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  1. 1. Leadership Training
  2. 2. Leadership Components .
  3. 3. Vision • A leader is a change agent who leads a group of followers to an aspired destination. • The destination is the vision of the leader. • For a business organization the destination may be larger share of same market or a different market with higher yields.
  4. 4. Strategy • A market is a competitive situation with many players, each competing against one another. • Strategic management is a leader’s tool to winning the market. • Strategy normally entails changes in the operational or behavioural procedures within the organization.
  5. 5. Strategy • Winning the market requires judicious use of organizational resources, tangible and intangible. • Intangibles weigh heavier than the tangibles as organizational resource. This is why Apple is a more valuable company than General Motors. • Prime intangibles are the human resources, occupying one of the three circles in Adair’s Leadership model. The leader’s job is to make the best use of this important resource.
  6. 6. Leadership • Unlike a machine a human strongly reacts to external stimuli, imposed through changes. • As a change is implemented there will be willing and unwilling partners within the human resources group. • Leader needs to motivate the unwilling into a willing partnership. The willing needs support from the leader to strengthen their willingness.
  7. 7. Change Resistance • The natural reaction to change is resistance. • The power of “comfort” with how things are today is the stumbling block. • Resistance to change is the norm then an exception.
  8. 8. Motivation overcome resistance • Listen, speak, socialize • Identify removable barriers • Provide choices - help remove barriers • Communicate benefit • Make personal appeal • Spend more time with the strong dissenters • Create examples (sacrificial lamb, rewards & incentives)
  9. 9. Change Management • The employees may be categorized in 3 broad groups in terms of changes i.e. Willing, Uncertain and Resistant with a 80, 10, 10 distribution. • While a support of the willing is crucial in moving ahead with the changes, the uncertain will need much attention to bring them within the fold. • The resistant will need greater attention to bring them within the fold and let them go.
  10. 10. Change Profile
  11. 11. LEADERSHIP COMMANDMENTS • Admission : “I admit I made a mistake” • Appreciation : “You did a good job” • Solicitation : “What is your opinion” • Courtesy : “If you please” • Humility : “Thank you” • Teamwork : “We” • Arrogance : “I”
  12. 12. Strategic Leadership level 5 attributes (Collins) • A blend of personal humility and intense professional will. • Ordinarily down to earth but having strong determination and uncompromising attitude to work done to perfection. • Courage to take responsibility for poor results, never blaming other people or external factors or bad luck. • Able to create a team with the right people and a culture of discipline. They have no hesitation is removing the non-performers. • Insist on setting up successors for even more greatness in the next generation.
  13. 13. Strategic Leadership Emotional Intelligence (Goleman) • IQ & technical skills are entry level requirement for leadership. • To soar higher you need emotional intelligence to put the team together and get them to work as one. Self-Awareness : Knowing one’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values and goal – and their impacts on others. Example : A manager knows that tight deadlines bring out the worst in him. So he plans his time to get work done well in advance.
  14. 14. Emotional Intelligence • Self-Regulation : Controlling or redirecting disruptive emotions and impulses. Example: Your team makes a bad presentation at a board of directors meeting. What would be your reaction? People who can control their feelings and impulses can easily create an environment of trust and fairness. Displays of negative emotion have never been a driver of good leadership. • Motivation Being driven to achieve for the sake of achievement. Motivation requires a passion for the work, zeal to learn and pride in getting a job done well. Motivation brings in a commitment to the organization which in turn leads to strong leadership.
  15. 15. Emotional Intelligence • Empathy : Considering others feeling, especially when making decisions. Teams are cauldrons of bubbling emotions. A team needs consensus to perform a task. It is not unusual for members of the team divided into groups regarding the pros and cons of a decision – alliances form and clashing agendas set in. A team leader must be able to sense and understand the viewpoints of everyone around the table. • Social skill : Managing relationships to move people in desired directions. It is a knack for building rapport. It is a culmination of other dimensions of emotional intelligence. People can be very effective in managing relationships when they can understand and can control their own emotions and can empathize with the feelings of the others. A leader’s task is to get jobs done through others and social skills make this happen.
  16. 16. LEADERSHIP MODELS • Several training modules have been developed on the assumption that Leadership can be taught. • Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. • The ideal is not to lock yourself into a type of behavior discussed in the model, but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken.
  17. 17. #1. Adair Model Leadership Training
  18. 18. Adair Model • Task - Common purpose - how it is communicated and - broken down into aims and objectives
  19. 19. Adair Model • Team - What are the parts (groups, subgroups etc) - how they contribute to the purpose - how they relate together
  20. 20. Adair Model Group vs Individual • One reason why a group comes together is that there is a task which one person cannot do alone. • The individual and group needs have to be harmonized in the service of a common task that keeps the group together. • Some individual needs may have to be sacrificed in favour of the group need (game of cricket)?
  21. 21. Leadership Levels
  22. 22. Leadership Development steps • Training • Selection • Mentoring • Chance to Lead • Educating • Strategic Leadership • Chief Executive
  23. 23. Aspects of Leadership survey • The basic assumption under different styles of leadership is that people will work better under one style of leadership than another • The authoritarian style is based on assumption that the power will rest with the leader of decision making, arbitration, control, rewards and punishment. • Under the democratic style these powers and responsibilities are shared with the groups in some way or other. • Which style is more effective? Here is a survey result from an HBR article on the effect of style of leadership on organizations.
  24. 24. Leadership Survey • Coercive leaders : Demands immediate compliance • Authoritative leaders : Mobilizes people towards a vision • Affiliative leaders : Creates an emotional bond and harmony
  25. 25. Leadership Survey • Democratic leaders : Builds consensus through participation • Pacesetting leaders : Insists on excellence and self-direction • Coaching leaders : Develops people for the future
  26. 26. Evaluation Attributes • Flexibility - how free employees feel to innovate • Sense of Responsibility to the organization • Level of Standards people set on their work • Aptness of Rewards - how people perceive it • Clarity - people have about mission and values • Level of Commitment - people have to a common purpose.
  27. 27. Survey Results • Most Effective :The Authoritative - Mobilizes people towards a vision • Runner Up :The Affiliative style - Creates an emotional bond and harmony • Follow Up :Democratic and Coaching style - Builds consensus through participation - Develops people for the future
  28. 28. Culture • Each organization has its own distinctive culture. It is a combination of the past legacy (leadership), current leadership, crises, events and size. • This results in rites : the routines rituals : the way we do things. • These rites impact individual behavior on what it takes to be in good standing (the norm) and directs appropriate behavior for each circumstance.
  29. 29. Culture the paradigm
  30. 30. Culture • Stories : Good & bad - how things used to be, the fault >> giving praise • Symbols : privileges – special lift >> MBWA • Rituals and Routines : If things go wrong blame others >> question ways of doing things
  31. 31. Culture • Control Systems : Reaction to complaint, emergencies >> more feedback from customers • Organizational Structure : Departments as silos, bureaucracy >> flat structure • Power structure : Power preserved through hierarchy >> delegation
  32. 32. Climate • Organizational climate is directly related to the leadership and management style of the leader, based on aspects of personality. • Compare this to “ethical climate” – the feel of the organization about the activities that have ethical content. • The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things right; or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave. The personality of the leader impacts the climate.
  33. 33. Environment totality Standards - quality Values - concern Concepts - product/service PERSONALITY - aggregate of the above Roles - expectation of behaviour Relationship - interaction Culture - rituals, rites Climate - feel of the organization
  34. 34. Leadership Ethics • Imagine that you are a newspaper reporter in East Pakistan covering the 1971 war to establish Bangladesh. You are tired after travelling many miles on dirt tracks through the hills of Assam, in order to report on the rebel forces in that area. Then you find yourself in a crisis, one that calls for an instant, effective reaction. • In the words of Donald Seaman of the Daily Express :
  35. 35. x • They put a boy of 18 up against a palm tree and read out the offence for which he was on trial for his life: MISUSE OF PETROL. • Then they sentenced him to die by a one-man firing squad. I watched as the boy pleaded for his life. I heard the click of the rifle bolt as the bearded executioner pushed a round into the breech of his Lee Enfield. The boy was weeping now. He put his hands protectively in front of his face and awaited the bullet. • Petrol is precious to the rebel army in whose ranks the boy prisoner was fighting for East Pakistan's independence. So precious that they count it out by the drop. As a driver the boy had 'misused' the ration allotted to his truck by driving a party of women, infants, and old men to safety. To use petrol even in wartime for such a mission might seem humane to you and me. But to this scarecrow army struggling to set up an independent nation it ranks as a capital crime.
  36. 36. x • The members of the rough and ready court martial showed not the slightest disposition to mercy. But the soldier who had brought me into the war zone suddenly asked: 'What would you do?‘ • Every face turned towards me. I was now like a judge deciding on life or death in a final court of appeal. I looked at the weeping boy. He was younger than my eldest son . . .
  37. 37. Your judgment! I said to the rebel soldier who had asked for my opinion: "Anyone can seize command in a war. But to know when to show mercy is the test of leadership." The members of the court martial let the boy grovel while they talked it over among themselves. For 20 minutes he knelt in front of them, sobs shaking his body. Then they said to me: "Well, it might look bad if we shot him in front of you.“ So they spared him, though for how long I do not know because it was time for me to move on out of that sector. 15 April 1971
  38. 38. Decision! • You are reluctant to pass a judgment as it is not a corporate situation? • Here is another one from your organization that has grown big with the support of your wonderful suppliers. Now is the time for your backward linkage cutting the supplier who has almost become a part of your family. What do you do?
  39. 39. Leadership Level 5 • There are 5 levels of leadership according to John Maxwell. • Level #1 is the Position level that makes someone a leader through right to a position. • Level 5 is the Respect level that makes someone a leader through trust and confidence.
  40. 40. Effective Leader • Trust and Confidence in leadership is the most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. • To be effective - you must be trustworthy and - be able to communicate a vision of where the organization needs to go.