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2014 supporting the eal students in the mfl classroom

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2014 supporting the eal students in the mfl classroom

  1. 1. Supporting EAL Students in the MFL Classroom Isabelle Jones, Alderley Edge School for Girls http://isabellejones.blogspot.com Twitter: @icpjones icpjones@yahoo.co.uk
  2. 2. Aims • Identify the most common EAL issues encountered by MFL teachers in UK schools • Suggest generic and specific practical strategies to support EAL learners in MFL classes
  3. 3. Find the language… .رحب েসিপ্র্রেসিসিডেসিডেন্রেস ট 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. BEM - VINDOS WILLKOMMEN 欢迎 साइमंड्स پاکستان هلمند Rank out of the 15th most spoken languages in English schools?
  4. 4. Find the language… েসিপ্র্রেসিসিডেসিডেন্রেস ট Portuguese German .رحب Chinese Hindi Urdu Farsi 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. BEM - VINDOS WILLKOMMEN Arabic 欢迎 Bengali साइमंड्स پاکستان هلمند 9 X 8 4 13 X 3 X Rank out of the 15th most spoken languages in English schools?
  5. 5. First languages in English schools http://www.naldic.org.uk/research-and-information/eal-statistics/
  6. 6. EAL Learners • What does EAL stand for? EFL? ESL? • Describe what you think are the characteristics of a “typical” EAL learner? • What issues do you anticipate him/her to have with learning in general and with learning a foreign language in particular?
  7. 7. EAL EAL: English as an Additional Language Recognises that students may speak several languages in addition to English and that English could be their third, fourth or fifth language. • as opposed to ESL: English as a Second Language • or EFL: English as a Foreign Language (for students living abroad learning English)
  8. 8. The Globalised Classroom: How many pupils? Where? • 1 in 8 secondary school pupil does not have English as their first language. • 1 in 6 primary school pupil speaks a language at home other than English. • The percentage of EAL students varies greatly from region to region and school to school. In some schools it can be 90% + DfE school census, January 2011 http://www.naldic.org.uk/research-and-information/eal-statistics NALDIC @EAL_naldic http://eal.britishcouncil.org/ Support for NQTs-Sec Ed article http://www.sec-ed.co.uk/news/project-offers-support-to-teachers-of-eal-students/
  9. 9. EAL as a continuum of needs/ possible interventions  EAL refers to any student with English as an Additional Language.  At one end of the continuum , you find the ‘International New Arrivals’ (INA.) This refers specifically to students who have entered the UK within the past two years.  Subgroups: - ‘first generation’ : children who were born in another country and have since resettled in the UK with their family. - ‘second or third generation’ : children who were born in the UK into a migrant or ‘dual-heritage’ family. - ‘migrant worker’ : children whose parents have moved to work in Britain. - ‘asylum seeker’ / ‘refugee’ : children who have moved with / without their parents to escape famine, persecution and other tragic events.
  10. 10. EAL as a continuum : Other criteria • Language spoken at home • Existence and role of older relatives who use a different language at home • Literacy in the first language • Other language spoken • Parents’ level of education and literacy in both English and first language • Schooling history and experience • Traumatic experiences
  11. 11. Truth or Myth? Pros and Cons? 1. If new arrival EAL students are segregated and taught English, they will be able to prepare themselves quicker for taking exams through the medium of English. 2. EAL is a Special Educational Need 3. Speaking another language interferes with learning English. 4. EAL learners should only speak English at school.
  12. 12. Fighting Common Misconceptions 1. EAL students will take approximately 5 – 7 years of English-speaking education to acquire academically-fluent English. This will occur naturally through nurturing immersion rather than segregated intervention. MFL lessons will be more accessible in Y7-8 for EAL learners as they often represent a fresh start linguistically (impact on progress and setting) 2.EAL students have a temporary additional need which is primarily language acquisition. EAL students are not automatically SEN or ‘special educational needs’, and should not automatically put in lower sets . Lack of data/ unreliable data can be an issue if EAL learner is assessed through the medium of English. 3.EAL students will have potential strengths as well as additional needs. There are many cognitive advantages to being bilingual. Research shows that bilingual learners have better classification skills, concept formation, analogical reasoning, visual – spatial skills , creativity and divergent thinking, story-telling skills, language awareness. However, not all EAL learners are truly bilingual. 4. There are benefits if students can carry on developing their home language at the same time as English, but when and how it is done need to be thought through.
  13. 13. The Challenges : Through MFL we need to… Nurture language development Coach students in how to learn Build stable and productive social groups The good news? EAL good practice is MFL good practice!
  14. 14. Language Acquisition Stage 1: Pre-production This is often described as ‘the silent period’ and can last up to six months. English language learners may have up to 500 words in their receptive vocabulary but they are typically not yet fully able / confident in speaking. Some students will, however, repeat everything you say. They are not really producing language but are parroting.  NC English – P Levels Stage 2: Early production This stage may last up to six months and students will develop a receptive and active vocabulary of about 1000 words.  NC English – Level 1 Stage 3: Speech emergence Students have developed a vocabulary of about 3,000 words and can communicate with simple phrases and sentences. This stage will tend to last up to three years. NC English – Level 1 → 2 BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) =conversational English Stage 4: Intermediate fluency English language learners at the intermediate fluency stage have a vocabulary of 6000 active words. NC English – Level 3 – 4 Stage 5: Advanced Fluency Starting as a new speaker of English, it takes students an average of 7 - 10 years to achieve academic language proficiency in a second language. At this stage, students have the range of listening skills necessary to participate fully within the curriculum and can be fairly assessed using only the National Curriculum for English. NC English – Level 4 and above CALP= Cognitive and Academic Language Proficiency (minimum 5 years)
  15. 15. EAL support? • Peer support is not always available • Many schools do not have any EAL department as such • EAL expertise varies greatly from school to school • Modern Languages are often not seen as a priority for support
  16. 16. Type of EAL support? Restricted timetable/ Withdrawal lessons In English/ in home language Teaching Assistant Peer support Class teacher Cummins’ Interdependence theory Concepts can be transferred from one language to another. EAL learners need to continue to develop both languages to derive maximum benefit of their studies.
  17. 17. Interdependence Theory and Literacy • Many children new to literacy in English will have experience of literacy in other languages Child’s experience of Literacy in another language Potential benefits for acquiring literacy in English Can decode the script but with little understanding Recognises that literacy involves connection between sound and symbol Visual memory Can read and write with understanding Reading for understanding strategies No home literacy but oral story telling and language games Range of genres Language as a fun activity
  18. 18. EAL, assessment and data • Progress is a key accountability measure for OFSTED. • Baseline tests in Y7-What are the issues for EAL learners in general? And for the assessment of a foreign language in particular?
  19. 19. EAL and SEAL What does it feel like to be an EAL learner? Empathy required… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  20. 20. • “Most of the time I don’t know what they’re saying anyway. They all speak in some other language, Urdu or something. I don’t know what it is…..” • “Lots of our children speak other languages. You do, don’t you dear? Urdu or Hindu [sic] or something, is it? We’re very proud of them.” From “Plurilingual School Students* Learning Languages at School: experiences, perceptions and implications”, Pura Ariza, MMU.
  21. 21. Common experiences of EAL students: I feel different. Can I eat this? Is it OK do this? What will my family say? Why do some people avoid talking to me? Why do they speak to me so loudly and slowly ? If I keep quiet I will not get laughed at or told off. Where is my next lesson? I am never sure of what to do and where to go… I miss home. Why did I get sent here? I am not used to those busy streets and cold weather. I just can’t keep up… it’s really tiring, but I have to learn so that I can help my family with the language. At my other school I had much more interesting work. All I do here is listen and write.
  22. 22. Heritage Language use and culture perception inside and outside schools: *Pupils are discouraged to use heritage languages in schools although it is essential for the development of self-image and identity *Very emotive and political issue *Bilingualism is seen as a weakness- ability is nearly exclusively assessed in terms of competence in English * Non-British cultures are stereotyped and often falsely amalgamated.
  23. 23. A Language is a language 1. Show an active interest in the languages spoken by pupils in your schools in your school. Learn how to say hello and goodbye or ask the children to teach you. 2. Investigate linguistic similarities and exploit them. 3. Challenge stereotypes and teach the cultures of the target language country. Show that all European countries are multicultural and multilingual. 4. Reinforce the links between different languages in the department (Community/ Modern/ Classics) and across the curriculum (practical/ academic)
  24. 24. A new arrival child has been placed in your class • What do you need to find out about? • What is your plan of action?
  25. 25. Generic strategies to support EAL learners: Challenges & Benefits 7. Coaching  Schemes of work need to build in activities that demonstrate and practise language. Not just subject-specific . words but general academic words like ‘compare’, ‘analyse’ etc. 6. Communicating  The use of English and TL should be supported by visual cues and practical examples. A dictionary could be used provided the student’s literacy in L1 is strong enough. 4. Buddying  Pair with a responsible, caring, articulate student who will act as a guide, friend and role model. Reward students for acting as buddies. (This can be arranged by class teacher or EAL support) 5. Mentoring  The student’s form tutor or key worker needs to regularly catch up with them to address queries / confusions, ensure homework is being managed. The mentor filters information through to student and support with practical academic & pastoral issues. 3. Grouping  Place EAL students with supportive students of similar ability, who can provide a good linguistic model in English. 2. Knowing  Identify their language levels. Try to find out a little about their native / home culture. With INAs, find out their ‘story’. Link with EAL support as appropriate. 1. Naming!  Ensure that you address the student by their correct name and that you pronounce the student’s name correctly.
  26. 26. Inclusive practice: sharing cultures • Encouraging students to complement the topics you are teaching when working independently e.g. fruit and vegetable • Finding out about specific features of EAL learners’ home language from them e.g. forms of address, word order, pronunciation, cognates, funny-sounding words… • Encouraging students to share information in the Target Language about their home countries, language and culture.
  27. 27. Newbury Park: Language of the month http://www.newburypark.redbridge.sch.uk/langofmonth/
  28. 28. Language Awareness starters • Introduce the idea of “families” of languages e.g. latin (word order) • Refer to etymology when explaining key words. http://www.etymonline.com/ • English is great at borrowing words from other languages…
  29. 29. Language Awareness starters Which languages have these been borrowed from? • Jar, coffee, sugar • Sky, leg, wife • Pill, wagon • Damp, luck • Shampoo, bungalow, cot • Umbrella, piano, corridor • Tent, café, route • Rose, atlas, museum Arabic Norwegian/ Danish Dutch German Hindi Italian French Greek
  30. 30. EAL learners: Attainment Expectations and Reality Early Years/ Foundation Stage Phonics screening check KS1 KS2 KS3 KS4 Same level as Below Above?
  31. 31. EAL learners: Attainment Expectations and Reality Early Years/ Foundation Stage: 56%/ 65% (generally improving trend) Phonics screening check no difference or + KS1: lower % (generally improving trend) KS2: 72%/75% (improving trend) KS3: catching-up phase KS4: 78.1%/71.1% (English) average point score for bilingual pupils higher for languages!
  32. 32. A few points to consider… ?? 1.Where are your EAL students and who are they sitting with? How is that likely to help or hinder them? 2. How would you make it easier for your EAL learners to understand instructions-orally and on a worksheet for instance? 3.How do you think EAL learners can contribute to enhancing our subject? 4. An EAL student pronounces or writes a word incorrectly – What do you do? 5. From a standard MFL scheme of work- what specific vocabulary is needed in English to understand the activities and their purpose ? 6. What will you have to consider when assessing EAL students’ progress in MFL in all four skills? What should you avoid?
  33. 33. 7 Steps to introduce New Language When learning new language, EAL students need to: 11.. SSeeee tthhee wwoorrdd // pphhrraassee 22.. HHeeaarr tthhee wwoorrdd // pphhrraassee 33.. LLiinnkk tthhee wwoorrdd // pphhrraassee ttoo mmeeaanniinngg 44.. PPrraaccttiissee aanndd sseellff--rreeppaaiirr tthhee wwoorrdd // pphhrraassee 55.. LLiisstteenn ttoo tthhee wwoorrdd// pphhrraassee bbeeiinngg rreeccaasstt 66.. RReevviissee tthhee wwoorrdd // pphhrraassee 77.. UUssee tthhee wwoorrdd // pphhrraassee iinn aannootthheerr ccoonntteexxtt
  34. 34. Scaffolding Learning: (Listening & Reading) Visual Support • All teaching materials should include visuals like photographs, pictures, drawings or paintings to support learning. Beware of hidden cultural references in visuals. • Use spot the difference pictures to reinforce simple structures in the affirmative and negative forms or introduce comparatives. • Concept maps • Props, puppets and images • Mime, gestures, acting out • Display
  35. 35. A house or a house?
  36. 36. Pictures and Photographs • NEN Gallery http://gallery.nen.gov.uk • Flickr http://www.flickr.com • Tag Galaxy http://taggalaxy.de • Pinterest http://pinterest.com/ • Visual searches: http://www.wordsift.com • Google.fr Google.es
  37. 37. Reading… (lire/ leer/ lesen…)
  38. 38. DARTs Activities (reading/writing)
  39. 39. DARTs-inspired Language Activities • Text sequencing • Prioritising decisions/ ranking opinions • Matching pictures to text • Matching phrases to definitions • Matching beginning and end of sentences • True/ False/ Not Mentioned • statements about a text • Sorting activities (gender/ verbs or • nouns)…
  40. 40. Bonjour! Je m’appelle Ludovic. J’ai treize ans. Je suis en sixième. J’habite près de Toulouse. J’ai les cheveux courts et châtains et les yeux marron. Je suis assez grand. Je mesure un mètre cinquante. Je porte des lunettes. Je joue de la guitare classique. Je suis sportif. J’aime le football et le rugby. J’ai une chienne qui s’appelle Léa.
  41. 41. Word clouds and mind-mapping • Wordle http://www.wordle.net • Tagxedo http://www.tagxedo.com/ • Freemind http://freemind.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/• Mindomo http://www.mindomo.com
  42. 42. EAL Attainment Data http://www.tagxedo.com/artful/2a50dd53fe98461
  43. 43. Dictionaries Bilingual dictionaries Monolingual dictionaries Thesaurus Pros and Cons?
  44. 44. Flip your lesson! Pre-teach key vocabulary/ structures: How would you do this? Advantages and inconvenients?
  45. 45. Visual support & Engagement Classtool.net http://classtools.net/ Site with templates for resources to be printed or put on a blog or a VLE. Drama! http://www.triptico.co.uk/
  46. 46. Scaffolding Learning: Audio support (listening/ speaking/ reading/ writing) • Repeating key words and phrases and using visual support at the same time. • Rephrasing: get students to rephrase in English and move from complex to simpler language. • Recasting: model by providing a gramatically correct or longer version of what the student said. • Target Language Use
  47. 47. Text-to-speech http://text-to-speech.imtranslator.net/
  48. 48. Supporting and Recording Talk http://www.easi-speak.org.uk/ http://audacity.sourceforge. net/ http://www.voki.com Ppt recording function
  49. 49. Scaffolding Learning: Models and Modelling • Provide a model and deconstruct texts. Sequencing activities will support the development of literacy skills as well. • The model could be a story, a transcript from a short video clip, a recipe, 2 sides of an argument, the evaluation of a product or a performance, a timeline … • Writing/ Speaking frames (talk stems/ sentence starters)
  50. 50. Develop your cultural linguistic awareness to support EAL learner • In Urdu, gender and number are both shown through the verb inflection and the tense through a verb suffix. • Nouns in many South Asian languages have cases. • Most languages do not have definite • and indefinite articles. • In many South Asian languages yesterday and tomorrow are the same word.
  51. 51. Scaffolding Learning: Questioning • No hands rule • Yes or no question to check understanding • Multiple choice questions • Traffic lights
  52. 52. Supporting EAL learners through the teaching cycle Teacher sets the context Teacher builds on prior knowledge Field of knowledge is developed Model of what you want the students to be able to produce is shown Model is deconstructed Joint construction takes place through a range of activities Independent construction may be expected at this stage
  53. 53. Literacy Across the Curriculum (LaC) and EAL students How can you contribute through your foreign languages lessons? Grammar terminology Punctuation Use of apostrophes (comparisons) Literacy-specific vocabulary to allow independent accent to reference materials
  54. 54. Keep an open mind…
  55. 55. Aims • Identify the most common EAL issues encountered by MFL teachers in UK schools • Suggest generic and specific practical strategies to support EAL learners in MFL classes
  56. 56. Top 3 priorities to get prepared for your EAL students… • 1. • 2. • 3. Get to know your EAL students and how they are catered for at your school
  57. 57. Supporting EAL Students in the MFL Classroom Isabelle Jones, Alderley Edge School for Girls http://isabellejones.blogspot.com Twitter: @icpjones icpjones@yahoo.co.uk