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The Digital Economy Outlook 2017 shows how Internet infrastructure and usage varies across countries and firms in the OECD area. It looks at policy implications of the digital transformation as well as a wide array of trends. Report available at http://oe.cd/deo2017 - See also the OECD Going Digital project: www.oecd.org/going-digital
This is the second edition of the DEO which as of 2015 combines two previous publications: IT / IE Outlook and Communications Outlook.
This in itself reflects the changes that are underway in this sector as communications and information technologies converge
OECD Members in the Committee on Digital Economiy Policy (CDEP) were closely associated to producing the DEO.
As Korea (Wonki) chairs the CDEP Committee, I am particularly pleased to launch its flagship publication here in Seoul.
My presentation aims to provide key highlights from the DEO, with a focus on Korea as relevant.
The process of digitalisation is not new – underway for at least 50 years…
So why all the attention and increased policy focus now?
So again: why all the attention and increased policy focus now?
… because users and producers of digital technologies are forming a new ecosystem*, which, as a whole, is underpinning and driving a profound digital transformation of our economies and societies …
* for instance, the combination of: -- embedded sensors (IoT), -- connected via cloud computing and -- and throwing off data that allows “big data” analytics -- which enables autonomous machines and intelligent systems. … an eco-system with feed-back loops which lead to further innovations.
… and we also see an increasingly important trend in the rise of artificial intelligence, powering software and creating promising opportunities, in countless areas, from health over transport to security, etc.
... and this transformation has caught the attention of the highest level of decision makers, ushering new sense of urgency among governments to act and to marshal the digital transformation for more inclusive growth and sustainable prosperity.
Broadband subscription have further increased across the OECD, by 8 million subscriptions between 2015 and 2016.
But we are still seeing very little deployment of fibre in most countries …
Note: In the Figure, for Korea, the three shades of read refer to DSL (dark), Cable (medium), Fibre (light)
The numbers of fibre connections per 100 inhabitants show that Korea is leading in the OECD with 30 fibre connections per 100 inhabitants.
But we see that fibre is still very rare in many countries, including in advanced conomies like Italy, Germany, Austria, Belgium, and Isreal, all of which are below 1 fibre connection per 100 inhabitants.
In order to pick up and to use a subscription, low prices are a crucial incentive; and they are a good indicator for competition in communication markets.
For a few consecutive years, we have seen see prices fall, for both fixed and mobile broadband. Between 2013 and 2016, the average for fixed broadband plans with 200 GB declined 15% from USD 43 to USD 37 (in ppp). the average price for mobile 2 GB plans declined by 45% from USD 70.88 to USD 39.28 (in ppp).
In Korea, prices are very competitive, and have declined even more drastically for 200 GB fixed braodband plans by 43% from USD 25 to USD 14 (in ppp), and for 2 GB mobile plans by 59% from USD 79 to USD 32 (in ppp).
And we are seeing effects of falling prices … (next slide)
… one of which is very fast growth in mobile data usage in some countries.
You see here the top five countries (Finland, Lativa, Austria, Sweden, Denmark) which are pressing ahead, with impressive growth in particular between 2014 and 2016. Some of this growth can be explained through offers tiered by speed (e.g. 50 Mbps, 100 Mbps etc) with unlimited data usage (e.g. in Finland), rather than offers with a data cap.
Korea is not yet part of these top 5 (it ranked 8th in 2016), but between 2015 and 2016, mobile data usage in Korea went up by 46% from 2.6 GB to 3.8 GB per month, which is higher than the average growth over the same period of about 37% in OECD countries; … there is still some untapped potential here for Korea.
Beyond infrastructure and connectivity, we need effective usage of digital technology.
And we see quite a lot of potential for better usage: in some population groups, for the use of advanced ICT tools by firms in particular, and also for governments.
First, to succeed in a digital environment it is crucial to have good generic ICT skills.
We see that many workers are using software on their job for which they need generic ICT skills, so called office productivity software (OPS); however, there are a shocking 42% of these workers that have insufficeint skills to use such software effectively.
We have thus some important ground work to do to empower people at work to use the tools they already have.
Second, we hear a lot about a shortage of ICT specialists. And for some countries, this is certainly true. This data shows that IT staff were the second most difficult job for employers to fill in 2016.
However, if we look closer at data, for example on Average vacancy rates in ICT services relative to the total business sector, or ICT online job postings … we see a more ambiguous picture, which suggests that measurable shortages of ICT specialists may be limited to a few countries so far, at least in Europe.
If we look at ICT specialists as a percentage of all workers across economies, we see that they still represent a fairly low share in many countries, and notably: male are dominating this profession literally everywhere.
Last but not least: people need foundational skills, such as problem solving and communication, which are increasingly necessary to adapt to changing jobs.
We see a similar picture for firms, which could increase in particular usage of advanced ICT tools.
Almost all firms are connected to broadband now, and even SMEs are not too far behind anymore on basic connectivity.
However, there is much room for improvement on advanced ICT tools.
In particular use of tools that can enhance productivity such as cloud computing or big data analysis are far from being used to their full potential, including in Korea, which is below average on several of the indicators shown in this graph.
THIRD MAIN MESSAGE
Effective usage of digital tools leads in many cases to innovation and transformation.
Digital transformation is in full swing, with effects in many areas, and governments have to act, both to enable it and to accompany the transition.
One example for a gap that needs to be adressed are rules for self-employed vs standard workers.
We see a lot of different approaches across countries, as well more and more countries revising the current frameworks: 13 countries have indicated for the DEO that they have started to review their labour laws or sector-specific rules.
Such reviews are crucial to enable the digital transformation, but also to mitigate potential social cost. More governments need to folllow suit.
But reviews of labour laws and regulation are only one challenge.
If we take a higher level view, governments are facing several fundamental challenges, including policy design, skills development, and investment.
One key challenge that is already high in 2017, and that is expected to become the main challenge over the next 3-5 years is co-ordination (including multi-stakeholder and multi-lateral co-ordination, as well as multi-level governance)
I will come back to the crucial role of co-ordination in a minute (section on National Digital Strategies).
FIFTH MAIN MESSAGE
Needless to say that governments are facing an important challenge.
It is a positive sign to see that most OECD countries now have a national digital stragy (34 OECD countries), but many have not yet developed a coherent whole-of-government approach, and are facing challenges with national co-ordination and international cooperation.
To illustrate the difficulty to achieve coherence: we see a large range of digital policy objectives that are put forward in National Digital Strategies, and hear from governments that almost all of them are a priority.
This raises the question: how to prioritise among their different objectives, and how to ensure that all these different areas are treated in coherence and well co-ordinated.
Co-ordination has indeed been identified in our DEO survey as a key challenge to implementing these objectives.
Currently, responsibilities for digital policy development and co-ordination are widely spread: - Very few countries have assigned a high level government official or body dedicated to digital affairs (4 for strategy development, 5 for co-ordination) Somewhat more countries now have a digital affairs ministry or body or ministerial position that leads strategy development (8) and co-ordination (10) However, the largest number of countries still gives these responsibility to a ministry or body not dedicated to digital affairs (15 for strategy development, 13 for co-ordination)… or even to several ministries, bodies or institutions. To add to this, some countries assign one body for the development but not for co-ordination … What is encouraging is that many countries sollicit input from multiple public and private stakeholders (17) … in brief: the current situation in many countries does not demonstrate strategic coherence and co-ordination.
To help governments deal with the challenges raised by digital transformation, including the governance aspects, the OECD has recently started a large cross-cutting project – “Going Digital” – One of our tasks under this project is to develop an integrated policy framework that should help governments achieve more policy coherence and better co-ordination.
For today, please: download our new Digital Economy Outlook 2017 from the OECD i-library: www.oecd-ilibrary.org follow our activities, not only Twitter, but also via our websites Take a look at the website of our new project on Going Digital and use our publically available databases
Thank you very much!
OECD Digital Economy Outlook 2017: Setting the foundations for the digital transformation
Seoul, 11 October 2017
Andrew Wyckoff, Director
Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation
Setting the Foundations for
IBM 360 (1964) – the first commercial mainframe
Digitalisation is not new…
Millions Smartphones Other mobile phones
Quarterly shipping trends of smartphones, 2010-13
Sources: www.washingtonpost.com and OECD Broadband Portal
… but the advent of ubiquitous
It fuels a bigger ecosystem that is
driving digital transformation …
… with artificial intelligence creating
promising opportunities …
„ … to ensure everyone benefits
fromt the digital revolution.“
„Shaping Digitalisation for an
„To unleash the potential of
digital economy ...“
… propelled to the top of the global
To seize the benefits of the digital
transformation, we need to set
the right foundations
The foundations for digital
Connectivity keeps improving with
falling average prices and fast
growth in mobile data usage
Fixed broadband subscriptions are
Fixed broadband subscriptions, December 2016
By technology per 100 inhabitants
DSL Cable Fibre Satellite Fixed wireless Other
… but fibre is still low in many
Fixed broadband subscriptions, December 2016
Fibre connections per 100 inhabitants
Prices for fixed and mobile
broadband keep falling …
OECD trends in fixed and mobile broadband prices, 2013-16
June 2013 Sept 2014 Sept 2015 June 2016
200 GB 20 GB 200 GB Korea
May 2013 May 2014 Aug 2015 May 2016
100 calls + 500 MB 300 calls + 1 GB
900 calls + 2 GB 900 calls + 2 GB Korea
… mobile data usage is growing fast
with a few countries pressing ahead.
Top five countries in mobile data usage
Gigabytes per mobile broadband subscription per month
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
GB Finland Latvia Austria Sweden Denmark
Infrastructure and connectivity are
not enough: governments must
foster more effective use of
advanced digital technologies
The young and educated are leading
on Internet usage …
Internet users by age and educational attainment, 2016
As a percentage of the population aged 16-24
B. Among individuals aged 16-24%
High All Low
… while elderly and less educated
individuals lag behind.
Internet users by age and educational attainment, 2016
As a percentage of the population aged 55-74
High All Low
A. Among individuals aged 55-74%
Governments must step up efforts to
empower people with the skills
needed to succeed in a digital world
and broaden access to digital
opportunities for all actors
Generic ICT skills are already much
in use, but often insufficient …
All users Of which users with insufficient ICT skills
Workers using office productivity software at work every day
As a percentage of total population
… and digital transformation raises
demand for ICT specialists …
1 Skilled trade workers
2 IT staff
3 Sales representatives
7 Accounting and finance staff
9 Production/machine operations
10 Office support staff
Top ten jobs that employers have difficulty filling, 2016
… who are still rare in many
countries and mostly male.
ICT specialists by gender, 2016
As a percentage of all male and female workers
In particular firms could make better
use of advanced ICT tools to boost
% All enterprises 10-49 50-249 250+ All enterprises, 2010
Almost all firms are connected …
Enterprises’ broadband connectivity, by firm size, 2016
As a percentage of enterprises in each employment size class
… but firms could make greater use
of advanced ICT tools.
Diffusion of selected ICT tools and activities in enterprises, 2016
As a percentage of enterprises with ten or more employees
Broadband Website E-purchases ERP CRM Cloud
E-sales Big Data RFID
Gap 1st and 3rd quartiles Average Lowest Highest Korea
To navigate the digital transformation,
governments should review legacy
frameworks, embrace digital innovation,
and mitigate potential social cost
I don’t need a car,
I need mobility.
Digital innovation enables new business
models, driving change in entire sectors …
I don’t need a postman,
drones can do the job.
I don’t need an employer,
I can use a platform.
I can afford this house,
by renting it out.
… making new forms of work more
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Registered users on Upwork and Freelancer
… exposing gaps in public policies
designed for an earlier era …
Benefit rules for the self-employed vs. standard workers, 2010
Source: OECD (2015), In It Together: Why Less Inequality Benefits All, OECD Publishing, Paris.
Old age, invalidity Health Accidents Unemployment Family
Different rules from standard workers
Same rules as the general scheme
… and challenges that governments
need to face.
Governments’ main challenges to achieve digital policy objectives
Main challenges in 2017 Main challenges next 3-5 years
Awareness, implementation, enforcement 1 Co-ordination
Skills, training, education 2 Skills, training, education
Co-ordination 3 Public investment or funding
Policy design and measures 4 Technical, including standards and interoperability
Laws or regulation 5 Trust, including privacy, security, consumer protection
Technical, including standards and interoperability 6 Laws and regulation
ICT adoption, business digitalisation, innovation 7 Policy design and measures
Public investment or funding 8 ICT adoption, business digitalisation, innovation
Private investment or access to finance 9 Private investment or access to finance
Trust, including privacy, security, consumer protection 10 Awareness, implementation, enforcement
For the digital transformation to spur
growth and social prosperity,
countries need governance model
that achieves coherence and
Governments have many objectives,
but need priorities and coherence
MAIN DIGITAL POLICY OBJECTIVES
Strengthening e-government services
Further developing telecommunication infrastructure
Promoting ICT-related skills and competences
Enhancing access to data, including PSI and OGD
Encouraging the adoption of ICTs by businesses and SMEs in particular
Encouraging ICT adoption in specific sectors, e.g. healthcare, education
Strengthening digital identities
Promoting the ICT sector, including its internationalisation
Promoting e-commerce across the economy
Tackling global challenges, e.g. Internet governance, climate change
Strengthening consumer protection
Advancing e-inclusion, e.g. of elderly and disadvantaged groups
Preserving Internet openness
Governments also need an effective
model for co-ordination
National digital strategy governance
Number of countries that have allocated respective responsibilities
Government, e.g. Prime Minister, Presidency,
4 0 5
Digital affairs ministry or body or ministerial position 8 1 10
Ministry or body not dedicated to digital affairs 15 2 13
Several ministries, bodies or institutions 6 14 5
Multiple public and private stakeholders 1 17 0
Making the Transformation Work
for Growth and Well-being
Understand the digital transformation and its impacts on
the economy and society
Provide policymakers with the tools needed to develop a
forward-looking, whole-of-government policy response
Help overcome the gap between technology and policy
Digital Economy Outlook 2017
OECD Science, Technology and Innovation
OECD Broadband Portal
OECD Going Digital project
OECD ICT usage database