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DO YOU KNOW?AgriSeriPisci + CultureVitiHorti
AgricultureThe science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops andrearing livestock . It is also called farming.SericultureComercial rearing of silk worms . It may supplement theincome of the farmerPiscicultureBreeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds .ViticultureCultivation of crops .HorticultureGrowing vegetables ,flowers and fruits for commercial use .
Farm SystemAgriculture or farming can be lookedat as a system. The important inputare seeds, fertilisers, machinery andlabour. Some of the operations involvedare ploughing, sowing, irrigation,weeding and harvesting. The outputsfrom the system include crops, wool,diary and poultry products.
Types Of FarmingPrimitive Subsistence FarmingThis type of farming is still practised in few pockets of India.Primitive subsistence agriculture is practised on small patches ofland with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and diggingsticks, and family/community labour. This type of farmingdepends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil andsuitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown.It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. Farmers clear a patch ofland and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain theirfamily. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift andclear a fresh patch of land for cultivation. This type ofshifting allows Nature to replenish the fertility of the soilthrough natural processes; land productivity in this type ofagriculture is low as the farmer does not use fertilisers or othermodern inputs. It is known by different names in different partsof the country.
Intensive Subsistence FarmingThis type of farming is practised in areas ofhigh population pressure on land. It is labourintensive farming, where high doses ofbiochemical inputs and irrigation are usedfor obtaining higher production.Though the ‘right of inheritance’ leading to thedivision of land among successive generationshas rendered land-holding size uneconomical,the farmers continue to take maximum outputfrom the limited land in the absence ofalternative source of livelihood. Thus, there isenormous pressure on agricultural land.
Commercial FarmingThe main characteristic of this type offarming is the use of higher doses of moderninputs, e.g.high yielding variety (HYV) seeds,chemical fertilisers, insecticides andpesticides in order toobtain higher productivity. The degree ofcommercialisation of agriculture varies fromone regionto another. For example, rice is acommercial crop in Haryana and Punjab,but in Orissa, it is asubsistence crop.
PlantationPlantation is also a type of commercial farming. Inthis type of farming, a single crop is grown ona large area. The plantation has an interface ofagriculture and industry. Plantations cover largetracts of land, using capital intensive inputs, withthe help of migrant labourers. All the produce isused as raw material in respective industries. InIndia, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana,etc.. are important plantation crops. Tea in Assamand North Bengal coffee in Karnataka are someof the important plantation crops grown in thesestates. Since the production is mainly for market,a well developed network of transport andcommunication connecting the plantation areas,processing industries and markets plays animportant role in the development of plantations.
Major cropsRice: It is the staple food crop of a majorityof the people in India. Our country is thesecond largest producer of rice in theworld after China. It is a kharif cropwhich requires high temperature, (above25°C) and high humidity with annualrainfall above 100 cm. In the areas of lessrainfall, it grows with the help ofirrigation. Rice is grown in the plains ofnorth and north-eastern India, coastalareas and the deltaic regions. Developmentof dense network of canal irrigation andtubewells have made it possible to grow ricein areas of less rainfall such asPunjab,Haryana and western UttarPradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
Millets: Jowar, bajra and ragi are the importantmillets grown in India. Though, these are knownas coarse grains, they have very highnutritional value. For example, ragi is veryrich in iron, calcium, other micro nutrients androughage. Jowar is the third most important foodcrop with respect to area and production. It is arain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areaswhich hardly needs irrigation. Maharashtra is thelargest producer of jowar followed by Karnataka,Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Bajragrows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil.Rajasthan is the largest producer of bajra followedby Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat andHaryana. Ragi is a crop of dry regions andgrows well on red, black, sandy, loamy andshallow black soils. Karnataka is the largestproducer of ragi followed by Tamil Nadu.Apart from these states,Himachal Pradesh,Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Jharkhand and ArunachalPradesh are also important for the production ofragi.
Cotton: India is believed to be the original home of thecotton plant. Cotton is one of the main raw materials forcotton textile industry. India is the third-largest producerof cotton in the world.Cotton grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil ofthe Deccan plateau. It requires high temperature, lightrainfall orirrigation, 210 frost-free days and brightsunshine for its growth. It is a kharif crop and requires6 to 8 months to mature. Major cotton-producingstates are – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh,Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab,Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
Coffee: India produces about four percent of the world’s coffee production.Indian coffee is known in the world forits good quality. The Arabica varietyinitially brought from Yemen isproduced in the country. This variety isin great demand all over the world.Intially its cultivation was introducedon the Baba Budan Hills.
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTAgricultural development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population. This can be achieved in many ways such as increasing the cropped area, the number ofcrops grown, improving irrigation facilities, use of fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds. Mechanisation of agriculture is also another aspect of agricultural development. The ultimate aim of agricultural development is to increase food secutiry.
FARM IN INDIA Agriculture in India has a significant history. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry andfisheries accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2009, about 50% of the total workforce. The economic contribution of agriculture to Indias GDP is steadily declining with the countrys broad-based economic growth. Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India.
FARM IN USA Agriculture is a major industry inthe United States and the country is a net exporter of food. As of the last census of agriculture in 2007, there were 2.2 million farms, covering an area of 922 million acres (3,730,000km2), an average of 418 acres (1.69 km2) per farm.