourism are on the rise among the general public: overcrowding, the gentrification of some neighbourhoods, the privatisation of public spaces or the development of tourist apartments. Tourism also emerged as a significant economic factor in an internal forum held in 2017 by the Ezkerraberri Foundation on scenarios for the future of the Basque economy. It was certainly seen as a good opportunity but also as a potential threat. The following question was among the ones raised: “Which model of tourism do we want to develop in our country?” This conference was keen to go some way in answering that question. 2 (Note of the editor) Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (8 February 1828-8 August 1897) was a Spanish politician and historian known principally for serving six terms as Spanish Prime Minister, as well as his role in supporting the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy to the Spanish throne. By Way of Introduction Dr Iñaki Irazabalbeitia, Director of the Ezkerraberri Foundation Why this conference?1 Why has the foundation of a political party ended up analysing tourism? The answer is clear. Because tourism, or to be more precise, the growth of tourism in recent years, has prompted concerns across Basque society and because the issue is being raised again and again among citizens. Tourism has long been a significant economic activity in the Basque Country, even though over the last 150 years the country’s image has been one of an industrially active nation. Heavy industry, starting with steelmaking, shipbuilding, mining and paper production, among others. Nevertheless, tourism has had a presence since the middle of the 19th century. Since then, the political and economic elites of Madrid and Paris have been coming to our country to take the waters or to enjoy the seaside, for example. Holidaymakers were not unknown among us. Donostia- San Sebastián and Biarritz are the most striking examples. 1 This book brings together the papers delivered at the conference “Transforming Tourism from a Regional Perspective: challenges, viewpoints and ways forward”. The Conference was held on 3 May 2018 at the Donostia-San Sebastián campus of the University of Deusto.
  7. 7. 12 13Transforming Tourism of the conference. We are deeply grateful to lecturers Aurkene Alzua-Sorzabal and Marina Abad for their work in preparing the supplementary activities of the conference. We do hope that you will find the content of this book of interest and that what was heard will provide you with innovative ideas and perspectives. Indeed, what values of this country do we want to sell/showcase to the people who come here from abroad? What image? What culture? Which language? Which identity? What characteristics? We have often heard that the Basque Country’s tourism model does not resemble the overcrowded tourism of the Mediterranean coast. But when you speak to experts, the issue is not so clear. What is more, one becomes concerned whenever some of the Basque political leaders and mainstream media speak about the impact of tourism, because they tend to stick to a single indicator: the number of visitors. We need an indicator system to measure the impact of tourism because we cannot merely evaluate it based on a set of figures. This system needs to go beyond visitor numbers and similar mantras and must incorporate other indicators as well. Among others, indicators that will measure the wellbeing of our citizens. Until now, the focus has been on visitors, but I believe the moment has come to focus on local inhabitants as well. What kind of country are we showing/selling? As we are in Gipuzkoa and as I was born and bred here, what worries me is the fact that Gipuzkoa has disappeared from the province’s tourism brand and the fact that it is now known as being part of the “San Sebastián Region”. This name disregards the polycentric social, demographic and economic nature of our province. This name is one of the indicators of a centralist development model that is more and more focussed on the capital. Nevertheless, let us assume it had to be that way. But then why not “Donostia Region”? Which language and culture do we want to show/sell? What distinguishes us from other tourist resorts? These concerns and similar ones are not the concerns of us Basque citizens alone. In other areas of Europe as well, citizens and political leaders have similar problems and concerns. Many stateless nations like ours are raising issues pertaining to tourism. Right now, heated social and political debates on tourism models are taking place in places like Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, Valencia and Corsica. The Coppieters Foundation brings together cultural and political players operating in these countries and that is why we approached it to seek its collaboration when we decided to organise the conference. This enables us to reach other European nations and we hope that the conclusions drawn here will turn out to be useful for those nations, too. Furthermore, there is no denying that a considerable portion of academic knowledge on tourism in the Basque Country exists at the University of Deusto. That is why we approached them when seeking advice on specifying the structure and content
  8. 8. 14 15Transforming Tourism Introduction During the last decade, degrowth theories in tourism have taken significant space among academics and policymakers.1 2 3 In the book Degrowth in Tourism – Conceptual, Theoretical and Philosophical Issues, Konstantinos Andriotis claims that a coherent understanding of the key aspects of degrowth has not been put 1 Hall, C. M. (2009). Degrowing tourism: Décroissance, sustainable consumption and steady-state tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(1), 46–61. doi:10.1080/13032917.2009.10518894 2 Freya Higgins-Desbiolles, Sandro Carnicelli, Chris Krolikowski, Gayathri Wijesinghe Karla Boluk  (2019)  Degrowing tourism: rethinking tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 3 Fletcher, R., Blazquez-Salom, M., Murray, I., Blanco-Romero, A. (2017). Special Issue on Tourism and degrowth. An Introduction to Degrowth in Tourism Through Konstantinos Andriotis’s Work Dr Aurkene Alzua-Sorzabal and Dr Marina Abad into a tourism context, so that there is a need to take an analytic approach to the study of degrowth in tourism. Hence, one of the main features of this publication by Andriotis is that it is meant to provide an amplified understanding of the need to rightsize or downscale tourism activity4 . In the words of the author, this monograph has emerged as a consequence of the author’s extensive research on motivations, behaviours, experiences, values and attitudes of non-mainstream travellers as well as past ethnographic research on travellers who exercise their right to travel through non-mainstream travel activities and lifestyles. Bearing in mind that this article has been conceived to provide an extended summary of the book, it is structured in two main sections. The first part presents a descriptive summary of the book´s seven chapters and the second part introduces a reflection on the main topic of degrowth in tourism. In a more critical approach, the second section of the present article brings in a reflection on the concepts reviewed. As mentioned, the book is structured in seven chapters. Each chapter deals with a specific theme related to growth and the various developmental models to land on the main aim of the book: “to explore degrowth as an alternative decommodifying philosophical approach. By doing this, it is believed to provide a starting point to underpin future theory and practice on degrowth in a tourism context and to initiate a dialogue on the way that degrowth can influence travellers, residents, communities and policy makers to make responsible decisions and respect the limits to growth of each respective community.”5 The Origins of Degrowth Theories The initial chapter of the book allocates an ample space to account for the main works on the history of thought which have provided the ground for degrowth theories. It makes recurrent mention of key publications linked to degrowth economic theories of renowned scholars such as Jackson6 , Latouche, Meadows, 4 Hall, C. M. (2009) 5 Andriotis, K., Degrowth in Tourism – Conceptual, Theoretical and Philosophical Issues, 189 6 Jackson, Tim, 2009. Prosperity without Growth: Economics for a Finite Planet. London, UK
  9. 9. 16 17Transforming Tourism Kallis and Schneider. The degrowth movement challenges the general focus on economic growth. The degrowth framework does not consider economic growth as the welfare measurement and supports the principle that without growth the economic system can still function. The author conveys the general opinion in the field, so that the only choice is to find alternatives to increased growth by transforming the structures and institutions that shape the world, thereby articulating a more credible vision for a lasting prosperity. As the author points out, degrowth can be traced back thousands of years to the great philosophers of ancient Greece and Rome, but in a more contemporary scope, Critical thinking of Marx (1859) and, later the work done by Nicholas Georgescu- Roegen (1971) are introduced as the breakthrough in changing the conventional economic concept of unlimited economic growth. The author seconds that continuous growth is not possible on a finite planet. As an alternative degrowth is announced as a new economic paradigm aiming to cope with the disarray that results from mass production and consumption. Special attention is given to the first conference of the Research and Degrowth academic association in Paris in 2008, boosted by Francois Schneider (2006), which is introduced as the milestone that marked the initiation of degrowth debate in the academic research. In addition, degrowth debates are also revealed from the environmental perspective, to support the main thesis of the book, which is that unlimited growth and the associated negative effects of overconsumption and overproduction are not viable anymore. From a tourism standpoint, the author links degrowth with the philosophical roots of the counterculture of hippies that arose in the United States during the mid-1960s who, in protest of industrial society, chose to turn their backs on the system. The author offers a lot of detail on those protests and entertains the reader with examples from visits to pristine places such as Matala, Crete where hippy gatherings and festivals took place, or the Summer of Love on the West Coast of the United States in 1967. While the reasons for travel and modes of travelling underwent broad changes, which can be linked to the varied cultural backgrounds of travellers and tourists through the centuries, Andriotis argues that there are many people who still look for primitive forms of travelling and the use of modest means of transport and facilities. These travellers avoid established touristic circuits and prefer visiting unconventional environments, including sea, forests and mountains. Moreover, there are travellers who choose urban destinations that are not affected by commercialisation and overconsumption. Due to their distinctive attributes, these travellers can be highly differentiated from conventional tourists. Development Theories and Their Applicability in Tourism Following this introductory chapter, the author explores degrowth as one of the most recent approaches to limited growth. The main theories and approaches to development which have been applied in the case of tourism are studied. Andriotis also highlights the need for a new development approach in the case of tourism and explains the reasons that made the theory of degrowth an open debate as a development model. From an evolutionary point of view, tourism can be understood as a process of change that helps societies move from a position of underdevelopment to a position of more development.78 Bearing in mind that any study of the concept of development must consider its historically determined character, Andriotis reviews development theories, specifically modernisation, diffusionism, dependency, neoliberalism and sustainability. Through the literature review conducted for the purpose of this chapter, various perspectives of the development theory’s evolution are explained, and it is concluded that there is no universally recommended path to economic growth. In addition, it is stated that among the five approaches, sustainability can be considered the most distinct, principally because it recognises the importance of environmental and cultural preservation, as well as for the perspective it holds on the implication of the local community in the development process. The concept of sustainable tourism emerged as a reaction to tourism growth and more specifically over-tourism and its associated negative effects. Faced with this vision, Andriotis considers that sustainable development encourages economic growth to alleviate poverty, asserting that continued growth may eventually destroy the resources of our planet. 7 Butler, R. W. (1980). The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: Implications for management of resources. Canadian Geographer, 24(1), 5–12 8 Cheer, J. M., Milano, C., Novelli, M. (2019). Tourism and community resilience in the anthropocene: Accentuating temporal overtourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. doi:10.1080/09669582.2019.1578363
  10. 10. 18 19Transforming Tourism Andriotis believes that the failure to consider the needs of the local community, as well as the importance of environmental and cultural conservation in past development models, have moved tourism scholars into contemporary frameworks, such as responsible development and degrowth. There is a call for new paradigms which will enable another kind of tourism. Hence, degrowth is considered as the approach to development comprised in the new paradigm. Alternatives to existing Tourism Development Models Andriotis then further explores theories and approaches to development, arguing that tourist destinations have a variety of options to follow in developing their tourism sector, some of which can be associated to degrowth. Chapter 3 of his book examines six development alternatives that follow degrowth principles adapted to a tourism perspective. Based on the fact that these alternatives could prove a useful framework for the anticipation of tourism development benefits and costs, as well as the development of non-conventional forms of degrowth-inspired travel, the six dichotomous alternatives are given an introduction: capital versus labour- intensive; endogenous versus exogenous; small-scale versus large-scale; alternative versus mass; enclave versus spread out; and bottom-up versus top-down. Four criteria are selected to analyse or group those options, namely: type of production, degree of control, scale, form of tourism, spread of development and the degree of local involvement in decision making. The six options are categorised into two distinctive groups (Table 3.1). The first group includes the options that fall under the label of capitalism, following the principles of organised mass tourism and unlimited growth. The second group includes the degrowth options demarcated by a labour-intensive, endogenous development, and bottom-up traits, among others. Table 3.1. Tourism development alternatives groupings9 Capitalist development Degrowth ­development Type of production Capital-intensive Labour-intensive Degree of control and ­ownership Exogenous/foreign Endogenous/local Scale Large Small Form of tourism Mass/hard/ non-sustainable Alternative/soft/­ sustainable Spread of development Spread-out Lifestyle enclaves Involvement in decision making Top-down Bottom-up Furthermore, Andriotis asserts that, the most influential actor in the development of a tourist destination is the national government. Thus, for the adoption of one of the above options, governments, at one point or another, may play a significant or even critical influence. By providing special incentives to facilitate tourism investments in strategic fields, the administration can guide private investors to opt for one and to abandon other alternatives. As a result, the author claims that governments should give serious consideration to the development alternatives and to their potential consequences before the designation of their investment incentives. Nonetheless, it is acknowledged that there are destinations that have already adopted a type of development and it may be very difficult to change their industry. Despite the increasing demand for alternative types of holidays, organised mass tourism cannot be avoided, for most tourist destinations. The main conclusion of the author in this chapter is that developers and planners should realise that there is no clear route to destination development, and patterns may vary significantly among communities according to local conditions, the available resources, and the needs and interests of the public and private sector. 9 Andriotis, K., Degrowth in Tourism – Conceptual, Theoretical and Philosophical Issues, pg.75
  11. 11. 20 21Transforming Tourism The Degrowth Paradigm Andriotis explores principles associated with the limits to growth, recognising various social movements as degrowth inspired movements. Those include voluntary simplicity, simple living and the various ‘slow’ movements, such as slow food or tourism. Thus, the author puts forward that sustainable development can only be achieved by following the main principles of degrowth. The rationale is based on the principle that unlimited growth cannot continue forever. The central issue then becomes whether the tourism system can withdraw from the system of growth by slowing down tourism activity. Andriotis attempts to identify the main features of the future model, among which are the following: reduced consumption and production; limited use of technology; low-carbon travel; reduction of working hours; promotion of simpler, alternative lifestyles; improved community welfare and increased human happiness. In this line of reflection, the author deepens and celebrates Latouche’s thought. Professor Latouche, a renowned economist at the University of Paris-Sud and one of the main figures of the anti-utilitarian movement (Mouvement Anti-Utilitariste en Sciences Sociales – MAUSS), claimed that there is an urgent need to go beyond the economics characterising modern societies to achieve an in-depth renovation of society centred on environmental sustainability, the equal distribution of resources and solidarity. By arguing that natural limits to growth of many destinations have already been surpassed and their carrying capacity levels have been reached, approaches to degrowth-induced development propose the abandonment of growth. Particularly any form of development that promotes nothing other than a quest for profits on part of the owners of capital and results in disastrous implications for the environment and humanity. The philosophy and principles at the core of Andriotis’s thought also imply necessary changes in terms of consumer behaviour by shifting consumers’ attitudes, behaviours and expectations in favour of environmental and social concerns. Andriotis examines several social movements, such as the slow, volunteer simplicity and simple living. Despite the differences on the way they perceive degrowth, the author stresses the fact that they also share values. They convey a common purpose that is to ensure positive changes and pursue a sustainable future by motivating people to reconsider their lifestyles, not only at home, but also when travelling. Most of the considered transition movements in this chapter have their roots in environmental justice. Significant works published by the United Nations (UN) have provided substantial analysis and recommendations from several qualified contributing authors on this most topical of subjects. It has been manifested that the effective engagement of civil society results in more informed decision-making by governments, more responsible environmental actions by companies, more assistance in environmental management by the public, and more effective environmental law (UNEP, 2019). Travel, Lifestyles and Degrowth Approaches The aim of chapter 5 of Andriotis’s book is to include new dimensions to the degrowth debate. Thus, non-mainstream types of travellers and destinations get a special significance. Concretely, the author analyses alternative travelling and types of travel freedom by exploring these concepts. Personality, motives, attitudes and internalised environmental influences are all influential in the formation of the so-called ‘preference structure’ and ‘intention’ based on which the individual formulates his/her criteria for choosing her/his travel purchase. Andriotis, based on those attributes characterising degrowth- induced destinations, identifies the main features of travellers who visit places where degrowth prevails; and at the same time explores the reasons which make degrowth-inspired travel a distinctive segment of tourism deserving further investigation. Because freedom is the main prerequisite of degrowth-inspired travel, in the author’s belief, this chapter draws selections from a broad range of sources and from the works of a variety of authors dealing with the theme of alternative lifestyles and freedom. The chapter also reviews several forms of tourism, namely responsible, slow and community-based tourisms, as well as staycations, which have similarities with degrowth-inspired travel, while not necessarily fitting into the spirit of degrowth. The author concludes that degrowth-inspired travellers can be considered as freedom-seekers who have a mix of travel conceptions surrounded by the desire to experience real travel. They are reluctant to visit the crowded urban areas and are on a quest to transcend the boredom of everyday life by avoiding commercial resorts and searching for a utopian world that differs from the norm. They share a way of travelling that differs from that of conventional mass tourism and hold a distinctive if not totally different set of aspirations. Nevertheless, it is also acknowledged that
  12. 12. 22 23Transforming Tourism the travel choices that a person makes when given the opportunity are not always free, people being also affected by barriers. Overview of Tourism Impacts Andriotis appreciates that every form of tourism and approach to tourism development has positive and negative outcomes, and the development of degrowth-inspired travelling is no exception. Therefore, he investigates the impacts of degrowth for host communities and compares them to those of mass tourism. For a better understanding of these impacts, Andriotis examines the costs and benefits of tourism development in the following three main categories: economic, sociocultural and environmental. The three categories are very comprehensive since they are analysed using diverse case studies containing a great deal of information and detailed explanation on the analysed impact. The cases studied, which include regional imbalances in the development of the Cretan tourism industry, religious destinations such as the sacred shrine of Mount Athos, the exploitation of animals in the Maetang Elephant Camp, or the Walk with Donkeys sanctuary, exemplify the impacts in the indicated categories: • The main economic impacts of tourism include foreign exchange earnings, contribution to government revenues, generation of employment and income, regional distribution of development, leakage of money out of the local economy and linkage of the tourism sector with other economic sectors. • Socio-cultural impacts include a wide variety of issues that could be classified into two primary groups: those that are directly related to unethical behaviours (prostitution, illegal gambling, crime) and those that imply the discontinuity or transformation of local lifestyles and values, including begging, changes in the sphere of employment or the loss of language and/or religion. • The environmental impacts include impacts on features of the natural environment, such as air, water, vegetation, wildlife, soil and natural landscape, and on features of the built environment, such as urban fabric, buildings and monuments, infrastructure, human-made parks and elements of open spaces and town space. By looking at the associated problems or impacts in relation to specific cases, Andriotis presents degrowth as an alternative approach to development which will help destinations to improve community welfare without any adverse socioeconomic and environmental effects. In Need of a Degrowth-Induced Tourism Development The final chapter of Andriotis’s book summarises the main conclusions of his work and provides a model of “degrowth-induced tourism development” for the better understanding of degrowth in the case of tourism. The model contains three blocks: stakeholders, new processes and actions. The stakeholders block is made up of four categories: travellers, the community, the public and the private sector. The new processes are changes that reinforce one another, namely: (i) changes in behaviour; (ii) focussing on locality; (iii) setting limits to growth; and (iv) increasing awareness. For the elaboration of the model additional subjects are further considered. Hence, questions which concern “degrowth-inspired travelling”, as well as “degrowth- inspired destination/community” are tackled. By this means the author recognised community-based tourism and slow tourism given that its philosophical principle is a low-production and -consumption driven tourism. In the same line, issues relative to degrowth-inspired business and degrowth-inspired governance are addressed. The four mentioned degrowth-inspired axes call for sustainable consumption and production. There is a request for low impact tourism, energy efficiency, sustainable infrastructure and providing decent jobs along with a better quality of life for all. Andriotis acknowledges that capitalist forms of tourism development are expected to carry on in the future, however degrowth can be used as an option for those travellers and host communities. In a similar fashion, the author asserts that degrowth can take place in any overdeveloped destination, to put in place sustainable measures.10 To conclude this section, it is noteworthy that the summarised book aims to develop a fruitful contribution to degrowth literature and debate from a tourism perspective. However, it cannot provide conclusive insights. Instead, it may serve as a trigger for further research in the field of degrowth-inspired travelling.11 10 Andriotis, K., Degrowth in Tourism – Conceptual, Theoretical and Philosophical Issues, 201 11 Andriotis, K., Degrowth in Tourism – Conceptual, Theoretical and Philosophical Issues, 201
  13. 13. 24 25Transforming Tourism Concluding Remarks on the Theory of Degrowth in ­Tourism The current moment is characterised by great transformative projects and the urgent need to work for a better future. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted at the UN’s Sustainable Development Summit in 2015 is the most remarkable evidence. The agenda calls for a paradigm shift at all levels and it should be considered similarly in terms of advancing on tourism development. Despite more than 40 years of academic attention and much discussion around sustainable tourism, as well as the latest arguments from advocates about the need to address its impacts in the realm of tourism, analysis suggests that little has changed in the practice of tourism in many places.12 13 Moreover, the growth and expansion of tourism persists as many new destinations emerged in the global market. Moscardo and Murphy claimed for the need to very clearly distinguish between the concept of sustainable tourism and the idea of tourism as one possible tool to support sustainability at multiple levels14 . Hall argued that “sustainable tourism development is tourism development without growth in throughput of matter and energy beyond regenerative and absorptive capacities”.15 Along with this line of thoughts, latest works on tourism strive for creating development models that eschew a growth imperative while still supporting human welfare. Bearing in mind that tourism development has been fostered by the capitalist economy system, the main point in question is that a small number of increasingly interrelated transnational tourism operators control much of the goods and services that tourists consume globally.16 17 18 12 Hall, C. M. (2009). Degrowing tourism: D’ecroissance, sustainable consumption and steady-state tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(1), 46–61. doi:10.1080/13032917.2009.10518894 13 Moscardo, G., Murphy, L. (2014). There is no such thing as sustainable tourism: Re-conceptualizing tourism as a tool for sustainability. Sustainability, 6(5), 2538-2561 14 Ibid 15 Hall, C. M. (2009), op cit, p. 53 16 Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2008). Capitalist globalisation, corporatized tourism and their alternatives. New York: Nova Publishers 17 Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2018). Sustainable tourism: Sustaining tourism or something else? Tourism Management Perspectives, 25, 157–160. doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2017.11.017 18 Fletcher, R. (2011). Sustaining tourism, sustaining capitalism? The tourism industry’s role in global capitalist expansion. Tourism Geographies, 13(3), 443–461. doi:10.1080/14616688.2011.570372 Because of tourism’s considerable negative environmental impacts, Hall advocated a degrowth perspective to address transitioning tourism to a “steady-state economy” which he described as encouraging “qualitative development but not aggregate quantitative growth to the detriment of natural capital”.19 Hall described degrowth as living within sustainable limits which is “not so much connected to downsizing per se but to the notion of ‘right-sizing’”.20 All forms of tourism bring impacts. Along this article some arguments have been provided to reflect whether degrowth can be used as a part of the wider sustainable tourism development framework that brings together various preconditions for reduced tourism impacts. Degrowth thinking offers a fundamental challenge to tourism processes, as it questions the assumptions which have been behind the continual development of the industry since the beginning of the 20th century. The broad rationale for developing sustainable tourism, or degrowth-inspired tourism, implies the integration of multiple dimensions. Acknowledging the complexity of the delineation of more inclusive, plural, and useful actions, the relevance for integration Sustainable Production and Consumption, seem to be on the common ground of the diverse approaches. At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development Rio+20 in June 2012, Heads of State formally adopted the 10 Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production (10YFP on SCP). The 10YFP was established as a global framework of action to enhance international cooperation in order to accelerate the shift towards SCP patterns in both developed and developing countries. In addition, Latouche suggested eight “r’s”, which constitute additional actions, leading scholars in the mainstream of degrowing tourism theory, and providing a guidance on how to transition to degrowth21 which includes lines of action such as: • Re-evaluate and shift values • Re-conceptualize entrenched capitalist concepts • Restructure production • Re-localize the economy • Reduction, re-use and recycling of resources 19 Hall, C. M. (2009), op cit, p57 20 Ibid, p55 21 Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2018). Sustainable tourism: Sustaining tourism or something else? Tourism Management Perspectives, 25, 157–160. doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2017.11.017
  14. 14. 26 27Transforming Tourism Recommendations Education and awareness-raising are needed to move towards a shift to tourism values disconnected from excessive commodification and exploitation. Tourism must trigger a positive interaction and connection with locals. The quality of interaction between tourists and residents contributes to both and improvement of tourists’ experiences and potential negotiations on the limits of acceptable tourism-triggered change. Similarly, there is a need to warn about corporations from extracting too much profit.22 Engaging suppliers and the general tourism value chain actors at an early stage is key to identify innovative solutions and business models and stimulate the market to offer more sustainable products and services. Tourism has already embraced re-localisation as a strategy of the slow movements for achieving and maintaining sustainable tourism development in a destination. Measuring and reporting on the benefits and impacts of sustainable consumption and production will enable all value chain actors to understand how such practices can benefit businesses throughout the value chain. In this article we have pointed out the decisive position of administrations when it comes to strategic planning in the field of tourism, and incentives to facilitate sustainable projects. Giving continuity to previous studies run on the field of tourism planning models, Moscardo and Murphy concluded that very little had changed in 30 years in the way tourism planning processes are conceptualised and used in academic and government documents.23 The review of the authors’ literature shed light on some issues on that matter: • A narrow focus from administrations on specific projects, rather than thinking of tourism as a whole; • A limited attention given to tourism impacts; • A focus on economic factors with occasional and limited acknowledgement of environmental issues; • A failure to consider how tourism would interact with and ultimately affect other activities; • The naïve adoption of business strategic planning as the dominant framework for tourism planning, and, consequently; 22 UNWTO Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, 1999 23 Moscardo, G., Murphy, L. (2014). There is no such thing as sustainable tourism: Re-conceptualizing tourism as a tool for sustainability. Sustainability, 6(5), 2,540. • The placement of market or tourist needs and expectations as the core drivers of tourism planning, giving destination residents a very limited role, if any. One should add to this list the challenge of the re-use and recycling of resources. This issue might be implicitly considered at the local level, but we believe that it cannot be missing when it comes to tourism planning, and it should be considered at a much broader level. The concepts of reduction, re-use and recycling in tourism are still to be more strongly embedded in local tourism management and carrying capacity theories. In a resource-constrained and stressed world, actors of the tourism sphere will have to seriously address some major concerns and offer more benefits and value to human and community endeavours than it currently does. This analysis has offered some considerations of how degrowth-inspired tourism agendas might help to overturn the present trends. This would require a redefinition of tourism and for it to be considered within its appropriate context of global mobilities, human well- being and sustainable futures.
  15. 15. 28 29Transforming Tourism References Andriotis, K., Degrowth in Tourism – Conceptual, Theoretical and Philosophical Issues Butler, R. W. (1980). The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: Implications for management of resources. Canadian Geographer, 24(1), 5–12. Cheer, J. M., Milano, C., Novelli, M. (2019). Tourism and community resilience in the anthropocene: Accentuating temporal overtourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. doi:10.1080/09669582.2019.1578363 Freya Higgins-Desbiolles, Sandro Carnicelli, Chris Krolikowski, Gayathri Wijesinghe Karla Boluk (2019) Degrowing tourism: rethinking tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Fletcher, R. (2011). Sustaining tourism, sustaining capitalism? The tourism industry’s role in global capitalist expansion. Tourism Geographies, 13(3), 443–461. doi:10.108 0/14616688.2011.570372 Fletcher, R. (2018). Ecotourism after nature: Anthropocene tourism as a new capitalist “fix”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1. https://doi-org.access.library.unisa. edu.au/10.1080/09669582.2018.1471084 Fletcher, R., Blazquez-Salom, M., Murray, I., Blanco-Romero, A. (2017). Special Issue on Tourism and degrowth. Journal of Sustainable Tourism Call for Papers, Retrieved 3 January 2018, from http://explore.tandfonline.com/cfp/ pgas/rsus-si-degrowth-4q2017. Gerber, J.-F., Raina, R. S. (2018). Post-growth in the Global South? Some reflections from IndiaandBhutan.EcologicalEconomics,150,353–358.doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.02.020 Giaccaria, P. (2018). For the sake of place authenticity: tourists versus migrants in anti-tourism discourses. Abstract for the American Association of Geographers Annual Meeting. Retrieved 3 September 2018, from https://aag. secure-abstracts. com/AAG%20Annual%20Meeting%202018/abstracts-gallery/11205. Graburn, N. (1989). Tourism: The sacred journey. In V. Smith (Ed.), Hosts and guests: The anthropology of tourism (pp. 21–36). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Hales, R., Jennings, G. (2017). Transformation for sustainability: The role of complexity in tourism students’ under- standing of sustainable tourism. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport, Tourism Education, 21(b), 185–194. doi: 10.1016/j.jhlste.2017.08.001 Hall, C. M. (2008a). Of time and space and other things: Laws of tourism and the geographies of contemporary mobilities. In P. Burns M. Novelli (Eds.), Tourism and mobilities: Local-*Global connections (pp. 15–32). Oxford: Elsevier. Hall, C. M. (2008b). Tourism planning (2nd ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson. Hall, C. M. (2009). Degrowing tourism: D’ecroissance, sustainable consumption and steady-state tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(1), 46–61. doi:10.1080/13032 917.2009.10518894 Harvey, D. (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hickel, J. (2018). Why growth can’t be green. Foreign Policy (Online). Retrieved 18 September 2018, from https://for- eignpolicy.com/2018/09/12/why-growth-cant- be-green/amp/? twitter_impression¼true. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2006). More than an Industry: Tourism as a social force. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1192–1208. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2005.05.020 Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2007). Hostile meeting grounds. In P. Burns M. Novelli (Eds.), Tourism and politics: Global frameworks and local realities (pp. 309–332). Amsterdam: Elsevier. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2008). Capitalist globalisation, corporatized tourism and their alternatives. New York: Nova Publishers. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2010). The elusiveness of sustainability in tourism: The culture-ideology of consumerism and its implications. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(2), 116–129. doi:10.1057/thr.2009.31 Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2012). The Hotel Bauen’s challenge to cannibalizing capitalism. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 620–640. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2011.08.001 Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2018). Sustainable tourism: Sustaining tourism or something else? Tourism Management Perspectives, 25, 157–160. doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2017.11.017
  16. 16. 30 31Transforming Tourism Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2018b). Why Australia might be at risk of ‘overtourism’. The Conversation. Retrieved 3 September 2018, from https://theconversation.com/ why-australia-might-be-at-risk-of-overtourism-99213. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2018c). The potential for justice through tourism. Via Tourism Review, 13. Via [Online], retrieved 1 September 2018, from http://journals. openedition.org/viatourism/2469. doi:10.4000/viatourism.2469 International Organization for Migration (n.d.). IOM History. Retrieved 3 September 2018, from https://www.iom.int/iom-history. Iorgulescu, M.-C., RWavar, A. S. The contribution of social enterprises to the development of tourism: The case of Romania. Procedia Economics and Finance, 32, 672–679. doi:10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01448-3 Jazairy, I. (2017). The protracted refugee and migrant crisis: A challenge to multilateralism. Inter Press Service. Retrieved 3 August 2018, from http://www. ipsnews.net/2017/12/protracted-refugee-migrant-crisis-challenge- multilateralism/. Jackson, T. (2019). The post-growth challenge: Secular stagnation, inequality and the limits to growth. Ecological Economics, 156, 236-246. Jackson, Tim, 2009. Prosperity without Growth: Economics for a Finite Planet. London, UK Moscardo, G., Murphy, L. (2014). There is no such thing as sustainable tourism: Re- conceptualizing tourism as a tool for sustainability. Sustainability, 6(5), 2538-2561.
  17. 17. 32 33Transforming Tourism Collaborative Tourism Platforms and the Production of Urban Space: Tales from Barcelona Dr Julie Wilson Introduction It has been argued that the sharing economy, within a wider collaborative economy (CE), has the potential to transform tourism spaces, as well as its effects upon the development, competitiveness and sustainability of tourism destinations at different scales and in different contexts.1 The CE has erupted fast in the past decade having been widely framed at first as an alternative economic model within contemporary societies, particularly within the tourism sector, giving rise to transformations, conflicts and impacts of all kinds. In the tourism sphere, one of the main arguments cited is that CE ecosystems can potentially offer new alternatives to traditional production and consumption models, as well as more equitable forms of democratic platform governance and co-operativism. 1 Dredge, D., Gyimóthy, S., Birkbak, A., Jensen, T.E., and Madsen, A.K. (2016). The impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector: Barcelona, Berlin, Amsterdam and Paris. Impulse Paper No 9 prepared for the European Commission DG GROWTH. Copenhagen: Aalborg University In parallel, however, the emerging presence of CE in tourism spaces has created tensions and disruptive processes, causing knock-on impacts on traditional industrial sectors and local communities. Much of the rhetoric of major CE platforms is derived from their (self)framing via narratives of being more sustainable “alternatives” to traditional business models, although in practice, the reality is often markedly different. While in the early days of the CE, its modus operandi followed a certain global logic rooted within social movements, the latter exploitation of the movement as a form of platform capitalism raises questions of inequality in terms of local scale impacts and considerable levels of complexity and challenge. In this context, tourism can provide a heuristic device via which to understand these complex challenges and opportunities that the CE can offer in terms of new economic models and a potential contribution to achieving more sustainable societies. IftheCEistobeconsideredasaviablealternativerealmfortourism,thenthereisaclear need to understand the global social and economic challenges that the CE represents for those tourism spaces struggling to comprehend its emergence as a major factor of disruptive innovation, as well as the real extent of its transformative capacities. In the CE era, contemporary tourism governance agents need to gain an in-depth understanding of the possibilities and limitations offered by CE initiatives, providing answers that can feed into public policy and development strategies. However, it is also important to question the extent to which the CE corresponds to the interests of societies and places - including whether it truly creates more sustainable outcomes and, above all, whether it can generate long-term benefits for tourism destinations and their socio-spatial structures. This chapter explores some of the ways in which collaborative digital platforms are producing (urban) space and giving rise to contested spaces where tourism is pitted against other socio-political, cultural and economic scopes and flows2 3 in a struggle for the right to the city. Emphasis is placed on the uneven development impacts of collaborative tourism platforms in different city neighbourhoods and the ways in which social movements are resisting and protesting such processes. Taking Barcelona as a case study, I discuss the impacts of collaborative tourism platforms on contested (urban) spaces. As well as examining the most relevant literature in relation to this topic, the chapter incorporates some emergent conceptual linkages and ideas from two research projects undertaken by the NOUTUR group (new perspectives on tourism and leisure) at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC). 2 Appadurai A. (1990) Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy. In: Featherstone M, ed. Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Identity. London, UK: Sage (pp. 296-308). 3 Appadurai A. (1996) Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
  18. 18. 34 35Transforming Tourism Collaborative Tourism-Related Platforms: From ­Blessing to Blight? Tourism-related collaborative economy platforms have emerged as a major disruptive innovation that truly appears to have the potential to tip the scales one way or another for cities in terms of both long-term impacts and outcomes. The outlook thus far for large, extractive platforms in tourism has not been a positive one, although evidently this depends on the kind of platform we are talking about – not all platforms are born equal. The effects of such platforms on places range from the exacerbation of their negative impacts as platform capitalism4 and business-to- peer models through to representing a more socially, economically and culturally sustainable way of organising tourism activity, at the more sharing-oriented, co- operativist end of the spectrum.5 6 Given the rapid emergence of more extractive, unicorn-style tourism platforms into the scene in recent years – effectively, intermediaries controlling and profiting from most transactions7 – platform capitalism has been much critiqued and aligned with neoliberal discourses.8 Critiques tend to centre on the major societal shifts that are emerging from knock-on negative impacts of extractivist platform activity, generating a whole range of questionable outcomes and social/cultural inequalities, as well as uneven development.9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 4 Srnicek, N. (2016). Platform capitalism (Theory redux collection). Cambridge: Polity Press. 5 Novel, A. S. (2014). Is sharing more sustainable? The environmental promises of the sharing economy. In J.-Y.Grosclaude, R. K.Pachauri, L.Tubiana (Eds.), Innovation for sustainable development (pp. 139-144). New Delhi: TERI Press. 6 Scholz, T. and Schneider, N. (2017) Ours to Hack and to Own the Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet. New York: Or Books. 7 Gössling, S. and Hall, C.M. (2019) Sharing versus collaborative economy: how to align ICT developments and the SDGs in tourism?, Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 8 Cockayne, D. G. (2016). Sharing and neoliberal discourse: The economic function of sharing in the digital on-demand economy. Geoforum, 77,73-82. 9 Frenken, K. i Schor, J. (2017) Putting the sharing economy into perspective. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 23, pp. 3-10. 10 Srnicek, N., op cit. 11 Gillespie, T. (2010). The politics of ‘platforms’. New Media and Society, 12, 347-364. 12 Kakar, V., Voelz, J., Wu, J., and Franco, J. (2018). The visible host: Does race guide Airbnb rental rates in San Francisco? Journal of Housing Economics, 40, 25-40. 13 Martin, C. J. (2016) The sharing economy: A pathway to sustainability or a nightmarish form of neoliberal capitalism? Ecological Economics 121:149-159. 14 Richardson, L. (2015) Performing the sharing economy. Geoforum 67:121-129. 15 Slee, T. (2017) What’s Yours is Mine: against the sharing economy. Brunswick: Scribe Publications. 16 Schor, Juliet. (2017). Does the sharing economy increase inequality within the eighty percent?: Findings from a qualitative study of platform providers. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 10, 263-279. 17 Sundararajan, A. (2016). The sharing economy: The end of employment and the rise of crowd-based capitalism. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Gössling and Hall maintain, however, that the sharing economy in its original sense, situated in their terms within a wider CE, does have potential to make very significant contributions to sustainability – though they acknowledge that the model is increasingly being replaced by the collaborative economy, which according to them performs as an extension and acceleration of neoliberal economic practices.18 In any case, the extractivist platform model persists within and beyond tourism, despite recent steps to reject extractivist models by slowing down their trajectories through policy and regulation.19 20 21 Such platforms have tended to shoulder the blame for a whole range of contested and disputed impacts of tourism and in Barcelona’s case, this particular performance has played out dramatically over the past decade to the point that Trillas observe in 2017 that “Airbnb has become the perfect scapegoat at which to direct all critiques of mass tourism”. It is undeniable that tourism-related collaborative economy activities have grown enormously in scale and scope in recent years. The resulting impacts of this major disruptive shift are being particularly felt in local city neighbourhoods, where they tend to create socio-spatial tensions in the urban fabric and cause questionable knock-on effects upon day-to-day community and commercial life, including increased living costs, housing market speculation and residential and commercial gentrification22 23 (Lee, 2016). It has also been suggested by Füller and Michel in 201424 that increased housing prices in specific neighbourhoods “can only partially be explained by the drastic expansion of short-term accommodation and that the complete explanation is far more complex”. The response from negatively affected social collectives been somewhat explosive, in many cases. Some studies suggest that the recent upsurge in protest and resistance movements in tourism constitutes a strong, critical response to rising 18 Gössling, S. and Hall, C.M., op cit. 19 Nieuwland, S. and van Melik, R. (2018): Regulating Airbnb: how cities deal with perceived negative externalities of short-term rentals. Current Issues in Tourism. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2018.1504899. 20 Molas, M. (2017) Barcelona lidera el NO a l’economia col·laborativa capitalista. Recerca, Revista de Pensament i Anàlisi, 21.2017.ISSN: 1130-6149 - pp. 159-163. 21 Morales, Garay and Wilson (forthcoming), Airbnb’s contribution to socio-spatial inequalities and the geographies of resistance in Barcelona. Tourism Geographies Special Issue on Digital Technology, Tourism and Geographies of Inequality (Ed. F. Frenzel, T. Frisch and J. Giddy). 22 Horn, K. and Merante, M. (2017): Is home sharing driving up rents? Evidence from Airbnb in Boston. Journal of Housing Economics 38, 14-24. 23 Ioannides, D.; Röslmaier, M. and van derZee, E. (2018): Airbnb as an instigator of “tourism bubble” expansion in Utrecht’s Lombok neighbourhood. Tourism Geographies, 1-19. 24 Ioannides, D.; Röslmaier, M. and van derZee, E., op cit.
  19. 19. 36 37Transforming Tourism pressures from tourism activity25 26 , where forms and effects of tourism are contested or deplored for their negative impacts. Given the rapid expansion of platform capitalism in tourism, it would be logical to link the inherent contradictions in the rhetoric of many major tourism-related CE platforms with activist agendas, manifested here as a deplored or contested form of tourism. Indeed, such links are already being made by some researchers – see recent analyses of urban conflict surrounding collaborative platforms in Valencia and Madrid by Romero Renau27 and Sequera in 2018 respectively, as well as Morales, Garay and Wilson in the case of Barcelona.28 The main contradictions that generally derive from CE platforms’ self-framing as more sustainable, more equitable ‘alternatives’ to traditional business models appears to be a major concern, as they claim to promote more authentic experiences, a greater level of engagement between host and guest and a flexible source of income for residents. However, the reality is often markedly different and the subsequent exploitation of the CE as a form of platform capitalism raises questions of socio-spatial inequality and uneven development29 30 31 in terms of differential local scale impacts and considerable levels of complexity implicit in understanding such processes.   To what extent though is platform capitalism truly at the epicentre of the ongoing over-tourism debate32 in contested tourism spaces? How important are the major extractivist tourism platforms in the perception of over-tourism by social protest and resistance movements in many cities? How do these platforms contribute to uneven development and socio-spatial inequalities? How does this relationship vary according to different contested tourism spaces and the associated micro- geographies of resistance at a neighbourhood scale? Are those neighbourhoods that suffer the most in terms of impacts also the ones that protest and resist the most? Morales, Garay and Wilson analyse these questions in detail33 , though in the 25 Cabrerizo,C., Sequera, J. and Bachiller, P.G. (2017) Entre la turistificación y los espacios de resistencia en el centro de Madrid. Algunas claves para (re)pensar la ciudad turística. Ecología Política 52 https://www.ecologiapolitica. info/?cat=243. 26 Colomb, C. and Novy, J. (2016) Protest and Resistance in the Tourist City. London: Routledge. 27 Romero Renau, L. (2018) Touristification, Sharing Economies and the New Geography of Urban Conflicts, Urban Sci 2(4), 104; doi:10.3390/urbansci2040104. 28 Morales, Garay and Wilson, op cit. 29 Das, R. (2017) David Harvey’s theory of uneven geographical development: A Marxist critique. Capital and Class 41, 3, 511-536. 30 Harvey, D. (2006) Spaces of Global Capitalism: A Theory of Uneven Geographical Development. Brooklyn: Verso. 31 Smith, N. (1984) Uneven Development: Nature, Capital, and the Production of Space. Brooklyn: Verso books. 32 Milano, C.; Cheer, J. and Novelli, M. (2018): Overtourism: a growing global problem. The Conversation. https://thecon- versation.com/overtourism-a-growing-globalproblem-100029 (accessed 28/01/19). 33 Morales, Garay and Wilson, op cit. present chapter, I will introduce two theoretical frameworks that can help us to unravel the dynamics that result from collaborative tourism platform impacts in the context of contested spaces. These conceptual lenses are the uneven development of contested tourism spaces and the geographies of resistance/the right to the city. This discussion is followed by a case study of Barcelona and its recent relationship with collaborative accommodation platforms. 1. Collaborative Tourism Platforms and Contested ­Tourism Spaces Many tensions have been observed between collaborative platforms in terms of communality and hierarchy and these affect the geopolitical economy as much via grand narratives as via local policies.34 One of the latest manifestations of this clash is the emergence of the disruptive process known invariably as the sharing economy / collaborative economy (recognising that this is a somewhat loaded term, see Gyimóthy and Dredge 2017’s excellent discussion on overlapping terminologies in the sharing / collaborative economy sphere). In any case, following Ioannides et al’s approach35 , I refer exclusively to the CE in this chapter to avoid confusion. It is important to keep in mind the wide spectrum of different forms of collaborative economy initiative, however, ranging on the one hand from more co-operativist platforms with a strong emphasis on the social and environmental values of (genuine) sharing to large scale, monetised extractivist platforms (such as Airbnb) on the other hand. It is not my intention here to reproduce the many complex debates on the rise and implications of the sharing economy, or more specifically, of collaborative platforms within tourism36 37 38 39 and beyond the sphere of influence of tourism. Rather, I understand the role of major extractivist platforms – already far from the original notion of a sharing economy40 - as a form of platform capitalism that has considerable impacts on cities and we will discuss these impacts in the context of the right to the 34 Downing, D.B. (2018) The Struggle Between Communality and Hierarchy: Lessons of the Paris Commune for the Twenty- first Century. Socialism and Democracy, 32:2, 56-86. 35 Ioannides, D.; Röslmaier, M. and van derZee, E., op cit. 36 Dredge, D., Gyimóthy, S., Birkbak, A., Jensen, T.E., and Madsen, A.K. (2016), op cit. 37 Gössling, S. and Hall, C.M., op cit. 38 Dredge, D., and Gyimóthy, S. (2015). The collaborative economy and tourism: Critical perspectives, questionable claims and silenced voices. Tourism Recreation Research, 40(3), 286-302. 39 Guttentag, D. (2015): Airbnb: disruptive innovation and the rise of an informal tourism accommodation sector. Current Issues in Tourism 18 (12), 1192-1217. 40 Coldwell, W (2016) Airbnb: from homesharing cool to commercial giant. The Guardian, 18 March.https://www. theguardian.com/travel/2016/mar/18/Airbnb-from-homesharing-cool-to-commercial-giant.
  20. 20. 38 39Transforming Tourism city, uneven development and geographies of resistance. As Ferreri and Sanyal put it: “the discourse of ‘sharing’, connoting a convivial aspect to these practices, highlighting the opportunity for average families to make use of un- or underutilised assets to supplement their income, not only seeks to maximise the appeal of these companies to ordinary citizens, but mask more complex arrangements that mark their profits”.41 The emergence of extractive tourism platforms such as Airbnb has certainly put the spotlight on conflicts and incompatibilities of different uses in cities, as well as on pressures on housing, public space and costs of living. Such platforms tend to create new and exacerbate existing contested tourism spaces within city neighbourhoods. In addition, their impacts now permeate the city way beyond the traditional production and consumption circuits of tourism into residential neighbourhoods with no real prior trajectory of tourism activity42 43 and hence, they spill over into the sphere of everyday city life. In terms of the spatial impacts of accommodation platform Airbnb, a number of researchers have already taken a variety of approaches to understanding spatial concentration, such as Murray Cox with his ground-breaking InsideAirbnb database and others with Data Hippo, check-ins on FourSquare, Instagram – used as a geo-locatable visual data source – or Panoramio photographs.44 45 4647 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 41 Ferreri, M. and Sanyal, R. (2018): Platform economies and urban planning: Airbnb and regulated deregulation in London. In: Urban Studies 55 (15), p 3,364. 42 Lloyd, R. (2002), Neo-Bohemia: Art and Neighborhood Redevelopment in Chicago. Journal of Urban Affairs, 24: 517-532. 43 Hannigan, J. (2007) From Fantasy City to Creative City. In G. Richards and J. Wilson (eds), Tourism, Creativity and Development. London: Routledge, pp. 48-56. 44 Adamiak, C. (2018), Mapping Airbnb supply in European cities, in Annals of Tourism Research, 2018, vol. 71, issue C, 67-71. 45 Dudás et al, 2017. 46 Gurran, N. and Phibbs, P. (2017) When Tourists Move In: How Should Urban Planners Respond to Airbnb? Journal of the American Planning Association, 83:1, 80-92. 47 Gutiérrez, J.; García-Palomares, J. C.; Romanillos, G. and Salas-Olmedo, M. H. (2017): The eruption of Airbnb in tourist cities: comparing spatial patterns of hotels and peer-to-peer accommodation in Barcelona. In: Tourism Management 62, 278-291. 48 García-Palomares, J.C., Javier Gutiérrez, J., Carmen Mínguez, C. (2015) Identification of tourist hot spots based on social networks: A comparative analysis of European metropolises using photo-sharing services and GIS, Applied Geography 63, 408-417. 49 Hu, Y., Gao, S., Janowicz, K., Yu, B., Li, W. and Prasad, S. (2015) Extracting and understanding urban areas of interest using geotagged photos. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 54, 240-254. 50 Ioannides, D.; Röslmaier, M. and van derZee, E., op cit. 51 Quattrone, G., Proserpio, D., Quercia, D., Capra, L. and Musolesi, M. (2015) Who benefits from the sharing economy of Airbnb? Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on World Wide Web (pp. 1385-1394). 52 Roelofsen, M. (2018b) Exploring the socio-spatial inequalities of Airbnb in Sofia, Bulgaria. Erdkunde 72 (4) pp. 313-327. 53 Wachsmuth, D. and Weisler, A. (2018) Airbnb and the rent gap: Gentrification through the sharing economy. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 50 (6), 1147-1170. 54 Yrigoy, I. (2016). The impact of Airbnb in the urban arena: Towards a tourism-led gentrification? The case study of Palma old quarter. In M. Blazquez, M. Mir-Gual, M. Murray, G. X. Pons (Eds.), Turismo y Crisis. Turismo Colaborativo y Ecoturismo. XV Coloquio de Geografia del Turismo, el Ocio y la Recreacion de la AGE. Mon. Soc. Hist. Nat. Balears, 23, pp. 281-289. The issue of resident perceptions of Airbnb and other vacation rental platforms in terms of how the tourism spaces it gives rise to are perceived has been tackled in a qualitative study by Jordan and Moore.55 They found that conflicts between neighbours about land use rights is common and that residents are interested in being a part of the conversation about the regulation and enforcement of short-term rentals, which would alleviate some of the conflicts surrounding the negative impacts of such platforms. Roelofsen explores how accommodation exchange platforms like Airbnb have contributed to a profound social transformation of many places and observes that civil society and grassroots movements and housing advocates have raised serious concerns over Airbnb’s role in accelerating gentrification and the disruption of housing markets.56 To this end, she also discusses the “Airbnb effect” in/on cities.57 58 59 60 61 62 2. Geographies of Resistance and the Right to the City: Framing Resistance to Collaborative Tourism Platforms via Digitally Networked Activism The right to the city, an idea originated in 1968 by Henri Lefebvre, centres on the right of all urban inhabitants, beyond their citizenship, ethnicity, acquisitive power, gender or any other such criteria, to participate in the creation and advancement of their city. In particular, the idea focuses on the rights of excluded and marginalised people to form part of the production of the city considering their needs and aspirations, more than exclusively focusing on the rights of capital.63 It challenges existing power relations and the deep roots of the capitalist system that drive urban development and the production of urban space, including social, political and economic relationships. This right has generally needed to be fought hard 55 Jordan, E.M. and Moore, J. (2018) An in-depth exploration of residents’ perceived impacts of transient vacation rentals, Journal of Travel Tourism Marketing, 35:1, 90-101. 56 Roelofsen, M. (2018a) Performing “home” in the sharing economies of tourism: the Airbnb experience in Sofia, Bulgaria. Fennia 196 (1) p. 25. 57 van der Zee, R (2016) The ‘Airbnb effect’: Is it real, and what is it doing to a city like Amsterdam? The Guardian, 6 October. 58 Arias Sans, A. and Quaglieri Domínguez, A. (2016): Unravelling Airbnb. Urban perspectives from Barcelona. In: Russo, P. and Richards, G. (eds.): Reinventing the local in tourism. Bristol, 209-228. 59 Cócola-Gant, A. (2016): Holiday rentals: the new gentrification battlefront. In: Sociological Research Online 21 (3). https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.4071. 60 Cócola-Gant, A. and Pardo, D. (2017): Resisting tourism gentrification: the experience of grassroots movements in Barcelona. In: Urbanistica Tre, Giornale Online di Urbanistica 5 (13), 39-47. 61 Morales, Garay and Wilson, op cit. 62 Roelofsen, M. and Minca, C. (2018): The Superhost. Biopolitics, home and community in the Airbnb dream-world of global hospitality. Geoforum 91, 170-181. 63 Smith, N. (1979) Toward a Theory of Gentrification A Back to the City Movement by Capital, not People, Journal of the American Planning Association, 45:4, 538-548.
  21. 21. 40 41Transforming Tourism for via protest and resistance, and there are myriad examples of the struggles inherent in being able to exercise the right to the city in many different socio- political contexts. In the context of tourism, the notion has not been explored in detail, though it is starting to emerge as a possible lens through which to examine conflicts in contested tourism spaces.64 65 Until relatively recently, social protest and resistance seemed to be a relatively straightforward affair, interpretable through the lens of power relations, political economy and social justice.66 However, as academic research and activism have become increasingly aligned through the emergence of action research and conceptual frameworks, social protest has become firmly situated within new radical geographies of resistance.67 68 69 70 71 Radical political cultures, exemplified by liberation movements centred on race, gender and sexuality, have fought to convert places and spaces of oppression and discrimination into spaces of resistance.72 If resistance is an act of transgression, such as crossing boundaries, opposition, like constructing barricades, or day-to- day perseverance, then it has come to represent the geographies where contested space is socially and culturally constituted. In terms of the recent surge of popular resistance to tourism in many cities, Cañada maintains that current debates on the implications of the right to the city for the tourist city, between social movements and political organisations that recognise a new localism.73 This new localism has centred fundamentally on the right to housing, the loss of local commercial fabric oriented to day-to-day use by residents and rising living costs, among other factors. He argues that a major point of contention is the impact resulting from extraction of real estate capital, which has knock-on 64 Cañada, E. (2019). Trabajo turístico digno y derecho a la ciudad, Blog de Ernest Cañada / ALBASUD: http://www. albasud.org/blog/es/1083/trabajo-tur-stico-digno-y-derecho-a-la-ciudad (accessed 24/01/19). 65 Hernández-Ramírez, J. (2018) The Voracity of Tourism and the Right to the City, Revista Andaluza de Antropología 15: Actividades Turísticas, Ciudad y Patrimonio Cultural: Miradas Críticas, ISSN 2174-6796 (pp. 22-46). 66 Keith, M. and Pile, S. (1993, eds.). Place and the Politics of Identity. London: Routledge. 67 Keith, M. and Pile, S. (1997, eds.) Geographies of Resistance. London: Routledge. 68 Berberoglu, B. (2019) The Palgrave Handbook of Social Movements, Revolution, and Social Transformation. Cham: Springer / Palgrave MacMillan. 69 Cox, L and Gunvald Nilsen, A. (2007) Social Movements Research and the ‘Movement of Movements’: Studying Resistance to Neoliberal Globalisation. Sociology Compass vol. 1, 2, 424-442. 70 Tarrow, S. G. (1998). Power in movement: Social movements and contentious politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 71 van der Heijden, H. A. (2012, ed.), Handbook of political citizenship and social movements. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. 72 Keith, M. and Pile, S. (2013, eds.) Geographies of Resistance. London: Routledge. 73 Cañada, E., op cit. effects in terms of displacement of residents with lower acquisitive power from the most attractive tourism areas to the peripheries of the city. Geographies of resistance are an increasingly digital concern, to the point where one might argue that the digital protest cultures that make extensive use of social media as a driving force of social change make use of social networks as a kind of ‘global digital frontstage’ for their activism.74 This has been intensified following the emergence of the global #occupy, #indignados and #aganaktismenoi movements75 and social networks such as Twitter have become global platform for maximum exposure.76 As such, there has been an increasing academic interest in social movements, digitally-networked activism and the pursuit of digitally-enabled social change.77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 In the specific context of tourism, there is has been very little research undertaken on social protest and resistance movements in relation to tourism, with the exception of Gard McGehee in 201487 and Colomb and Novy’s timely edited monograph on conflicts and struggles in urban tourism, addressing the issue of protest and resistance movements in tourist cities.88 As regards previous research on social protest and resistance to collaborative accommodation platforms, there 74 Gerbaudo, P and Treré, E. (2015) In search of the ‘we’ of social media activism: introduction to the special issue on social media and protest identities. Information, Communication Society, Volume 18, Issue 8, pp. 865-871. 75 van Haperen, S., Nicholls, W. And Uitermark, J., Building protest online: engagement with the digitally networked #not1more protest campaign on Twitter, in Social Movement Studies, February 2018. 76 Castells, M. (2015) Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Cambridge: Polity Press. 77 Gerbaudo, P and Treré, E., op cit. 78 Bennett, W. L., and Segerberg, A. (2013). The logic of connective action: Digital media and the personalization of contentious politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 79 Conover, M. D., Davis, C., Ferrara, E., McKelvey, K., Menczer, F., and Flammini, A. (2013). The geospatial characteristics of a social movement communication network. PLoS ONE, 8(3), e55957. 80 Earl, J., Hunt, J., and Garrett, K. R. (2014). Social movements and the ICT revolution. In H. A. van der Heijden (Ed.), Handbook of political citizenship and social movements (pp. 359-384). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. 81 Earl, J., and Kimport, K. (2011). Digitally enabled social change. London: The MIT Press. 82 Fuchs, C. and Trottier, D. (2014, eds.) Social media, politics and the state: Protests, revolutions, riots, crime and policing in the age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. London: Routledge. 83 Gerbaudo, P. (2012). Tweets and the streets: Social media and contemporary activism. London: Pluto Press. 84 Theocharis, Y., Lowe, W., van Deth, J. W., and García-Albacete, G. (2015). Using Twitter to mobilize protestaction: Online mobilization patterns and action repertoires in the Occupy Wall Street, Indignados, and Aganaktismenoi movements. Information, Communication Society, 18(2), 202-220. 85 McCaughey, M., and Ayers, M. D. (2003, eds.) Cyberactivism: Online activism in theory and practice. Bristol: Taylor and Francis. 86 Toret, J., Calleja-López, A., Marín, O., Aragón, P., Aguilera, M., Barandiaran, X. and Monterde, A. (2015) Tecnopolítica y 15M: La potencia de las multitudes conectadas. Barcelona: Editorial UOC. 87 Gard McGehee, N., Kline, C. and Knollenberg, W. (2014) Social movements and tourism-related local action. Annals of Tourism Research 48, pp. 140-155. 88 Colomb, C. and Novy, J., op cit.
  22. 22. 42 43Transforming Tourism are two timely previous studies to bear in mind. Sequera Airbnb in Madrid89 and Romero Renau in Valencia.90 The question is to what extent platform capitalism is a major priority for activist collectives, though in many European cities, social protest and resistance to tourism has already been clearly aligned with the emergence of collaborative tourism platforms by a number of researchers91 92 93 94 , as hasgentrification directly related to Airbnb.95 96 97 98 99 Gutiérrez et al found a relationship between both traditional and platform accommodation places and the resident population in Barcelona, suggesting that new residential areas are being added to the traditional areas of strong pressure from tourism along the city’s main tourist axis. They argue that Airbnb clearly contributes to that pressure, as it is also in these very neighbourhoods “where problems have arisen, involving the coexistence of the new Airbnb lodgings and the resident population”.100 89 Gil, J. and Sequera, J. (2018): Expansión de la ciudad turística y nuevas resistencias. El caso de Airbnb en Madrid. In: Empiria. Revista de Metodología de Ciencias Sociales 41, septiembre-diciembre, 15-32. https://doi.org/10.5944/ empiria.41.2018.22602. 90 Romero Renau, L., op cit. 91 Adamiak, C., op cit. 92 Roelofsen, M. (2018b), op cit. 93 Alizadeh, T., Farid, R. and Sarkar, S. (2018): Towards understanding the socio-economic patterns of sharing economy in Australia: an investigation of Airbnb listings in Sydney and Melbourne metropolitan regions. In: Urban Policy and Research 1-19. 94 Gil, J. and Sequera, J., op cit. 95 Wachsmuth, D. and Weisler, A., op cit. 96 Barron, K.; Kung, E. and Proserpio, D. (2017). The sharing economy and housing affordability: evidence from Airbnb. Available at SSRN: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3006832. 97 Gil, J. and Sequera, J., op cit. 98 Mermet, A.-C. (2017): Airbnb and tourism gentrification. Critical insights from the exploratory analysis of the ‘Airbnb syndrome’ in Reykjavík. In: Gravari-Barbas, M. and Guinand, S. (eds.): Tourism and gentrification in contemporary metrop- olises: international perspectives. London, 52-74. 99 Stors, N. and Kagermeier, A. (2017): The sharing economy and its role in metropolitan tourism. In: M. Gravari-Barbas and S. Guinand (eds.): Tourism and gentrification in contemporary metropolises: international perspectives. London: Routledge: 181-206. 100 Gutiérrez, J.; García-Palomares, J. C.; Romanillos, G. and Salas-Olmedo, M. H., op cit, p. 290. Neighbourhood Transformation, Uneven Development and Collaborative Tourism Platforms Smith argued that uneven spatial development is a function of the procedural logic of capital/markets101 ; hence, society and economies ‘produce’ space – ideas that had not lost their impact 24 years year later102 that still hold resonance in recent years.103 But why is uneven development of space / place / territory104 105 so important when we talk about tourism and the right to the city? Because, as Cañada argues, many tourism businesses in cities live from selling the city’s spaces – both private and public. However, Cañada reminds us that these firms are selling things that are not theirs to own; but rather that they depend on for their daily functioning.106 They commercialise the common, and latterly the private property that constitutes the city, its people and whatever activities they do or historically have done there. The consequence of this is, Cañada continues107 , is that the pressure on what that city/ region should be/should constitute becomes permanent, due to the high stakes of the capital involved in tourism. This dynamic ends up affecting the daily lives of people that reside in the city and must live with its impacts daily. In this respect, Airbnb is no exception in that it does not only depend on the accommodation it lists, but also on the public and private spaces of the neighbourhoods/cities within which their listings are located. Extractive, selling local places via their narratives of ‘live like a local’, ‘world citizen’ and ‘sustainable consumption’ etc. Academic interest in the spatial inequalities and uneven development related to collaborative tourism platforms is increasing fast. In existing studies based on Airbnb supply (listings)108 109 110 111 112 113 114 both the supposed benefits115 116 and the negative 101 Smith, N. (1984), op cit. 102 Brenner, N., Peck, J. and Theodore, N. (2010), Variegated Neoliberalization: Geographies, Modalities, Pathways, in Global Networks 10(2):182-222. 103 Das, R., op cit. 104 Harvey, D., op cit. 105 Smith, N. (1984), op cit. 106 Cañada, E., op cit. 107 Ibid. 108 Adamiak, C., op cit. 109 Gutiérrez, J.; García-Palomares, J. C.; Romanillos, G. and Salas-Olmedo, M. H., op cit. 110 Roelofsen, M. (2018b), op cit. 111 Wachsmuth, D. and Weisler, A., op cit. 112 Alizadeh, T., Farid, R. and Sarkar, S., op cit. 113 Gil, J. and Sequera, J., op cit. 114 Morales, Garay and Wilson, op cit. 115 Quattrone, G., Proserpio, D., Quercia, D., Capra, L. and Musolesi, M., op cit. 116 Levin, S (2016) Airbnb’s data shows that Airbnb helps the middle class. But does it? The Guardian, 27 July. https://www. theguardian.com/technology/2016/jul/27/Airbnb-panel-democratic-national-convention-survey.
  23. 23. 44 45Transforming Tourism impacts of the accommodation platform Airbnb are seen to be geographically uneven within and between contested tourism spaces in the cities analysed. Gentrification processes linked to the uneven distribution of tourism impacts are also becoming more central in research on the dynamics of scapes and flows in tourism spaces.117 118 119 120 121 122 123 Under Pressure: Barcelona’s Turbulent Relationship with the CE and Tourism General and Regulatory Context In 2015, the city of Barcelona saw a radical change of administration as Barcelona en Comú – a party comprising leftist political groups, civic movements, and grassroots organisations – won the local elections, with social activist Ada Colau taking the reins as mayor of the city.124 The ground-breaking new direction taken by Barcelona en Comú almost immediately became a reference point worldwide for democratic urban governance, with a renewed citizenship agenda and social equality as a core value.125 Indeed, tourism was arguably one of the primary factors underpinning this political shift, to the point that Russo and Scarnato in their excellent analysis of the shifts in Barcelona’s recent socio-political relationship with tourism suggest that its critical positioning in relation to its tourism was responsible for securing its 2015 election victory. They maintain that “until recently considered a best practice in 117 Arias Sans, A. (2018) Turisme i gentrificació: apunts des de Barcelona. In: Regió Metropolitana de Barcelona: Territori, estratègies, planejament [online] 60, 130-139. https://www.raco.cat/index.php/PapersIERMB/article/. 118 Cócola-Gant, A. (2018): Tourism gentrification. In: Lees, L. and Phillips, M. (eds.): Handbook of gentrification studies. Cheltenham and Northampton, 281-293. 119 González Fernández, C. (2018) Gentrificación y turismofobia: el caso de Barcelona. Trabajo Final de Grado en Turismo, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de León. 120 Gotham, K. (2018): Assessing and advancing research on tourism gentrification. Via Tourism Review 13. https://doi. org/10.4000/viatourism.2169. 121 Freytag, T. and Bauder, M. (2018): Bottom-up touristification and urban transformations in Paris. Tourism Geographies 20 (3), 443-460. 122 Gravari-Barbas, M. and Guinand, S. (2017, eds.) Tourism and Gentrification in Contemporary Metropolises. International Perspectives. London: Routledge. 123 Wilson, J. and Tallon, A. (2012) Gentrification, Tourism and the Production and Consumption of Space. In J. Wilson (ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Tourism Geographies. London: Routledge (pp. 103­112). 124 Russo, A.P. and Scarnato, A. (2018) “Barcelona in common”: A new urban regime for the 21st-century tourist city?, Journal of Urban Affairs, 40:4, 455-474. 125 Charnock (2018) Barcelona en Comú: Urban Democracy and ‘The Common Good’ Socialist Register 2018: Rethinking Democracy vol. 54: https://socialistregister.com/index.php/srv/article/view/28591 (accessed 4th February 2019). urban regeneration and a successful global destination, Barcelona has seen in the last two years a radical change in the public perception on tourism: from ‘manna from heaven’ to serious issues that are affecting the quality of life of its citizens”.126 Resistance to tourism pressure rose in intensity and scope over this entire period, and the new city government needed to propose solutions fast. Public Sector Response to Collaborative Accommodation Platforms in Barcelona Responding to the challenges posed by both traditional and platform-based accommodation, one of the new administration’s first measures was to instate an immediate moratorium on new hotels and holiday apartments and the development of a new tourism plan (PET2020) as outlined in the ‘Barcelona En Comú’ Emergency Plan in 2015, as well as a new instrument in the form of a Special Tourist Accommodation Plan (PEUAT), which provided a regulatory framework for urban planning and management criteria for Barcelona’s tourism accommodation. As Lambrea Llop notes, guaranteeing the right to housing was one of the main objectives of the new administration (preventing evictions, increasing the stock of affordable housing etc.), as well as to establish rent control (introducing rental ceilings) in the private rental market.127 As Russo and Scarnato argue, the one-year moratorium was particularly controversial for having put on standby many investment projects already underway.128 This was followed by a new package of measures that directly target P2P accommodation platforms like Airbnb. These measures have become increasingly stringent since 2015 and have been met with dramatic responses from platforms and some of their users alike. In terms of monitoring, control and penalties, the Catalan Government fined Airbnb €30,000 2014, with a subsequent additional €1500 fine for not having obeyed the Administration request to remove those listings that were not officially licensed for tourism.129 In 2017, website ‘fairtourism’130 was launched by the city government to allow potential renters to check if their accommodation was licensed for tourism 126 Russo, A.P. and Scarnato, A., op cit, p. 455. 127 Lambrea Llop (2017) A policy approach to the impact of tourist dwellings in condominiums and neighbourhoods in Barcelona, Urban Research Practice, 10:1, 120-129. 128 Russo, A.P. and Scarnato, A., op cit. 129 Lambrea Llop, op cit. 130 http://www.fairtourism.barcelona/
  24. 24. 46 47Transforming Tourism use or not, as well as to allow citizens to check whether a dwelling has an official license or not and to report illegal listings. This measure was reinforced by a team of inspectors. In 2018, Airbnb was fined €600,000 for listing whole properties without a license and following this, 5000 property owners were fined and over 2000 properties were removed from collaborative platforms as a result. Subsequently, in 2018, Airbnb was obliged to disclose data regarding their listings, namely information on the number of listings held, fiscal address of owners and other data, to the city government, finally shedding light on which listers were ‘multihosts’ and which were truly using the platform to rent out spare accommodation capacity on a small-scale, more domestic basis. The turbulent relationship between the platform and the city government is continuing to evolve via ongoing negotiations as to the concrete terms of operation in the city. Civic Response to Collaborative Accommodation ­Platforms in Barcelona In Barcelona, several protest and resistance collectives in opposition to tourism saturation have gained considerable momentum and mobilising increasing levels of support and energy for their activism, which tends to highly organised, digitally and socially networked and increasingly multinational in scope. In this case, platform capitalism does tend to be one of their primary concerns – particularly the more extractive ‘unicorn’ models that epitomise ‘regulated deregulation’131 , such as Airbnb, even though the narratives articulating opposition to such platforms tends to get lost in the general mix of critiques of local-scale tourism saturation. Russo and Scarnato document the importance of social civic movements, such neighbourhood association and workers unions, in questioning the social returns of the ‘Barcelona model’ and its most tangible manifestations, such as the displacement of resident populations and local services in the wake of major urban regeneration projects and the “increasing ‘costs’ of living in a cosmopolitan, tourist-ridden city”.132 They confirm that these pressures have increased manifold and have become even more complex following the rapid expansion of collaborative accommodation networks in the city. 131 Ferreri, M. and Sanyal, R., op cit. 132 Russo, A.P. and Scarnato, A., op cit, p. 463. Following the explosion of the term ‘turismofobia’ (tourism-phobia) in the Summer of 2017, protest and resistance became increasingly situationist in nature (see Guy Debord’s work), including a staged ‘funeral’ for mass tourism organised by different protest collectives, plus activists from the Arran Jovent collective using graffiti and flares to disrupt the tourist bus network and chaining themselves to a monument in Parc Güell, linking turismofobia to capitalismofobia, for example. AswellasBarcelonaenComú’sextensiveuseofsocialmediainnarrativeconstruction, Russo and Scarnato also observed that social media is strongly present in the current development of a critical discourse on tourism across the whole spectrum of stakeholders – pro- and (mostly) anti-tourism groups and civic movements are very active on Facebook.133 Opinions on the realities of tourism and tourism policy also receive high coverage on Twitter – underlining its use as a global frontstage for projecting local activist concerns.134 They note a more nuanced, critical stance taken by bloggers (often academics), such as La Trama Urbana, whose first critical pieces on Airbnb and its role in the real estate market have had a very strong repercussion, or El Bloc, a blog on architecture and urbanism in Barcelona, which engages with the current tensions produced by the presence of tourism in the city. Russo and Scarnato confirm that BeC effectively enabled the co-production of differentvisionsontourismfromthebottom-up,employingthestrongrepresentational power of narrative and image.135 In this way, they note, BeC managed to bring back tourism policy into the realm of the quotidian of a city, whereas in the past political agency was perceived by the citizens to be all about rhetoric and technicalities. The importance of collaborative accommodation platforms within these tensions was a primary focus of research by Morales, Garay and Wilson (forthcoming), who observed that the main protest collective, Assemblea de Barris per un Turisme Sostenible (ABTS), placed a great deal of attention of the role of platforms within the range of negative impacts resulting from tourism pressure.136 The narratives employed by this collective regarding Airbnb effectively attempt to unravel Airbnb’s image / discourse / meta-narrative with counter-narratives, for example denouncing Airbnb’s power as a lobby; the issue of taxation avoiders (both the platform and its listers); the perception of sidestepping / ignoring of legal frameworks. They also lament the relative lack of intervention on the part of the local and European 133 Russo, A.P. and Scarnato, A., op cit. 134 Gerbaudo, P and Treré, E., op cit. 135 Russo, A.P. and Scarnato, A., op cit. 136 Morales, Garay and Wilson, op cit.

×