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Impacts of MOOCs
on Higher Education:
Access, Quality, and Cost
Insung JUNG
International Christian University, Japan
Ilju...
2012, the Year of the MOOC
The New York Times
By the Numbers: MOOCs in 2016
Reference: https://www.class-central.com/report/mooc-stats-2016/
• 700+ Universities
• 6850 ...
• Coursera https://www.coursera.org/
– 2588 courses; 23 M
• edX https://www.edx.org/
– 1603 courses; 10 M
• XuetangX http:...
MOOC Providers’
Promises
Access
“Enrich education”
“Transform higher education”Quality
Cost
Methodology
Jung, I.S. (2016). MOOCs: What have we learned so far?
Journal of Cyber Education, 10(2), 1-11.
- 33 research ...
The MOOC Impact
• Access
• Quality
• Cost
At Global and Local (K-MOOC) Levels
Global Level
Access
Have MOOCs expanded
higher education?
Yes, but NOT reaching out to:
less educated; the disadvantaged;
people in the...
• Mainly over 30, highly educated, males and
from the developed countries
• Less than 15%, from BRICS countries. (Brazil,
...
• No relevant increase in gender equity
through the adoption of MOOCs.
Coursera
57%: Male / Developed countries
67.9%: Mal...
Quality
Have MOOCs improved
the quality of higher education?
Little evidence found,
but brought some changes
Support conventional higher
education through:
Quality
• Course development teams.
• Team teaching.
• Use of visiting lect...
Cost
Have MOOCs helped reduce
college tuition costs?
Have MOOCs brought
high returns on investment?
Little evidence…
But, ...
Major MOOC providers
– Collaborating with conventional
universities
– Also creating their own credentials:
Udacity’s Nanod...
Cost
For-profit providers: Credentials as the
main source of revenue
Non-for-profit providers: Offering
credits through MO...
Now adding MOOCs for high school
students & test takers.
• “Advanced Placement Exams” &
“CLEP” (By edX)
• “Going to Univer...
K-MOOC
Founded in 2015 as an initiative of the
National Institute for Lifelong Education (NILE)
Vision
1) To expand lifelong lear...
• Reached to some marginalized groups
• Still a long way to go:
- Age: 20s (37.0 %) and 30s (16.4 %)
- Education: Around 3...
Positive changes in faculty
- Serious discussion on teaching methods
- Closer attention to the use of technologies
- More ...
Cost reduction was not the goal.
Government Initial Funding:
- 40,000 – 45,000 USD per MOOC
- 10,000 USD implementation
Ch...
Conclusion
MOOC Impacts?
MOOCs have not democratized
higher education.
But they have
opened up opportunities
for free higher educatio...
MOOC Impacts?
Stimulate discussion on pedagogy
(how to teach) among faculty.
Bring some quality changes
in teaching
MOOC Impacts?
MOOCs, maybe free for users for
now; but not free for providers.
Yet to develop
sustainable models
1. Explore various means of providing widened
learning opportunities and useful qualifications to
marginalized groups of p...
Insung Jung, Ilju Rha (icome 2017 international conference) Mooc impacts  017 - jung & rha
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Insung Jung, Ilju Rha (icome 2017 international conference) Mooc impacts 017 - jung & rha

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Massive open online courses or MOOCs were predicted to achieve world domination and completely transformation of higher education. Today, these predictions are seen to have been overblown. But with several years of experience now behind them, MOOC providers and users are adjusting both their perceptions about online learning and the courses themselves. Mainly based on empirical research articles and reports and interviews with K-MOOC providers, this paper examines impacts of MOOCs on higher education and analyze K-MOOC as an illustrative case. For this, it asks such questions as: 1) have MOOCs expanded higher education and provided access for all, especially for the socially marginalized groups? 2) have MOOCs improved the quality of campus-based higher education? 3) have MOOCs reduced the costs to the providers and users? It will conclude with discussion of the emerging issues and future directions.

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Insung Jung, Ilju Rha (icome 2017 international conference) Mooc impacts 017 - jung & rha

  1. 1. Impacts of MOOCs on Higher Education: Access, Quality, and Cost Insung JUNG International Christian University, Japan Ilju RHA Seoul National University, Korea International Conference for Media in Education (ICoME) 2017 University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA August 2 – 4, 2017 Roundtable Session on Aug. 2
  2. 2. 2012, the Year of the MOOC The New York Times
  3. 3. By the Numbers: MOOCs in 2016 Reference: https://www.class-central.com/report/mooc-stats-2016/ • 700+ Universities • 6850 courses • 58 Million Students
  4. 4. • Coursera https://www.coursera.org/ – 2588 courses; 23 M • edX https://www.edx.org/ – 1603 courses; 10 M • XuetangX http://www.xuetangx.com/ – 400+ courses; 6 M • FutureLearn https://www.futurelearn.com/ – 596 courses; 5.3 M • # K-MOOC http://www.kmooc.kr/ (2015 - ) – 283 courses; 2 M MOOC Providers
  5. 5. MOOC Providers’ Promises Access “Enrich education” “Transform higher education”Quality Cost
  6. 6. Methodology Jung, I.S. (2016). MOOCs: What have we learned so far? Journal of Cyber Education, 10(2), 1-11. - 33 research articles (2012 – 2016) MOOC providers’ reports and other publications Personal interviews
  7. 7. The MOOC Impact • Access • Quality • Cost At Global and Local (K-MOOC) Levels
  8. 8. Global Level
  9. 9. Access Have MOOCs expanded higher education? Yes, but NOT reaching out to: less educated; the disadvantaged; people in the developing countries
  10. 10. • Mainly over 30, highly educated, males and from the developed countries • Less than 15%, from BRICS countries. (Brazil, Russia, India, China & South Africa) • Students from well-known MOOCs hold a Bachelor’s degree or above. - Coursera: 79.4% - HarvardX: 71% - FutureLearn: 73% Access
  11. 11. • No relevant increase in gender equity through the adoption of MOOCs. Coursera 57%: Male / Developed countries 67.9%: Male/ BRICS HarvardX 70 %: Male Access
  12. 12. Quality Have MOOCs improved the quality of higher education? Little evidence found, but brought some changes
  13. 13. Support conventional higher education through: Quality • Course development teams. • Team teaching. • Use of visiting lecturers & experts. • Educators’ competencies development.
  14. 14. Cost Have MOOCs helped reduce college tuition costs? Have MOOCs brought high returns on investment? Little evidence… But, more diversified sustainability models emerged
  15. 15. Major MOOC providers – Collaborating with conventional universities – Also creating their own credentials: Udacity’s Nanodegrees, Coursera’s Specializations in business, computer science and data science, and edX’s Xseries (Ruth, 2014; Shar, 2015) Cost
  16. 16. Cost For-profit providers: Credentials as the main source of revenue Non-for-profit providers: Offering credits through MOOCs for university students (edX and ASU, Global Freshman Academy) (Ruth, 2014; Shar, 2015).
  17. 17. Now adding MOOCs for high school students & test takers. • “Advanced Placement Exams” & “CLEP” (By edX) • “Going to University MOOCs” (By FutureLearn) Cost
  18. 18. K-MOOC
  19. 19. Founded in 2015 as an initiative of the National Institute for Lifelong Education (NILE) Vision 1) To expand lifelong learning opportunities for higher education 2) To contribute to national human resources development ## ACCESS is the main goal. 2015 – 27 courses from 10 universities 2017 – 283 courses from 24 universities (will be 320 courses) Overview
  20. 20. • Reached to some marginalized groups • Still a long way to go: - Age: 20s (37.0 %) and 30s (16.4 %) - Education: Around 37 %: bachelor’s degree (much less than those enrolled in global MOOCs); 13 % master’s degree, and 4 % doctoral degree. Around 33 %: Middle or high school diploma. - Gender: 55.5 % are males - Region: Mostly Seoul and Metropolitan cities Access
  21. 21. Positive changes in faculty - Serious discussion on teaching methods - Closer attention to the use of technologies - More systematic and systemic approaches to course design Challenges observed - Digital divide between technology-rich and technology-poor among faculty & students - Lack of trust in the quality of online learning in general. Quality
  22. 22. Cost reduction was not the goal. Government Initial Funding: - 40,000 – 45,000 USD per MOOC - 10,000 USD implementation Challenges - No sustainable business models - Begin to discuss nano-degrees and collaborating closely with conventional universities Cost
  23. 23. Conclusion
  24. 24. MOOC Impacts? MOOCs have not democratized higher education. But they have opened up opportunities for free higher education study.
  25. 25. MOOC Impacts? Stimulate discussion on pedagogy (how to teach) among faculty. Bring some quality changes in teaching
  26. 26. MOOC Impacts? MOOCs, maybe free for users for now; but not free for providers. Yet to develop sustainable models
  27. 27. 1. Explore various means of providing widened learning opportunities and useful qualifications to marginalized groups of people with no or low cost 2. Seize capability of MOOCs in providing flexible learning paths to students with diverse needs and backgrounds. 3. Develop faculty & students’ MOOC competencies. Our suggestions

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