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Defining	Smart	City	Governance	
Dr	Igor	Calzada,	MBA	
Senior	Research	Fellow,	Future	of	CiBes	&	Urban	TransformaBons,	Unive...
Outline		
	
	
1.  Why	new	modes	of	governance	are	needed	for	smart	ciFes	
2.  Defining	your	smart	city	vision	&	strategy	
3...
Via	@FT	
If	you	experience	
something	
—record	it.		
	
If	you	record	
something	
—upload	it.		
	
If	you	upload	
something	...
Bio:	www.igorcalzada.com/about			
1.  2015	<		
1.  University	of	Oxford,	Urban	TransformaFons		(UK)	
2.  University	of	Str...
08/09/16WP 9: Oxford Page 5
Aim:
How can we prompt methodological advancements that promote
fruitful learning in and among...
08/09/16WP 9: Oxford Page 6
Applied Research:
1) City-To-City Learning
2) Comparing/Benchmarking Smart Cities
www.futureof...
2015 <
Urban Transformations ESRC
Portfolio
www.urbantransformations.ox.ac.uk
Aims	to	address	a	wide	range	of	stakeholders	with	a	professional,	public	or	
poliFcal	interest	in	ciFes,	including	members...
Source: @oxmartinschool
1960	
Source: @UN
2025	
Source: @UN
Refugees	and	newcomers	crisis
Key reading list:
•  Brenner, N. & Keil, R. (2006) The Global Cities Reader, Routledge.
•  Brenner,	N.(2014)	Implossions	/...
1.	Ecosystem	of	CiBzens	>	System	of	Systems
2.	The	contemporary	smart	city	cannot	be	JUST	reduced…		
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
…to	simulaBon	and	da$fica$on	of	th...
3.	Unplugging	Smart	CiBes
Beyond	Hyper	Connected	SocieBes	>	
Need	to	Deconstruct	the	Smart	City
TRANSITIONS
To	get	out	from	the		
‘smart	city-in-the-box’		
approach
UNPLUGGING	2	noFons		
①  Being	digitally	connected/plugged	in	is	no	
guarantee	of	being	smart	(Evans	2002:	34)	
②  Technol...
1788	views	
	
6th		
Most		
Read	ArFcle
#UNPLUGGING	
through	
10	TRANSITIONS
Calzada,	I.	&	Cobo,	C.	(2015),	Unplugging:	Deconstruc$ng	the	Smart	City,		
Journal	of	Urban	Technology.	DOI:	10.1080/10630...
Defining	your	smart	city		
vision	+	strategy	
	
IntegraBng	processes	for		
Smart	City	Projects
EU	Projects:		
Smart	City-Regional	ComparaFve	InternaFonal	Research		
	
EU	Project	
	
	
Cities	involved	
	
Timeframe	&	Tit...
STEEP	EU-FP7-314277	
Systems	Thinking	for	comprehensive	city	Efficient	Energy	Planning		
Smart	City	Master	Plan	for	three	EU...
STEP	UP		
EU-FP7-314679	
Energy	Planning	for	Ci$es		
Smart	City	Master	Plan	for	four	EU	CiBes:		
	
Glasgow	(UK)	+	Riga	(La...
www.replicate-project.eu
By @icalzada
By @bilbaometropoli
By @CitiesOxford
By @ifuturecities By @bristolisopen
//Bilbao//
CORPORATE
-in-transition
//Barcelona//...
Despite	what	the	glossy	websites	and	videos	might	suggest…		
	
There	is	less	a	sense	of	clear	vision	around	smart:	
	
Inst...
DECALOGUE		
	
Smart	City	leaders	should:	
	
1.  Create	a	city	vision	
2.  Transform	the	city’s	operaFng	model	
3.  Establi...
What	new	roles	and	
skills	are	required?
Horizontal	authority	is	considered	beler	than	the	tradiFonal	verFcal	hierarchy	
InteracFon	of	public	managers	with	society...
CreaBng	Smart	City	
Ecosystem	through	
different	types	of	PPP?
Social
Entrepreneurs
By @icalzada
Multi-Stakeholders
Calzada,	I.	(2013),	CriFcal	Social	InnovaFon	in	the	Smart	City	era	fo...
2.		
URBAN		
DATA		
TO		
DECIDE	
Via	@FT
www.cityregions.org
3.	SCALABILITY:		
METROPOLITAN		
&		
CITY-REGIONAL	SCALES
Calzada,	I.	(2015),	Benchmarking	Future	City-Regions	beyond	NaFon-States,	RSRS	
Regional	Studies	Regional	Science,	2:1,	35...
5.	DATA	VISUALISATION:		
RANKINGS	&	CITY-DASHBOARDS	
Via	@RobKitchin
Final	Remarks	
1.  Enable	interdependencies	among	stakeholders	via	Penta	Helix	
2.  The	need	for	democraFc	mechanisms	to	m...
1.  MulFstakeholders’		
interdependencies	
2.	Urban	Data		
to	Decide	
3.	Scalability:		
Metropolitan	&	Regional	Scales	4.	...
1.		What	prospects	are	there	for	alternaFve	funding	and	business	models	for	smart	ciFes?	
2.		
What		
are		
the		
pracFcal...
Dr	Igor	Calzada,	MBA	
Urban	TransformaBons	&	Future	of	CiBes	
University	of	Oxford	
@icalzada	
www.igorcalzada.com	
igor.c...
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx
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Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx

Dr Igor Calzada delivered a keynote conference at the InFocus Smart Cities International Conference in Yinchuan in China on 7th September 2016. The keynote revolved around governance of smart cities by pointing out a critical and constructive perspective of the so-called smart cities buzzword based on previous research work entitled Unplugging.

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Yinchuan China 8Sept2016 TMForum Smart Cities International Conference 2016.pptx

  1. 1. Defining Smart City Governance Dr Igor Calzada, MBA Senior Research Fellow, Future of CiBes & Urban TransformaBons, University of Oxford Lecturer, InsBtute for Future CiBes, University of Strathclyde Research Fellow, Brussels Centre for Urban Studies, Vrije Universiteit @icalzada www.igorcalzada.com/about igor.calzada@compas.ox.ac.uk Smart City InFocus 2016, Yinchuan (China)
  2. 2. Outline 1.  Why new modes of governance are needed for smart ciFes 2.  Defining your smart city vision & strategy 3.  Developing a dedicated organizaFon – what new roles and skills are required? 4.  IntegraBng processes for smart city projects 5.  CreaBng a Smart City ecosystem through different types of private-public partnership
  3. 3. Via @FT If you experience something —record it. If you record something —upload it. If you upload something —share it. #dataism
  4. 4. Bio: www.igorcalzada.com/about 1.  2015 < 1.  University of Oxford, Urban TransformaFons (UK) 2.  University of Strathclyde, InsFtute for Future CiFes (UK) 3.  Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels Centre for Urban Studies (Belgium) 2.  2012 < University of Oxford, Future of CiFes, (UK) 3.  15 years: Policy Adviser for the European Commission 4.  10 years: Private sector, Director of InnovaFon at Mondragon Co-operaFve CorporaFon (Spain) 5.  4 years: Public sector, Director of InnovaFon at Basque Regional Government (Spain) 6.  Background: M.B.A. & PhD in Business AdministraFon (USA)
  5. 5. 08/09/16WP 9: Oxford Page 5 Aim: How can we prompt methodological advancements that promote fruitful learning in and among cities? 2012 < Future of CiBes Programme www.futureofciFes.ox.ac.uk
  6. 6. 08/09/16WP 9: Oxford Page 6 Applied Research: 1) City-To-City Learning 2) Comparing/Benchmarking Smart Cities www.futureofciFes.ox.ac.uk 2012 < Future of CiBes Programme
  7. 7. 2015 < Urban Transformations ESRC Portfolio www.urbantransformations.ox.ac.uk
  8. 8. Aims to address a wide range of stakeholders with a professional, public or poliFcal interest in ciFes, including members of the general public wishing to learn more about current academic debates on urban development worldwide: •  UK •  Europe •  InternaFonal (BRICS) 2015 < Urban Transformations ESRC
  9. 9. Source: @oxmartinschool
  10. 10. 1960 Source: @UN
  11. 11. 2025 Source: @UN
  12. 12. Refugees and newcomers crisis
  13. 13. Key reading list: •  Brenner, N. & Keil, R. (2006) The Global Cities Reader, Routledge. •  Brenner, N.(2014) Implossions / Explosions: Toward a Study of Planetary Urbaniza=on, jovis Verlag GmbH: Berlin. •  Lee, T. (2015) Global cities and climate change: the translocal relations of environmental governance: New York: Routledge. •  Acuto, M. (2013) Global cities, governance and diplomacy: the urban link. Abingdon. Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge. •  Bouteligier, S. (2013) Cities, networks, and global environmental governance: spaces of innovation, places of leadership. New York: Routledge.
  14. 14. 1. Ecosystem of CiBzens > System of Systems
  15. 15. 2. The contemporary smart city cannot be JUST reduced… …to simulaBon and da$fica$on of the urban life
  16. 16. 3. Unplugging Smart CiBes
  17. 17. Beyond Hyper Connected SocieBes > Need to Deconstruct the Smart City
  18. 18. TRANSITIONS
  19. 19. To get out from the ‘smart city-in-the-box’ approach
  20. 20. UNPLUGGING 2 noFons ①  Being digitally connected/plugged in is no guarantee of being smart (Evans 2002: 34) ②  Technology is never neutral, and it has the potenFal and capacity to be used socially and poliFcally for quite different purpose (Williams 1983: 128)
  21. 21. 1788 views 6th Most Read ArFcle
  22. 22. #UNPLUGGING through 10 TRANSITIONS
  23. 23. Calzada, I. & Cobo, C. (2015), Unplugging: Deconstruc$ng the Smart City, Journal of Urban Technology. DOI: 10.1080/10630732.2014.971535 hlp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10630732.2014.971535#abstract Also in Open Access via @ResearchGate: hlps://www.researchgate.net/publicaFon/289522452_AOM_Unplugging_DeconstrucFng_the_Smart_City
  24. 24. Defining your smart city vision + strategy IntegraBng processes for Smart City Projects
  25. 25. EU Projects: Smart City-Regional ComparaFve InternaFonal Research EU Project Cities involved Timeframe & Title Funding Institution EU-H2020-SCC- 1st Lighthouse: REPLICATE • Bristol (UK) • St Sebastian (ES) • Florence (IT) • Laussane (CH) • Essen (DE) • Nilüfer (TR) • Bogotá (CO) • Guangzhou (CN) < 2016-2021 > REinassance of PLaces with Innovative Citizenship And TEchnology EU-H2020-SCC-Lighthouse www.replicate-project.eu EU-Marie Curie Actions- Cofund-Regional Programmes: SMART CITY-REGIONS • Bristol (UK) • Glasgow (UK) • Bilbao (ES) • Barcelona (ES) < 2015-2016 > Comparing Smart City-Regional Governance Strategies: Bilbao, Barcelona, Bristol & Glasgow EU-FP7 Marie Curie Actions- Cofund BilbaoMetropoli-30/Bizkaia Province Council www.smartcityregions.org EU-FP7-314679 STEP UP Smart City Plan • Glasgow (UK) • Riga (LT) • Gothenburg (SE) • Ghent (BE) < 2014-2015 > Energy Planning for Cities *MSc Master in Global Sustainable Cities EU-FP7 www.stepupsmartcities.eu EU-FP7-314277- STEEP Smart City Plan • Bristol (UK) • St Sebastian (ES) • Florence (IT) < 2014-2015 > Systems Thinking for comprehensive city Efficient Energy Planning EU-FP7 http://www.smartsteep.eu/
  26. 26. STEEP EU-FP7-314277 Systems Thinking for comprehensive city Efficient Energy Planning Smart City Master Plan for three EU CiBes: St SebasBan (Spain) + Bristol (UK) + Florence (Italy)
  27. 27. STEP UP EU-FP7-314679 Energy Planning for Ci$es Smart City Master Plan for four EU CiBes: Glasgow (UK) + Riga (Latvia) + Gothenburg (Sweden) + Ghent (Belgium) hlp://www.stepupsmartciFes.eu/
  28. 28. www.replicate-project.eu
  29. 29. By @icalzada
  30. 30. By @bilbaometropoli By @CitiesOxford By @ifuturecities By @bristolisopen //Bilbao// CORPORATE -in-transition //Barcelona// ANTI-CORPORATE -uncertain By @SmartCityExpo //Bristol// OPEN INNOVATION -alternative //Glasgow// URBAN GOVERNANCE -transformative
  31. 31. Despite what the glossy websites and videos might suggest… There is less a sense of clear vision around smart: Instead, there is a sense of ‘smart mamers’ but without any real clarity about why and how, or any certainty about how and why to get different groups working together, from government departments to civil society groups, private companies and ordinary residents Marvin et al. 2016: 187
  32. 32. DECALOGUE Smart City leaders should: 1.  Create a city vision 2.  Transform the city’s operaFng model 3.  Establish and give priority to a stakeholder engagement programme 4.  Take an integrated view of the city’s procurement requirements 5.  Mapping the city’s interoperability needs 6.  Empower stakeholder-led service transformaFon via open plaqorms 7.  Deliver city-led service transformaFon 8.  Embed an approach to privacy management based on ciFzen-centric trust model 9.  Make sure digital and social divide are overcomed 10.  Establish an economic and social benefit realisaFon strategy BSI, 2016
  33. 33. What new roles and skills are required?
  34. 34. Horizontal authority is considered beler than the tradiFonal verFcal hierarchy InteracFon of public managers with society is essenFal Michelucci et al. 2016: 15 A. CITY PLANNING CAPABILITIES B. LEGAL COMPETENCIES C. SOFT SKILLS D. FINANCIAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT E. BASIC CAPACITIES F. POLITICALLY INDEPENDENT & HONEST
  35. 35. CreaBng Smart City Ecosystem through different types of PPP?
  36. 36. Social Entrepreneurs By @icalzada Multi-Stakeholders Calzada, I. (2013), CriFcal Social InnovaFon in the Smart City era for a City-Regional European Horizon 2020. Journal of Public Policies & Territory P3T. Vol 2, Nº 6 (2013): Social InnovaFon & Territory. Winter. pp. 1-20. 1. PENTA HELIX
  37. 37. 2. URBAN DATA TO DECIDE Via @FT
  38. 38. www.cityregions.org 3. SCALABILITY: METROPOLITAN & CITY-REGIONAL SCALES
  39. 39. Calzada, I. (2015), Benchmarking Future City-Regions beyond NaFon-States, RSRS Regional Studies Regional Science, 2:1, 350-361, DOI: 10.1080/21681376.2015.1046908. 4. BENCHMARKING: COMPARING SMARTNESS & CITY-TO-CITY CO-CREATION
  40. 40. 5. DATA VISUALISATION: RANKINGS & CITY-DASHBOARDS Via @RobKitchin
  41. 41. Final Remarks 1.  Enable interdependencies among stakeholders via Penta Helix 2.  The need for democraFc mechanisms to manage data 3.  The requirement to scale up urban soluFons to metropolitan and city-regional levels 4.  The intent to provide comparaFve evidence-based data 5.  The tendency to establish not only quanFtaFve but also qualitaFve rankings and city dashboards that enable adaptaFon rather than replicaFon
  42. 42. 1.  MulFstakeholders’ interdependencies 2. Urban Data to Decide 3. Scalability: Metropolitan & Regional Scales 4. Benchmarking: Comparing Smartness & City-to-City Co-CreaFon 5. VisualisaFon: Rankings & City-Dashboards. CreaBng Smart City Ecosystem Glad to discuss on these topics
  43. 43. 1. What prospects are there for alternaFve funding and business models for smart ciFes? 2. What are the pracFcal/poliFcal intervenFons needed (within business, local government, communiFes,…)? 3. Is another Smart City possible? A third-way between State and Market (PPP)?
  44. 44. Dr Igor Calzada, MBA Urban TransformaBons & Future of CiBes University of Oxford @icalzada www.igorcalzada.com igor.calzada@compas.ox.ac.uk Skype: icalzada +44 (0) 1865 274687 谢谢 Thank you

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