1. What is a presentation?
Presentation is the practice of showing and
explaining the content of a topic to an
audience or learner.
Presentation is also the means of
communication which can be adapted to
various speaking situation, such as talking
to a group, addressing a meeting or briefing
2. Types of presentation
There are 5 types of presentation:
1 )Informative: Keep an informative presentation
brief and to the point. Stick to the facts and
avoid complicated information.
2) Instructional: Your purpose in an instructional
presentation is to give specific directions or
orders. Your presentation will probably be a bit
longer, because it has to cover your topic
3. 3)Arousing: Your purpose in an arousing
presentation is to make people think about a
certain problem or situation.
4) Decision-making: Your purpose in a decision-
making presentation is to move your audience to
take your suggested action. A decision-making
presentation presents ideas, suggestions, and
arguments strongly enough to persuade an
audience to carry out your requests.
5) Persuasive: Your purpose in a persuasive
presentation is to convince your listeners to accept
4. How to make an effective
The first step of a great presentations is
preplanning i.e. acquiring a room,
informing participants, etc.
The second step is before preparing the
presentation, ask yourself the following:
What is the purpose of the presentation?
Who will be attending?
What does the audience already know about
What is the audience's attitude towards me
(e.g. hostile, friendly)?
5. • Third, step is to prepare the presentation. A
good presentation starts out with
and may include an icebreaker such as a story,
interesting statement or fact. It should have a
logical beginning, middle, and end.
• Fourthly there are several options for
structuring the presentation:
Timeline: Arranged in sequential order.
Climax: The main points are delivered in order
6. Problem/Solution: A problem is presented, a
solution is suggested, and benefits are then
Simple to complex: Ideas are listed from the
simplest to the most complex. Can also be
done in reverse order.
Fifthly, after the body, comes the closing.
This is where you ask for questions, provide
7. Factors that affect effective
The Voice: The voice is probably the most
valuable tool of the presenter. It carries most
of the content that the audience takes away.
One of the oddities of speech is that we can
easily tell others what is wrong with their
voice, e.g. too fast, too high, too soft, etc.
1) Volume: How loud the sound is. The goal
is to be heard without shouting.
2)Tone: The characteristics of a sound. . A
voice that carries fear can frighten the
8. audience while a voice that carries laughter
can get the audience to smile.
The Body: Your body communicates
different impressions to the audience.
People not only listen to you, they also
1)Postures: Slouching tells them you are
indifferent or you do not care... even though
you might care a great deal! On the other
hand, displaying good posture tells your
audience that you know what you are doing
and you care deeply about it.
2)Eye contact: Speakers who make eye
9. open the flow of communication and
convey interest, concern, warmth, and
3)Facial Expression: Smiling is a powerful
cue that transmits happiness, friendliness,
warmth, and liking.
4)Gestures: If you fail to gesture while
speaking, you may be perceived as boring
11. Make It Big(Text)
This is Arial 12
This is Arial 18 TOO SMALL
This is Arial 24
This is Arial 32
This is Arial 36
This is Arial 44
12. Keep It Simple (Text)
Do not have
Too many colours
Too Many Fonts and Styles
Follow the 6 x 7 rule
No more than 6 lines per slide
No more than 7 words per line
13. Make It Clear
ALL CAPITAL LETTERS ARE DIFFICULT TO
Upper and lower case letters are easier
Italics are difficult to read on screen
Normal or bold fonts are clearer
Underlines may signify hyperlinks
Instead, use colours to emphasise
Use contrasting colours
Light on dark vs dark on light
Use complementary colours