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Unlocking the potential of agricultural innovations to achieve the SDGs

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Ren Wang
IFPRI-FAO conference, "Accelerating the End of Hunger and Malnutrition"
November 28–30, 2018
Bangkok, Thailand

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Unlocking the potential of agricultural innovations to achieve the SDGs

  1. 1. Unlocking the potential of agricultural innovations to achieve the SDGs Ren Wang Member of the Board of Directors and Senior Vice President, BGI, Shenzhen
  2. 2. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization Was Established In 1945 • The original mandate of FAO was simple and straight forward: To increase the world’s food production and achieve food security. • The World Food Summit in 1996, attended by 186 heads of state and ministers restated the FAO mission and committed to world’s food security; 2
  3. 3. Numbers of Hunger And Malnutrition Are On The Rise ! The number of hungry people in the world has risen to 821 million in 2017, from around 804 million in 2016 (FAO, 2018) 2 billion people are under micronutrient deficiencies Obesity affects over 500 million adults
  4. 4. The World has changed, So have FAO and CGIAR Some old challenges persisted; Many are new and unprecedented 4 Global Climate Change: Can Agriculture Cope?
  5. 5. Today, 75% of the world’s food is produced from only 12 plants and five animal species, while there are about 300,000 edible plant species in the world. These plant diversity will be the source of food security and nutrition for the world population today and the generations beyond.
  6. 6. Zoonotic diseases as emerging pandemic threats Seven out of every ten newly discovered human diseases are of animal origin
  7. 7. Challenges of urbanization on food systems 2/3 of the people will be city dwellers by 2050 New “Urban Agenda” and “Resilient Cities” need to include sustainable food systems for the cities Every year, China has 220-250 million people migrate from rural to urban areas - equal to the current population of Indonesia
  8. 8. Innovation has been proven to be a driver of such change, and for economic growth of countries. Agricultural innovation is the process whereby individuals or organisations bring new or existing products, processes or ways of organisation into use for the first time in a specific context in order to increase effectiveness, competitiveness, resilience to shocks or environmental sustainability and thereby contribute to food security and nutrition, economic development or sustainable natural resource management. (FAO 2018) Today’s food and agriculture need a transformative change !
  9. 9. Key Messages from the FAO Symposium on Agricultural Innovation for Family Farmers, 21-23 Nov 2018, Rome 1. Putting family farmers at the center of innovation; 2. The Importance of bridging institutions to facilitate networking and multi- stakeholder dialogue; 3. A need for increased investment in public research and education systems; 4. A holistic approach and integrated policies to create an enabling environment; 5. Youth and women are the central force for agricultural innovation; 6. Urgent need for investment from the government and other stakeholders in training to develop next generation of innovators; 7. A need to enable family farmers to adapt and innovate in the use of new technologies and solutions.
  10. 10. Genomic technology contributes to reducing health-related rural poverty in China - The cases of prevention and control of echinococcosis and thalassemia • Detect at early stage • Low false positive • Cover the large population NGS screening serum + ultrasound screening • Next Generation Sequencing method can detect more variants than traditional kit • NGS method can improve HLA typing accuracy Data: Blue book of thalassemia in China https://presse.inserm.fr/en/new-gene-therapy-success-in-beta-thalassemia-22-patients-treated-in-france-united-states-thailand-and-australia/31149/
  11. 11. Sangji -- a 15 years old girl in Qinghai died from echinococcosis (hydatidosis) Data: http://tieba.baidu.com/p/4317878206 http://www.dari.gov.cn/html/535/63629.html China Statistical Yearbook 2017
  12. 12. Echinococcosis is one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases raised by WHO Global distribution of cystic echinococcosis 2011 Data: http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/zoonoses/infections_more/en/ • Two types: cystic and alveolar echinococcosis • Clinical symptom may appear after many years of infection • Serious morbidity and death In 2016, the incident rate in Tibet is 1.6%, around 50,000 people. There were around 50 million livestock affected, which costed 4323 million dollar economic loss.
  13. 13. Xiaoyu -- a β-thalassemia major baby Data: http://mb.yidianzixun.com/article/0JzqsEJ3 China Statistical Yearbook 2017 Per Capita Disposable Income of Rural Households by Region(2016) >20,000 RMB 1,5000-20,000RMB 10,000-15,000RMB <10,000RMB No data
  14. 14. Thalassemia is the most common genetic disease in Southern China A common cause of rural poverty Thalassemia is prevalent in Mediterranean region and Southeast Asia. There are around 350 million thalassemia gene carrier world wide. In China Thalassemia gene carrier: 30 million Thalassemia major: 15,000 Thalassemia gene carrier rate of TOP 2 province : Guangxi (23.98%) Guangdong(16.8%) Data: Blue book of thalassemia in China
  15. 15. A huge financial burden for the patient families Thalassemia treatment is not covered by medical insurance Data: Blue book of thalassemia in China Thalassemia Gene Carrier Thalassemia Intermedia ¼thalassemia patient thalassemia gene carrier $692,000 for 50 yrs $58,000 for a transplant surgery
  16. 16. Shenzhen Changsha Number of Birth in 2017 240,000 105,000 Financing mechanism Included in maternity insurance Funded and coordinated by local government Subsidy Government subsidy $43/case + maternity insurance $80/case Government subsidy $130/case Start Time 7/2017 4/2018 Initial Coverage 56% 30% YTD coverage 95% 80% Data Report Data collected from different hospitals’ systems Data and report generated from an exclusive information system Different Models of Financing and Managing Genetic Screening/Testing Projects in Shenzhen vs. Changsha
  17. 17. NIFTY (NIPT) 3.49M HPV 3.24M Hearing Impairment 1.99M Newborn Screening 0.80M Thalassemia 263K+ Monogenic Disorder 52K+ Chromosome Abnormality 34K+ PGD/PGS 12K+ Tumor Detection 43K+ Infection Detection 23K+ Echinococcosis Screening 850K+ WGS 171K+ WES 154K+ Others 2M Up to Sep. 2018 BGI has conducted ca. 13,000,000 genomic tests worldwide
  18. 18. Government of China sets the target of lifting a further 30 million people out of poverty in the next three years Data: http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/2018-08/19/content_5314959.htm http://www.jkb.com.cn/news/industryNews/2017/0422/408363.html Health-related poverty accounts for 42.6% in China’s national poverty population Strategies for reducing health-related poverty: • Build remote medical service network • Implement precision medicine strategies for diagnosis and treatment • Implement integrated approaches for for endemic and serious infectious diseases • Provide full insurance coverage for breast and cervical cancer screening for rural women • Start new born screening and child nutrition improvement project
  19. 19. 1990年-1998 1998年-2007 2007-2015 electrophoresis 98 00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 2090 92 94 96 Cost: $3 B/Genome Human Genome Project was officially announced in 1990 by U.S. Achieve coverage of at least 90% of Genome in working draft by 2000 capillary electrophoresis Domestically designed & made $600/Genome China National Genebank 2016- Year $300M/ Genome sequencing by synthesis $3M~4K/Genome Scientific discovery stage Factory of Sequencing platform for genome reading, writing and conservation Costpergenome Perceiving Life : From Human Genome Project © 2018 BGI Rights Reserv 2018- $100/Genome
  20. 20. • Maximum data throughput: 6 Tera bites • Can complete 60 human WGS per day • Can complete 10,000 human genomes in 6 months BGI launched the world’s fastest genome sequencer MGISEQ T7
  21. 21. Technological Innovations are changing the world, and our mindset must also change. Innovation in science and technology must be accompanied by innovative business models and broad partnerships, especially the PPP to achieve impact at a scale. Innovation can be a powerful driver for poverty reduction and economic development in the developing countries; but it needs the support and enabling policies and investment from the national as well as local governments. Some take home messages
  22. 22. 2018/11/29 22 Thank You! From tradition to the Future …